Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 238

Search results for: Ravi R. Patel

238 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

Abstract:

Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
237 Effect of Bull Exposure on Post-Partum Estrus Interval in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes

Authors: Muhammad Saleem Akhtar, Mushtaq Hussain Lashari, Ejaz Ahmad, Tanveer Ahmad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Ijaz Ahmad, Masood Akhtar

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of bull exposure continuously or intermittently or its excretory products after calving on postpartum interval to estrus, in Nili-Ravi buffalo. Forty-eight buffaloes of Nili-Ravi breed were allocated one of the four treatments in a totally randomized plan using a 4 x 1 factorial design. The four treatment groups were BEC (Bull Exposed Continuously), BEI (Bull Exposed Intermittently), EPB (Excretory Products of Bull) and BNE (Bull Not Exposed). BEC; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed continuously to the physical presence of a bull whereas in BEI; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed intermittently to the physical presence of bull. EPB; buffaloes (n = 12) were exposed to discharge waste (urine and feces) of bull and BNE buffaloes (n = 12) were not exposed to a bull or discharge waste of bulls. Buffaloes were exposed on day 15 after parturition. Day 15 postpartum represented d 0 for each treatment. The postpartum interval from calving to first behavioural estrus was 66.88 days in BEC, 75.12 days in BEI, 77.28 days in EPB and 76.5 days in BNE treatments. Postpartum interval to first behavioural estrus was shorter in BEC than BEI, EPB, and BNE treatments. There was no significant difference in postpartum interval to estrus between BEI, EPB and BNE treatments. In present study, the percentage of buffaloes showing estrus during experimental period was 75.0%, 66.66%, 66.66% and 58.33% in BEC, BEI, EPB and BNE treatments, respectively. The mean serum progesterone concentration did not differ significantly between BEC and other (BEI, EPB, and BNE) treatments. It was concluded that presence of bull has positive effect in reducing calving interval in Nili Ravi buffalo.

Keywords: calving interval, biostimulation, buffalo, bull exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
236 Effect of Varying Levels of Concentrate Ration on the Performance of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Heifer Calves

Authors: Z. M. Iqbal, M. Abdullah, K. Javed, M. A. Jabbar, A. Haque, M. Saadullah, F. Shahzad

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to set the appropriate concentrate level for Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers. Twenty seven buffalo heifers were randomly divided into three different groups A, B and C having nine animals in each group. All the heifers were given free access to chopped green fodder and fresh water. In addition, heifers of group A, B and C were given concentrate at the rate of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of their body weight. The average daily dry matter intake was 2.69, 3.06 and 3.83 kg with average daily gain of 456.09, 398.56 and 515.87 gm in group A, B and C, respectively. The feed conversion ratio of heifers of these groups was 5.89, 7.74 and 7.52, respectively. There was non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the body measurements (height at wither, body length and heart girth), final body condition and scoring and blood serum (glucose, total protein and cholesterol) of heifers of all the three groups. The results of current study shows that there is non-significant (P>0.05) difference in the growth rate of Nili-Ravi heifers at varying levels of concentrate so, it is cost effective to raise 6-8 month calves by offering concentrate at the rate of 0.5% body weight along with free access of green fodder.

Keywords: concentrate level, buffalo heifer, body measurement, green fodder

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
235 Quantification of River Ravi Pollution and Oxidation Pond Treatment to Improve the Drain Water Quality

Authors: Yusra Mahfooz, Saleha Mehmood

Abstract:

