Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: peanut

22 Effects from Maillard Reactions on the Alleginicity of Peanuts

Authors: Khadija Radhi

Abstract:

Food allergy is a serious public health problem, especially in developed countries. As one of the most significant allergies, peanut allergy was investigated in this research. Peanut was mixed with treacle under different heating conditions. The results of glycation analyses revealed that proteins from peanuts interacted with the carbohydrates. Further studies also indicated that Millard reactions were determined by different heating treatment. It is noted that denatured peanut proteins accelerated the first stage of Millard reactions but prevented the third one. From the ELISA results, it was found that Millard reactions between proteins with sugars had no effects on the allergenicity of peanuts. Besides, there was no significant difference in allergenicity between digested and non-digested peanut proteins. However, pre-boiled peanut with denatured proteins displayed lower allergenicity after mixing with sugars. Such results indicated that denaturation is the key factor to reduce the allergenicity of the peanut proteins and it seemed that the second-staged Maillard products had less allergenicity.

Keywords: allergenicity, heating treatment, peanut, Maillard reaction

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21 Co-Limitation of Iron Deficiency in Stem Allantoin and Amino-N Formation of Peanut Plants Intercropped with Cassava

Authors: Hong Li, Tingxian Li, Xudong Wang, Weibo Yang

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Co-limitation of iron (Fe) deficiency in legume nitrogen fixation process is not well understood. Our objectives were to examine how peanut plants cope with Fe deficiency with the rhizobial inoculants and N-nutrient treatments. The study was conducted in the tropical Hainan Island during 2012-2013. The soil was strongly acidic (pH 4.6±0.7) and deficient in Fe (9.2±2.3 mg/kg). Peanut plants were intercropped with cassava. The inoculants and N treatments were arranged in a split-plot design with three blocks. Peanut root nodulation, stem allantoin, amino acids and plant N derived from fixation (P) reduced with declining soil Fe concentrations. The treatment interactions were significant on relative ureide % and peanut yields (P<0.05). Residual fixed N from peanut plants was beneficial to cassava plants. It was concluded that co-variance of Fe deficiency could influence peanut N fixation efficiency and rhizobia and N inputs could help improving peanut tolerance to Fe deficiency stress.

Keywords: amino acids, plant N derived from N fixation, root nodulation, soil Fe co-variance, stem ureide, peanuts, cassava

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20 Genetic Analysis of Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc Concentration in Peanut

Authors: Ajay B. C., Meena H. N., Dagla M. C., Narendra Kumar, Makwana A. D., Bera S. K., Kalariya K. A., Singh A. L.

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The high-energy value, protein content and minerals makes peanut a rich source of nutrition at comparatively low cost. Basic information on genetics and inheritance of these mineral elements is very scarce. Hence, in the present study inheritance (using additive-dominance model) and association of mineral elements was studied in two peanut crosses. Dominance variance (H) played an important role in the inheritance of P, K, Fe and Zn in peanut pods. Average degree of dominance for most of the traits was greater than unity indicating over dominance for these traits. Significant associations were also observed among mineral elements both in F2 and F3 generations but pod yield had no associations with mineral elements (with few exceptions). Di-allele/bi-parental mating could be followed to identify high yielding and mineral dense segregates.

Keywords: correlation, dominance variance, mineral elements, peanut

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19 Adsorption of Thionine Dye from its Aqueous Solution over Peanut Hull as a Low Cost Biosorbent

Authors: Alpana Saini, Sanghamitra Barman

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Investigations were carried out to determine whether low cost peanut hull as adsorbent hold promise in removal of thionine dyes in the biomedical industries. Pollution of water due to presence of colorants is a severe socio-environmental problem caused by the discharge of industrial wastewater. In view of their toxicity, non-biodegradability and persistent nature, their removal becomes an absolute necessity. For the removal of Thionine Dye using Peanut Hull, the 10mg/L concentration of dyes, 0.5g/l of adsorbent and 200 rpm agitation speed are found to be optimum for the adsorption studies. The Spectrophotometric technique was adopted for the measurement of concentration of dyes before and after adsorption at ʎmax 598nm. The adsorption data has been fitted well to Langmuir isotherm than to Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The adsorbent was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: adsorption, langmuir isotherm, peanut hull, thionine

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18 Rejuvenation of Peanut Seedling from Collar Rot Disease by Azotobacter sp. RA2

Authors: Ravi R. Patel, Vasudev R. Thakkar

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Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to increase the production and decrees disease occurrence is a recent method in agriculture. An RA2 rhizospheric culture was isolated from peanut rhizosphere from Junagadh region of Gujarat, India and showed different direct and indirect plant growth promoting activity like indole acetic acid, gibberellic acid, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, Ammonia and (1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate) deaminase production, N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization in vitro. RA2 was able to protect peanut germinating seedling from A. niger infection and reduce collar rot disease incidence 60-35% to 72-41% and increase germination percentage from 70-82% to 75-97% in two varieties GG20 and GG2 of peanut. RA2 was found to induce resistance in A. hypogaea L. seedlings via induction of different defense-related enzymes like phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase and pathogenesis related protein like chitinase, ß – 1,3- glucanase. Jasmonic acid one of the major signaling molecules of inducing systemic resistance was also found to induced due to RA2 treatments. RA2 bacterium was also promoting peanut growth and reduce A. niger infection in pot studies. 16S rDNA sequence of RA2 showed 99 % homology to Azotobacter species.

Keywords: plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, peanut, aspergillus niger, induce systemic resistance

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17 The Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Pistachio in Processed Food Products Using Florescence Dye Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün

Abstract:

Pistachio nuts, the fruits of the pistachio tree (Pistacia vera), are edible tree nuts highly valued for their organoleptic properties. Pistachio nuts used in snack foods, chocolates, baklava, meat products, ice-cream industries and other gourmet products as ingredients. Undeclared pistachios may be present in food products as a consequence of fraudulent substitution. Control of food samples is very important for safety and fraud. Mix of pistachio, peanut (Arachis hypogaea), pea (Pisum sativum L.) used instead of pistachio in food products, because pistachio is a considerably expensive nut. To solve this problem, a sensitive polymerase chain reaction PCR has been developed. A real-time PCR assay for the detection of pea, peanut and pistachio in baklava was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescence dye. Primers were selected from powerful regions for identification of pea, peanut and pistachio. DNA from reference samples and industrial products were successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 77°C, 85.5°C and 82.5°C for pea, peanut and pistachio, respectively. Homogenized mixtures of raw pistachio, pea and peanut were prepared with the ratio of 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, 40% and 70% of pistachio. Quantitative detection limit of assay was 0.1% for pistachio. Also, real-time PCR technique used in this study allowed the qualitative detection of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA in the experimental admixtures. This assay represents a potentially valuable diagnostic method for detection of nut species adulterated with pistachio as well as for highly specific and relatively rapid detection of small amounts of pistachio in food samples.

Keywords: pea, peanut, pistachio, real-time PCR

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16 Triplex Detection of Pistacia vera, Arachis hypogaea and Pisum sativum in Processed Food Products Using Probe Based PCR

Authors: Ergün Şakalar, Şeyma Özçirak Ergün, Emrah Yalazi̇, Emine Altinkaya, Cengiz Ataşoğlu

Abstract:

In recent years, food allergies which cause serious health problems affect to public health around the world. Foodstuffs which contain allergens are either intentionally used as ingredients or are encased as contaminant in food products. The prevalence of clinical allergy to peanuts and nuts is estimated at about 0.4%-1.1% of the adult population, representing the allergy to pistachio the 7% of the cases of tree nut causing allergic reactions. In order to protect public health and enforce the legislation, methods for sensitive analysis of pistachio and peanut contents in food are required. Pea, pistachio and peanut are used together, to reduce the cost in food production such as baklava, snack foods.DNA technology-based methods in food analysis are well-established and well-roundedtools for species differentiation, allergen detection. Especially, the probe-based TaqMan real-time PCR assay can amplify target DNA with efficiency, specificity, and sensitivity.In this study, pistachio, peanut and pea were finely ground and three separate series of triplet mixtures containing 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 mg kg-1 of each sample were prepared for each series, to a final weight of 100 g. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted with the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. TaqMan probes were designed for triplex determination of ITS, Ara h 3 and pea lectin genes which are specific regions for identification pistachio, peanut and pea, respectively.The real-time PCR as quantitative detected pistachio, peanut and pea in these mixtures down to the lowest investigated level of 0.1, 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1, respectively. Also, the methods reported here are capable of detecting of as little as 0.001% level of peanut DNA, 0,000001% level of pistachio DNA and 0.000001% level of pea DNA. We accomplish that the quantitative triplex real-time PCR method developed in this study canbe applied to detect pistachio, peanut and peatraces for three allergens at once in commercial food products.