With increase in industrialization and urbanization, water contaminating rivers through effluents laden with diverse chemicals in developing countries. The study was based on the waste water quality of the four drains (Outfall, Gulshan -e- Ravi, Hudiara, and Babu Sabu) which enter into river Ravi in Lahore, Pakistan. Different pollution parameters were analyzed including pH, DO, BOD, COD, turbidity, EC, TSS, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and fecal coliform. Approximately all the water parameters of drains were exceeded the permissible level of wastewater standards. In calculation of pollution load, Hudiara drains showed highest pollution load in terms of COD i.e. 429.86 tons/day while in Babu Sabu drain highest pollution load was calculated in terms of BOD i.e. 162.82 tons/day (due to industrial and sewage discharge in it). Lab scale treatment (oxidation ponds) was designed in order to treat the waste water of Babu Sabu drain, through combination of different algae species i.e. chaetomorphasutoria, sirogoniumsticticum and zygnema sp. Two different sizes of ponds (horizontal and vertical), and three different concentration of algal samples (25g/3L, 50g/3L, and 75g/3L) were selected. After 6 days of treatment, 80 to 97% removal efficiency was found in the pollution parameters. It was observed that in the vertical pond, maximum reduction achieved i.e. turbidity 62.12%, EC 79.3%, BOD 86.6%, COD 79.72%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.6%, sulphates 96.9% and phosphates 85.3%. While in the horizontal pond, the maximum reduction in pollutant parameters, turbidity 69.79%, EC 83%, BOD 88.5%, COD 83.01%, FC 100%, nitrates 89.8%, sulphates 97% and phosphates 86.3% was observed. Overall treatment showed that maximum reduction was carried out in 50g algae setup in the horizontal pond due to large surface area, after 6 days of treatment. Results concluded that algae-based treatment are most energy efficient, which can improve drains water quality in cost effective manners.

Keywords: oxidation pond, ravi pollution, river water quality, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
234 Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Helianthus Annuus L. Sunflower

Authors: Patel P. Kailash, Patel M. Parimal

Abstract:

An investigation was conducted to study the different concentration of coal fly ash solution on morphological and biochemical parameters of Helianthus annuus L. The seeds of Helianthus annuus L. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to grow for 16 days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. Shoot length, root length and fresh weight, dry weight declined with increasing concentration of fly ash. Semidiluted and concentrated fly ash solution exhibited significant reduction in chlorophyll, protein,sugar and ascorbic acid. Concentration dependent changes were observed in most of parameters. Diluted solution of fly ash revealed the maximum increase morphological and biochemical changes of seedlings.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., protein, sugar, chlorophyll, coal fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
233 Rejuvenation of Peanut Seedling from Collar Rot Disease by Azotobacter sp. RA2

Authors: Ravi R. Patel, Vasudev R. Thakkar

Abstract:

Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro. RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. niger infection and reduce collar rot disease incidence 60-35% to 72-41% and increase germination percentage from 70-82% to 75-97% in two varieties GG20 and GG2 of peanut. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. hypogaea L. seedlings via induction of different defense-related enzymes like phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase and pathogenesis related protein like chitinase, ß – 1,3- glucanase. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments. RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. niger infection in pot studies. 16S rDNA sequence of RA2 showed 99 % homology to Azotobacter species.

Keywords: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, peanut, aspergillus niger, induce systemic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
232 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

Abstract:

The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: consumer electronics, data warehousing, dimensional data model, generic, retail industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
231 Analysis of Network Performance Using Aspect of Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Nisarg A. Patel, Hiren B. Patel

Abstract:

Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).

Keywords: cryptography, networking, quantum, encryption and decryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
230 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
229 Sentiment Analysis: Comparative Analysis of Multilingual Sentiment and Opinion Classification Techniques

Authors: Sannikumar Patel, Brian Nolan, Markus Hofmann, Philip Owende, Kunjan Patel

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis and opinion mining have become emerging topics of research in recent years but most of the work is focused on data in the English language. A comprehensive research and analysis are essential which considers multiple languages, machine translation techniques, and different classifiers. This paper presents, a comparative analysis of different approaches for multilingual sentiment analysis. These approaches are divided into two parts: one using classification of text without language translation and second using the translation of testing data to a target language, such as English, before classification. The presented research and results are useful for understanding whether machine translation should be used for multilingual sentiment analysis or building language specific sentiment classification systems is a better approach. The effects of language translation techniques, features, and accuracy of various classifiers for multilingual sentiment analysis is also discussed in this study.