Keywords: allergens, DNA, real-time PCR, TaqMan probe

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15 The Nutritional Value of Peanut Seeds Grown in Wetlands Var, Petite Kaloise

Authors: Ati Sabrina, Arbouche Fodil

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Petite Kaloise is an endemic variety of peanut in El Kala region preceding was grown dry around the three lakes (Mellah, obeira, and Tonga) was threatened by extinctions whose study of its nutritional value allows us to initiate its recovery and revive its culture. the results of the study showed that the rate of the mineral is low due to the absence of fertilization , the fat is between (48.79, 32.33, and 43.07) % respectively for sites (EL KALA, Frine, and OUM TEBOUL). Nitrogen matter is of the order of 29.86 %. lignin remains low, the rate is around 3.94 % promoting good digestibility of organic matter.

Keywords: digestible, lakes, petite kaloise, nutritional value

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14 Health Burden of Disease Assessment for Minimizing Aflatoxin Exposure in Peanuts

Authors: Min-Pei Ling

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Aflatoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite with high toxicity capable of contaminating various types of food crops. It has been identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chronic aflatoxin exposure has caused a worldwide public food safety concern. Peanuts and peanut products are the major sources of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, some reduction interventions have been developed to minimize contamination through the peanut production chain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the efficacy of interventions in reducing the health impact of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The estimated total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) was calculated using FDA-iRISK online software. Six aflatoxin reduction strategies were evaluated, including good agricultural practice (GAP), biocontrol, Purdue Improved Crop Storage packaging, basic processing, ozonolysis, and ultraviolet irradiation. The results indicated that basic processing could prevent huge public health loss of 4,079.7–21,833 total DALYs per year, which accounted for 39.6% of all decreased total DALYs. GAP and biocontrol were both effective strategies in the farm field, while the other three interventions were limited in reducing total DALYs. In conclusion, this study could help farmers, processing plants, and government policymakers to alleviate aflatoxin contamination issues in the peanut production chain.

Keywords: aflatoxin, health burden, disability-adjusted life-years, peanuts

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13 Formulation and Nutrition Analysis of Low-Sugar Snack Bars

Authors: S. Kongtun-Janphuk, S. Niwitpong Jr., J. Saengsai

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Low-sugar snack bars were formulated with 3 main formulas depending on the main ingredient, which were peanut-green bean-sesame, apple, and prune. The most acceptable formula of each group was obtained by sensory evaluation using a nine-point hedonic scale. The moisture content, total ash, protein, fat and fiber were analyzed by the standard methods of AOAC. The peanut-mung bean-sesame snack bar showed the highest protein content (88.32%) and total fat (0.48%) with the lowest of fiber content (0.01%) while the prune formula showed the lowest protein content (71.91%) and total fat (0.21%) with the highest of fiber content (0.03%). This result indicated that the prune formula could be used as diet food to assist in weight loss program.

Keywords: low-sugar snack bar, diet food, nutrition analysis, food formulation

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12 CI Engine Performance Analysis Using Sunflower and Peanut Bio-Diesel Blends

Authors: M. Manjunath, R. Rakesh, Y. T. Krishne Gowda, G. Panduranga Murthy

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The availability of energy resources plays a vital role in the progress of a country. Over the last decades, there is an increase in the consumption of energy worldwide resulting in the depletion of fossil fuels. This necessitates dependency on other countries for energy resources. Therefore, a renewable eco-friendly alternate fuel is replaced in place of fossil fuel which can be vegetable oils as a substitute fuel for diesel. Since oils are more viscous it cannot be used directly in CI engines without any engine modification. Thus, a conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel is done by a Transesterification process. The present paper is restricted to Biofuel substitute for diesel and which can be obtained from a number of edible and non-edible oil resources. The oil from these resources can be Transesterified by a suitable method depending on its FFA content for the production of biodiesel and that can be used to operate CI engine. In this work, an attempt is made to test the performance of CI engine using Transesterified peanut and sunflower oil methyl esters blends with diesel.

Keywords: SOME, POME, BMEP, BSFC, BTE

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11 Evaluation of Different Food Baits by Using Kill Traps for the Control of Lesser Bandicoot Rat (Bandicota bengalensis) in Field Crops of Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan

Authors: Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain, Tariq Mahmood

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The lesser bandicoot rat (Bandicota bengalensis) is widely distributed and a serious agricultural pest in Pakistan. It has wide adaptation with rice-wheat-sugarcane cropping systems of Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and wheat-groundnut cropping system of Pothwar area, thus inflicting heavy losses to these crops. Comparative efficacies of four food baits (onion, guava, potato and peanut butter smeared bread/Chapatti) were tested in multiple feeding tests for kill trapping of this rat species in the Pothwar Plateau between October 2013 to July 2014 at the sowing, tilling, flowering and maturity stages of wheat, groundnut and millet crops. The results revealed that guava was the most preferred bait as compared to the rest of three, presumably due to particular taste and smell of the guava. The relative efficacies of all four tested baits guava also scoring the highest trapping success of 16.94 ± 1.42 percent, followed by peanut butter, potato, and onion with trapping successes of 10.52 ± 1.30, 7.82 ± 1.21 and 4.5 ± 1.10 percent, respectively. In various crop stages and season-wise the highest trapping success was achieved at maturity stages of the crops, presumably due to higher surface activity of the rat because of favorable climatic conditions, good shelter, and food abundance. Moreover, the maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season and maturity stages of millet and groundnut match with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the lesser bandicoot rat in Pothwar area. The preferred order among four baits tested was guava > peanut butter > potato > onion. The study recommends that the farmers should periodically carry out rodent trapping at the beginning of each crop season and during non-breeding seasons of this rodent pest when the populations are low in numbers and restricted under crop boundary vegetation, particularly during very hot and cold months.

Keywords: Bandicota bengalensis, efficacy, food baits, Pothwar

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10 Population Dynamics and Diversity of Beneficial Arthropods in Pummelo (Citrus maxima) under Perennial Peanut, Arachis pintoi Cover Crop

Authors: Larry V. Aceres, Jesryl B. Paulite, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. B. Anciano, J. A. Esteban

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Enhancing the population of beneficial arthropods under less diverse agroecosystem is the most sought by many researchers and plant growers. This strategy was done through the establishment of pintoi peanut, Arachis pintoi as live mulch or cover crop in pummelo orchard of the University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), Mabini, Compostela Valley Province, Philippines. This study was conducted to compare and compute population dynamics and diversity of beneficial arthropods in pummelo in with and without Arachis pintoi cover crop. Data collections were done for the 12-month period (from June 2013 to May 2014) at the pummelo orchard of USeP Mabini Campus, COMVAL Province, Philippines and data were analyzed using the Independent Samples T-Test to compare the effect of the presence and absence of Arachis pintoi on beneficial arthropods incidence in pummelo orchard. Moreover, diversity and family richness analyses were computed using the Margalef’s diversity index for family richness; the Shannon index of general diversity and the evenness index; and the Simpson index of dominance. Results revealed numerically and statistically higher density of important beneficial arthropods such as microhymenopterans, macrohymenopterans, spiders, tachinid flies and ground beetles were recorded in pummelo orchard with Arachis pintoi than from without Arachis pintoi cover crop for the 12-month observation period. Further, the result of the study revealed the high family richness and diversity index with more or less even distribution of individuals within the family and low dominance index were documented in pummelo with Arachis pintoi cover crop than from pummelo without Arachis pintoi cover crop. The study revealed that planting A. pintoi in pummelo orchard could enhance natural enemy populations.