Keywords: cross-language analysis, machine learning, machine translation, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
228 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel

Abstract:

Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
227 Optimization of Machining Parametric Study on Electrical Discharge Machining

Authors: Rakesh Prajapati, Purvik Patel, Hardik Patel

Abstract:

Productivity and quality are two important aspects that have become great concerns in today’s competitive global market. Every production/manufacturing unit mainly focuses on these areas in relation to the process, as well as the product developed. The electrical discharge machining (EDM) process, even now it is an experience process, wherein the selected parameters are still often far from the maximum, and at the same time selecting optimization parameters is costly and time consuming. Material Removal Rate (MRR) during the process has been considered as a productivity estimate with the aim to maximize it, with an intention of minimizing surface roughness taken as most important output parameter. These two opposites in nature requirements have been simultaneously satisfied by selecting an optimal process environment (optimal parameter setting). Objective function is obtained by Regression Analysis and Analysis of Variance. Then objective function is optimized using Genetic Algorithm technique. The model is shown to be effective; MRR and Surface Roughness improved using optimized machining parameters.

Keywords: MMR, TWR, OC, DOE, ANOVA, minitab

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
226 Design of S-Shape GPS Application Electrically Small Antenna

Authors: Riki H. Patel, Arpan Desai, Trushit Upadhyaya, Shobhit K. Patel

Abstract:

The micro strip antennas area has seen some inventive work in recent years and is now one of the most dynamic fields of antenna theory. A novel and simple printed wideband monopole antenna is presented. Printed on a single dielectric substrate and easily fed by using a 50 ohm microstip line, low-profile antenna structure with two parallel S-shaped meandered line of same size. In this research, S–form micro strip patch antenna is designed from measuring the prototypes of the proposed antenna one available bands with 10db return loss bandwidths of about GPS application (GPS L2 1490 MHz) and covering the 1400 to 1580 MHz frequency band at 1.5 GHz The simulated results for main parameters such as return loss, impedance bandwidth, radiation patterns and gains are also discussed herein. The modeling study shows that such antennas, in simplicity design and supply, and can satisfy GPS application. Two parallel slots are incorporated to disturb the surface flow path, introducing local inductive effect. This antenna is fed by a coaxial feeding tube.

Keywords: bandwidth, electrically small antenna, microstrip, patch antenna, GPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
225 Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak

Authors: Harshita Raj, Joydeep Ghosh, Rakesh L. Tanna, Prabal K. Chattopadhyay, K. A. Jadeja, Sharvil Patel, Kaushal M. Patel, Narendra C. Patel, S. B. Bhatt, V. K. Panchal, Chhaya Chavda, C. N. Gupta, D. Raju, S. K. Jha, J. Raval, S. Joisa, S. Purohit, C. V. S. Rao, P. K. Atrey, Umesh Nagora, R. Manchanda, M. B. Chowdhuri, Nilam Ramaiya, S. Banerjee, Y. C. Saxena

Abstract:

Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fusion, gas fueling, recycling, Tokamak, Aditya

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
224 The Genotoxic Effect of Coal Fly Ash of Thermal Power Plant on Raphanus sativus L. (Radish)

Authors: Patel Kailash P, Patel Parimal M

Abstract:

The effect of coal fly ash treatment on the chromosomes of Raphanus sativus L. was investigated. The seeds of Raphanus sativusL. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to germinate for five days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. The root was treated with the diluted, semidiluted, and concentrated solution of fly ash while the control group had distilled water.The total aberration were examined. The mitotic index was calculated and the results were statically evaluated by the analysis of variance 5% significant level. The mitotic index decreased as the concentration increased. The highest mitotic index value was diluted fly ash solution while the least was concentrated fly ash treatment. The results show the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed included: chromatid bridge, c-mitosis, and stickiness. Concentrated fly ash solution is much more genotoxic than semidiluted fly ash solution, as it induced more aberrations having percentage abnormalities for the highest concentration tested. Increased fly ash pollution can lead to some irreversible cytogenetic effect in plants. The study is an attempt to corroborate the toxic effect of coal fly ash of thermal power plant on the chromosome of plants. These results will be useful in environmental monitoring of the cytotoxicity of coal fly ash.