Keywords: Arachis pintoi, cover crop, beneficial arthropods, pummelo

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9 Studies on Optimizing the Level of Liquid Biofertilizers in Peanut and Maize and Their Economic Analysis

Authors: Chandragouda R. Patil, K. S. Jagadeesh, S. D. Kalolgi

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Biofertilizers containing live microbial cells can mobilize one or more nutrients to plants when applied to either seed or rhizosphere. They form an integral part of nutrient management strategies for sustainable production of agricultural crops. Annually, about 22 tons of lignite-based biofertilizers are being produced and supplied to farmers at the Institute of Organic Farming, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka state India. Although carrier based biofertilizers are common, they have shorter shelf life, poor quality, high contamination, unpredictable field performance and high cost of solid carriers. Hence, liquid formulations are being developed to increase their efficacy and broaden field applicability. An attempt was made to develop liquid formulation of strains of Rhizobium NC-92 (Groundnut), Azospirillum ACD15 both nitrogen-fixing biofertilizers and Pseudomonas striata an efficient P-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Different concentration of amendments such as additives (glycerol and polyethylene glycol), adjuvants (carboxyl methyl cellulose), gum arabica (GA), surfactant (polysorbate) and trehalose specifically for Azospirillum were found essential. Combinations of formulations of Rhizobium and PSB for groundnut and Azospirillum and PSB for maize were evaluated under field conditions to determine the optimum level of inoculum required. Each biofertilizer strain was inoculated at the rate of 2, 4, 8 ml per kg of seeds and the efficacy of each formulation both individually and in combinations was evaluated against the lignite-based formulation at the rate of 20 g each per kg seeds and a un-inoculated set was included to compare the inoculation effect. The field experiment had 17 treatments in three replicates and the best level of inoculum was decided based on net returns and cost: benefit ratio. In peanut, the combination of 4 ml of Rhizobium and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns and higher cost to benefit ratio of 1:2.98 followed by treatment with a combination of 2 ml per kg each of Rhizobium and PSB with a B;C ratio of 1:2.84. The benefits in terms of net returns were to the extent of 16 percent due to inoculation with lignite based formulations while it was up to 48 percent due to the best combination of liquid biofertilizers. In maize combination of liquid formulations consisting of 4 ml of Azospirillum and 2 ml of PSB resulted in the highest net returns; about 53 percent higher than the un-inoculated control and 20 percent higher than the treatment with lignite based formulation. In both the crops inoculation with lignite based formulations significantly increased the net returns over un-inoculated control while levels higher or lesser than 4 ml of Rhizobium and Azospirillum and higher or lesser than 2 ml of PSB were not economical and hence not optimal for these two crops.

Keywords: Rhizobium, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, liquid formulation, benefit-cost ratio

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8 Wear Resistance in Dry and Lubricated Conditions of Hard-anodized EN AW-4006 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: C. Soffritti, A. Fortini, E. Baroni, M. Merlin, G. L. Garagnani

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Aluminum alloys are widely used in many engineering applications due to their advantages such ashigh electrical and thermal conductivities, low density, high strength to weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, their low hardness and poor tribological properties still limit their use in industrial fields requiring sliding contacts. Hard anodizing is one of the most common solution for overcoming issues concerning the insufficient friction resistance of aluminum alloys. In this work, the tribological behavior ofhard-anodized AW-4006 aluminum alloys in dry and lubricated conditions was evaluated. Three different hard-anodizing treatments were selected: a conventional one (HA) and two innovative golden hard-anodizing treatments (named G and GP, respectively), which involve the sealing of the porosity of anodic aluminum oxides (AAO) with silver ions at different temperatures. Before wear tests, all AAO layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM/EDS), X-ray diffractometry, roughness (Ra and Rz), microhardness (HV0.01), nanoindentation, and scratch tests. Wear tests were carried out according to the ASTM G99-17 standard using a ball-on-disc tribometer. The tests were performed in triplicate under a 2 Hz constant frequency oscillatory motion, a maximum linear speed of 0.1 m/s, normal loads of 5, 10, and 15 N, and a sliding distance of 200 m. A 100Cr6 steel ball10 mm in diameter was used as counterpart material. All tests were conducted at room temperature, in dry and lubricated conditions. Considering the more recent regulations about the environmental hazard, four bio-lubricants were considered after assessing their chemical composition (in terms of Unsaturation Number, UN) and viscosity: olive, peanut, sunflower, and soybean oils. The friction coefficient was provided by the equipment. The wear rate of anodized surfaces was evaluated by measuring the cross-section area of the wear track with a non-contact 3D profilometer. Each area value, obtained as an average of four measurements of cross-section areas along the track, was used to determine the wear volume. The worn surfaces were analyzed by VPSEM/EDS. Finally, in agreement with DoE methodology, a statistical analysis was carried out to identify the most influencing factors on the friction coefficients and wear rates. In all conditions, results show that the friction coefficient increased with raising the normal load. Considering the wear tests in dry sliding conditions, irrespective of the type of anodizing treatments, metal transfer between the mating materials was observed over the anodic aluminum oxides. During sliding at higher loads, the detachment of the metallic film also caused the delamination of some regions of the wear track. For the wear tests in lubricated conditions, the natural oils with high percentages of oleic acid (i.e., olive and peanut oils) maintained high friction coefficients and low wear rates. Irrespective of the type of oil, smallmicrocraks were visible over the AAO layers. Based on the statistical analysis, the type of anodizing treatment and magnitude of applied load were the main factors of influence on the friction coefficient and wear rate values. Nevertheless, an interaction between bio-lubricants and load magnitude could occur during the tests.

Keywords: hard anodizing treatment, silver ions, bio-lubricants, sliding wear, statistical analysis

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7 Dissipation of Tebuconazole in Cropland Soils as Affected by Soil Factors

Authors: Bipul Behari Saha, Sunil Kumar Singh, P. Padmaja, Kamlesh Vishwakarma

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Dissipation study of tebuconazole in alluvial, black and deep-black clayey soils collected from paddy, mango and peanut cropland of tropical agro-climatic zone of India at three concentration levels were carried out for monitoring the water contamination through persisted residual toxicity. The soil-slurry samples were analyzed by capillary GC-NPD methods followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique and cleanup process. An excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1 to 50 μgkg-1. The detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) limits were 3 and 10 μgkg-1 respectively. Well spiked recoveries were achieved from 96.28 to 99.33 % at levels 5 and 20 μgkg-1 and method precision (% RSD) was ≤ 5%. The soils dissipation of tebuconazole was fitted in first order kinetic-model with half-life between 34.48 to 48.13 days. The soil organic-carbon (SOC) content correlated well with the dissipation rate constants (DRC) of the fungicide Tebuconazole. An increase in the SOC content resulted in faster dissipation. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon and tebuconazole concentrations plays dominant role in dissipation processes. The initial concentration illustrated that the degradation rate of tebuconazole in soils was concentration dependent.

Keywords: cropland soil, dissipation, laboratory incubation, tebuconazole

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6 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

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The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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5 Protective Effects of Sinapic Acid on Organophosphate Poisoning

Authors: Turker Yardan, Bahattin Avci, S. Sirri Bilge, Ayhan Bozkurt

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Sinapic acid (SA) is a phenylpropanoid compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the possible protective effect of sinapic acid on chlorpyrifos (CPF), a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide, induced toxicity in rats. Forty male and female rats (240-270 g) were used in this study. Each group was composed of 5 male and 5 female rats. Sinapic acid (20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg) or vehicle (olive oil, 1 ml ⁄ rat) were given orally for 5 days. CPF (279 mg/kg) or vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml ⁄ kg, s.c.) was administered on the sixth day, immediately after the recording of the body weight of the animals. Twenty four hours following CPF administration body weight, body temperature and locomotor activity values were recorded before decapitation of the animals. Trunk blood, brain, and liver samples were collected for biochemical examinations. Chlorpyrifos administration decreased butyrylcholinesterase activity in blood, brain, and liver, while it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) (p < 0.01 - 0.001). Additionally, CPF administration reduced the body weight, body temperature, and locomotor activity values of the animals (p < 0.01 - 0.001). All these physiological and biochemical changes induced by CPF were reduced with the 40 mg/kg dose of SA (p < 0.05 - 0.001). Our results suggest that SA administration ameliorates CPF induced toxicity in rats, possibly by supporting the antioxidant mechanism.