Keywords: coal fly-ash, genotoxic, cytogenetic, mitotic index, Raphanus sativus L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
223 A Sustainable Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Based on Manufacturing Processes and Product Tolerances: A Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Multi-Objective Optimization Approach

Authors: Ravi Patel, Krishna K. Krishnan

Abstract:

In global supply chains, appropriate and sustainable suppliers play a vital role in supply chain development and feasibility. In a larger organization with huge number of suppliers, it is necessary to divide suppliers based on their past history of quality and delivery of each product category. Since performance of any organization widely depends on their suppliers, well evaluated selection criteria and decision-making models lead to improved supplier assessment and development. In this paper, SCOR® performance evaluation approach and ISO standards are used to determine selection criteria for better utilization of supplier assessment by using hybrid model of Analytic Hierchchy Problem (AHP) and Fuzzy Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS). AHP is used to determine the global weightage of criteria which helps TOPSIS to get supplier score by using triangular fuzzy set theory. Both qualitative and quantitative criteria are taken into consideration for the proposed model. In addition, a multi-product and multi-time period model is selected for order allocation. The optimization model integrates multi-objective integer linear programming (MOILP) for order allocation and a hybrid approach for supplier selection. The proposed MOILP model optimizes order allocation based on manufacturing process and product tolerances as per manufacturer’s requirement for quality product. The integrated model and solution approach are tested to find optimized solutions for different scenario. The detailed analysis shows the superiority of proposed model over other solutions which considered individual decision making models.

Keywords: AHP, fuzzy set theory, multi-criteria decision making, multi-objective integer linear programming, TOPSIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
222 Carbohydrates Quantification from Agro-Industrial Waste and Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Bhavika Patel, Ramar Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

Present study was conducted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Oreochromis niloticus and Nemipterus japonicus fish gut. The LAB isolated were confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing. It was observed that isolated Lactococcus spp. were able to tolerate NaCl and bile acid up to certain range. The isolated Lactococcus spp. were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline conditions. Further agro-industrial waste like peels of pineapple, orange, lemon, sugarcane, pomegranate; sweet lemon was analyzed for their polysaccharide contents and prebiotic properties. In the present study, orange peels, sweet lemon peels, and pineapple peels give maximum indigestible polysaccharide. To evaluate synbiotic effect combination of probiotic and prebiotic were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Isolates Lactococcus garvieae R3 and Lactococcus sp. R4 reported to have better fermentation efficiency with orange, sweet lemon and pineapple compare to lemon, sugarcane and pomegranate. The different agro-industrial waste evaluated in this research resulted in being a cheap and fermentable carbon source by LAB.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, lactic acid bacteria, prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
221 Fish Scales as a Nonlethal Screening Tools for Assessing the Effects of Surface Water Contaminants in Cyprinus Carpio

Authors: Shahid Mahboob, Hafiz Muhammad Ashraf, Salma Sultana, Tayyaba Sultana, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Fahid Al-Misned, Zubair Ahmedd

Abstract:

There is an increasing need for an effective tool to estimate the risks derived from the large number of pollutants released to the environment by human activities. Typical screening procedures are highly invasive or lethal to the fish. Recent studies show that fish scales biochemically respond to a range of contaminants, including toxic metals, organic compounds, and endocrine disruptors. The present study evaluated the effects of the surface water contaminants on Cyprinus carpio in the Ravi River by comparing DNA extracted non-lethally from their scales to DNA extracted from the scales of fish collected from a controlled fish farm. A single, random sampling was conducted. Fish were broadly categorised into three weight categories (W1, W2 and W3). The experimental samples in the W1, W2 and W3 categories had an average DNA concentration (µg/µl) that was lower than the control samples. All control samples had a single DNA band; whereas the experimental samples in W1 fish had 1 to 2 bands, the experimental samples in W2 fish had two bands and the experimental samples in W3 fish had fragmentation in the form of three bands. These bands exhibit the effects of pollution on fish in the Ravi River. On the basis findings of this study, we propose that fish scales can be successfully employed as a new non-lethal tool for the evaluation of the effect of surface water contaminants.

Keywords: fish scales, Cyprinus carpio, heavy metals, non-invasive, DNA fragmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
220 An Enhanced MEIT Approach for Itemset Mining Using Levelwise Pruning

Authors: Tanvi P. Patel, Warish D. Patel

Abstract:

Association rule mining forms the core of data mining and it is termed as one of the well-known methodologies of data mining. Objectives of mining is to find interesting correlations, frequent patterns, associations or casual structures among sets of items in the transaction databases or other data repositories. Hence, association rule mining is imperative to mine patterns and then generate rules from these obtained patterns. For efficient targeted query processing, finding frequent patterns and itemset mining, there is an efficient way to generate an itemset tree structure named Memory Efficient Itemset Tree. Memory efficient IT is efficient for storing itemsets, but takes more time as compare to traditional IT. The proposed strategy generates maximal frequent itemsets from memory efficient itemset tree by using levelwise pruning. For that firstly pre-pruning of items based on minimum support count is carried out followed by itemset tree reconstruction. By having maximal frequent itemsets, less number of patterns are generated as well as tree size is also reduced as compared to MEIT. Therefore, an enhanced approach of memory efficient IT proposed here, helps to optimize main memory overhead as well as reduce processing time.

Keywords: association rule mining, itemset mining, itemset tree, meit, maximal frequent pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
219 Design and Analysis of a Planetary Gearbox Used in Stirred Vessel

Authors: Payal T. Patel, Ramakant Panchal, Ketankumar G. Patel

Abstract:

Gear in stirred vessel is one of the most critical components in machinery which has power transmission system and it is rotating machinery cost and redesign being the major constraints, there is always a great scope for a mechanical engineer to apply skills to improve the design. Gear will be most effective means of transmitting power in future machinery due to their high degree of compactness. The Galliard moved in the industry from heavy industries such as textile machinery and shipbuilding to industries such as automobile manufacture tools will necessitate the affable application of gear technology. The two-stage planetary reduction gear unit is designed to meet the output specifications. In industries, where the bevel gears are used in turret vessel to transmit the power, that unit is replaced by this planetary gearbox. Use of this type of gearbox is to get better efficiency and also the manufacturing of the bevel gear is more complex than the spur gears. Design a gearbox with the epicyclic gear train. In industries, the power transmission from gearbox to vessel is done through the bevel gears, which transmit the power at a right angle. In this work, the power is to be transmitted vertically from gearbox to vessel, which will increase the efficiency and life of gears. The arrangement of the gears is quite difficult as well as it needs high manufacturing cost and maintenance cost. The design is replaced by the planetary gearbox to reduce the difficulties, and same output is achieved but with a different arrangement of the planetary gearbox.

Keywords: planetary gearbox, epicyclic gear, optimization, dynamic balancing

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
218 Microwave Synthesis and Molecular Docking Studies of Azetidinone Analogous Bearing Diphenyl Ether Nucleus as a Potent Antimycobacterial and Antiprotozoal Agent

Authors: Vatsal M. Patel, Navin B. Patel

Abstract:

The present studies deal with the developing a series bearing a diphenyl ethers nucleus using structure-based drug design concept. A newer series of diphenyl ether based azetidinone namely N-(3-chloro-2-oxo-4-(3-phenoxyphenyl)azetidin-1-yl)-2-(substituted amino)acetamide (2a-j) have been synthesized by condensation of m-phenoxybenzaldehyde with 2-(substituted-phenylamino)acetohydrazide followed by the cyclisation of resulting Schiff base (1a-j) by conventional method as well as microwave heating approach as a part of an environmentally benign synthetic protocol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral analysis and were screened for in vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and antiprotozoal activity. The compound 2f was found to be most active M. tuberculosis (6.25 µM) MIC value in the primary screening as well as this same derivative has been found potency against L. mexicana and T. cruzi with MIC value 2.09 and 6.69 µM comparable to the reference drug Miltefosina and Nifurtimox. To provide understandable evidence to predict binding mode and approximate binding energy of a compound to a target in the terms of ligand-protein interaction, all synthesized compounds were docked against an enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase of M. tuberculosis (PDB ID: 4u0j). The computational studies revealed that azetidinone derivatives have a high affinity for the active site of enzyme which provides a strong platform for new structure-based design efforts. The Lipinski’s parameters showed good drug-like properties and can be developed as an oral drug candidate.

Keywords: antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal, azetidinone, diphenylether, docking, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
217 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Priya Patel, Paresh Patel, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: silibinin, cancer, nanoparticles, PLGA, bioavailability

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
216 Agronomic Manipulation in Cultivation Practices of Scented Rice: For Sustainable Crop Production

Authors: Damini Thawait, S. K. Dwivedi, Amit K. Patel, Samaptika Kar

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out at Raipur during season of 2012 to find out the optimum planting patterns for scented rice cultivation. The treatment (T2) planting of two to three seedlings hill-1 transplanted in the spacing of 25 cm from plant to plant and 25 cm from row to row recorded significantly good grain quality i.e. higher head rice recovery (41.41) along with higher gain length (8.05).