Keywords: antioxidant, Chlorpyrifos, poisoning, sinapic acid

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4 Synthesis of ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOF for Improvement Photodegradation of Textile Dyes Under Visible-light: Optimization and Statistical Study

Authors: Esraa Mohamed El-Fawal

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A facile solvothermal procedure was applied to fabricate zinc ferrite nanoparticles (ZnFe₂O₄ NPs). Activated carbon (AC) derived from peanut shells is synthesized using a microwave through the chemical activation method. The ZnFe₂O₄-AC composite is then mixed with a cerium-based metal-organic framework (CeMOF) by solid-state adding to formulate ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOF composite. The synthesized photo materials were tested by scanning/transmission electron microscope (SEM/TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), (XRD) X-Ray diffraction, (FTIR) Fourier transform infrared, (UV-Vis/DRS) ultraviolet-visible/diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The prepared ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOFphotomaterial shows significantly boosted efficiency for photodegradation of methyl orange /methylene blue (MO/MB) compared with the pristine ZnFe₂O₄ and ZnFe₂O₄-AC composite under the irradiation of visible-light. The favorable ZnFe₂O₄-AC/CeMOFphotocatalyst displays the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MB/MO (R: 91.5-88.6%, consecutively) compared with the other as-prepared materials after 30 min of visible-light irradiation. The apparent reaction rate K: 1.94-1.31 min-1 is also calculated. The boosted photocatalytic proficiency is ascribed to the heterojunction at the interface of prepared photo material that assists the separation of the charge carriers. To reach optimization, statistical analysis using response surface methodology was applied. The effect of independent parameters (such as A (pH), B (irradiation time), and (c) initial pollutants concentration on the response function (%)photodegradation of MB/MO dyes (as examples of azodyes) was investigated via using central composite design. At the optimum condition, the photodegradation efficiency (%) of the MB/MO is 99.8-97.8%, respectively. ZnFe2O₄-AC/CeMOF hybrid reveals good stability over four consecutive cycles.

Keywords: azo-dyes, photo-catalysis, zinc ferrite, response surface methodology

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3 Increasing Prevalence of Multi-Allergen Sensitivities in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Eastern India

Authors: Sujoy Khan

Abstract:

There is a rising concern with increasing allergies affecting both adults and children in rural and urban India. Recent report on adults in a densely populated North Indian city showed sensitization rates for house dust mite, parthenium, and cockroach at 60%, 40% and 18.75% that is now comparable to allergy prevalence in cities in the United States. Data from patients residing in the eastern part of India is scarce. A retrospective study (over 2 years) was done on patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma where allergen-specific IgE levels were measured to see the aero-allergen sensitization pattern in a large metropolitan city of East India. Total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured using ImmunoCAP (Phadia 100, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sweden) using region-specific aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (d1); Dermatophagoides farinae (d2); cockroach (i206); grass pollen mix (gx2) consisted of Cynodon dactylon, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Sorghum halepense, Paspalum notatum; tree pollen mix (tx3) consisted of Juniperus sabinoides, Quercus alba, Ulmus americana, Populus deltoides, Prosopis juliflora; food mix 1 (fx1) consisted of Peanut, Hazel nut, Brazil nut, Almond, Coconut; mould mix (mx1) consisted of Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria alternate; animal dander mix (ex1) consisted of cat, dog, cow and horse dander; and weed mix (wx1) consists of Ambrosia elatior, Artemisia vulgaris, Plantago lanceolata, Chenopodium album, Salsola kali, following manufacturer’s instructions. As the IgE levels were not uniformly distributed, median values were used to represent the data. 92 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma (united airways disease) were studied over 2 years including 21 children (age < 12 years) who had total IgE and allergen-specific IgE levels measured. The median IgE level was higher in 2016 than in 2015 with 60% of patients (adults and children) being sensitized to house dust mite (dual positivity for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae). Of 11 children in 2015, whose total IgE ranged from 16.5 to >5000 kU/L, 36% of children were polysensitized (≥4 allergens), and 55% were sensitized to dust mites. Of 10 children in 2016, total IgE levels ranged from 37.5 to 2628 kU/L, and 20% were polysensitized with 60% sensitized to dust mites. Mould sensitivity was 10% in both of the years in the children studied. A consistent finding was that ragweed sensitization (molecular homology to Parthenium hysterophorus) appeared to be increasing across all age groups, and throughout the year, as reported previously by us where 25% of patients were sensitized. In the study sample overall, sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach, and parthenium were important risks in our patients with moderate to severe asthma that reinforces the importance of controlling indoor exposure to these allergens. Sensitizations to dust mite, cockroach and parthenium allergens are important predictors of asthma morbidity not only among children but also among adults in Eastern India.