Keywords: rice, scented, quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
215 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: discrete tomography, exactly-1-4-adjacency, simulated annealing, binary matrices

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
214 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher

Abstract:

In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
213 The Effect of Heat Stress on the Gastro-Intestinal Microbiota of Pigs

Authors: Yadnyavalkya Patil, Ravi Gooneratne, Xiang-Hong Ju

Abstract:

Heat stress (HS) negatively affects the physiology of pigs. In this study, 6 pigs will be subjected to temperatures of 35 ± 2℃ for 12 hrs/day for a duration of 21 days. The changes in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota will be observed by analyzing the freshly collected faeces on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. The changes will be compared to faeces from a set of 6 control pigs kept simultaneously at temperatures of 26 ± 2℃ for the same duration of 21 days. Different types of stresses such a weaning have a detrimental effect on GIT microflora. Similarly, HS is expected to have a harmful effect on the microbial diversity of the GIT. How these changes affect the immune system of the pigs will be studied and therapeutics to reduce the negative effects of HS will be developed.

Keywords: GIT microbiota, heat stress, immune system, therapeutics

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
212 Smart Helmet for Two-Wheelers

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Kuldeep Singh

Abstract:

A helmet is a protective layer that is worn in order to prevent head injury. Helmet is the most important safety gear for two wheeler riders. However, due to carelessness of people, less importance toward safety, lot of causalities is every year. According to National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) two wheelers claimed 92 lives every day out of which most were due to helmetless drive. The system design will be such that without wearing the helmet the rider cannot start two wheelers. The helmet will be connected to vehicle key ignition systems which will be electronically controlled. The smart helmet will be having proximity sensor fitted inside it, which will act as our switch for ignition and further with wireless connection the helmet sensor circuit will be connected to the vehicle ignition system.

Keywords: helmet, proximity sensor, microcontroller, head injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
211 Analytical Method Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Rp - Hplc Method for Detrmination of Atorvastatin and Methylcobalamine

Authors: Alkaben Patel

Abstract:

The proposed RP-HPLC method is easy, rapid, economical, precise and accurate stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Astorvastatin and Methylcobalamine in their combined dosage form has been developed.The separation was achieved by LC-20 AT C18(250mm*4.6mm*2.6mm)Colum and water (pH 3.5): methanol 70:30 as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1ml/min. wavelength of this dosage form is 215nm.The drug is related to stress condition of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis and thermal degradation.

Keywords: RP- HPLC, atorvastatin, methylcobalamine, method, development, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
210 Internet of Things (IoT): An Analysis of Cost, Benefits, Risks and Enablers

Authors: Shwadhin Sharma, Monica Perez, Vinita Patel, Tyler Kuwatani, Siobhan Scott

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to explain and analyze why the Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology trend. The aspects of this research paper include an overview of IoT, what research has already been done, the benefits, implications, and our own perspectives on the trend in order to thoroughly analyze how the trend of IoT will make an impact on society. Through the identification of what makes IoT important, it is concluded that IoT will have a tremendous impact for the whole world. Technology is never going to go away, it is going to get smarter and have the potential to change the world.

Keywords: internet of things, enablers of IoT, cost of IoT, benefits of IoT

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
209 Internet of Things based AquaSwach Water Purifier

Authors: Karthiyayini J., Arpita Chowdary Vantipalli, Darshana Sailu Tanti, Malvika Ravi Kudari, Krtin Kannan

Abstract:

This paper is propelled from the generally existing undertaking of the smart water quality management, which addresses an IoT (Internet of things) based brilliant water quality observing (SWQM) framework which we call it AquaSwach that guides in the ceaseless estimation of water conditions dependent on five actual boundaries i.e., temperature, pH, electric conductivity and turbidity properties and water virtue estimation each time you drink water. Six sensors relate to Arduino-Mega in a discrete way to detect the water parameters. Extracted data from the sensors are transmitted to a desktop application developed in the NET platform and compared with the WHO (World Health Organization) standard values.

Keywords: AquaSwach, IoT, WHO, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 27