Keywords: aAeroallergens, asthma, dust mite, parthenium, rhinitis

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2 Long-Term Exposure Assessments for Cooking Workers Exposed to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aldehydes Containing in Cooking Fumes

Authors: Chun-Yu Chen, Kua-Rong Wu, Yu-Cheng Chen, Perng-Jy Tsai

Abstract:

Cooking fumes are known containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aldehydes, and some of them have been proven carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans. Considering their chronic health effects, long-term exposure data is required for assessing cooking workers’ lifetime health risks. Previous exposure assessment studies, due to both time and cost constraints, mostly were based on the cross-sectional data. Therefore, establishing a long-term exposure data has become an important issue for conducting health risk assessment for cooking workers. An approach was proposed in this study. Here, the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes from a cooking process were determined by placing a sampling train exactly under the under the exhaust fan under the both the total enclosure condition and normal operating condition, respectively. Subtracting the concentration collected by the former (representing the total emitted concentration) from that of the latter (representing the hood collected concentration), the fugitive emitted concentration was determined. The above data was further converted to determine the generation rates based on the flow rates specified for the exhaust fan. The determinations of the above generation rates were conducted in a testing chamber with a selected cooking process (deep-frying chicken nuggets under 3 L peanut oil at 200°C). The sampling train installed under the exhaust fan consisted respectively an IOM inhalable sampler with a glass fiber filter for collecting particle-phase PAHs, followed by a XAD-2 tube for gas-phase PAHs. The above was also used to sample aldehydes, however, installed with a filter pre-coated with DNPH, and followed by a 2,4-DNPH-cartridge for collecting particle-phase and gas-phase aldehydes, respectively. PAHs and aldehydes samples were analyzed by GC/MS-MS (Agilent 7890B), and HPLC-UV (HITACHI L-7100), respectively. The obtained generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes were applied to the near-field/ far-field exposure model to estimate the exposures of cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration). For validating purposes, both PAHs and aldehydes samplings were conducted simultaneously using the same sampling train at both near-field and far-field sites of the testing chamber. The sampling results, together with the use of the mixed-effect model, were used to calibrate the estimated near-field/ far-field exposures. In the present study, the obtained emission rates were further converted to emission factor of both PAHs and aldehydes according to the amount of food oil consumed. Applying the long-term food oil consumption records, the emission rates for both PAHs and aldehydes were determined, and the long-term exposure databanks for cooks (the estimated near-field concentration), and helpers (the estimated far-field concentration) were then determined. Results show that the proposed approach was adequate to determine the generation rates of both PAHs and aldehydes under various fan exhaust flow rate conditions. The estimated near-field/ far-field exposures, though were significantly different from that obtained from the field, can be calibrated using the mixed effect model. Finally, the established long-term data bank could provide a useful basis for conducting long-term exposure assessments for cooking workers exposed to PAHs and aldehydes.

Keywords: aldehydes, cooking oil fumes, long-term exposure assessment, modeling, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

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1 Detection of Mustard Traces in Food by an Official Food Safety Laboratory

Authors: Clara Tramuta, Lucia Decastelli, Elisa Barcucci, Sandra Fragassi, Samantha Lupi, Enrico Arletti, Melissa Bizzarri, Daniela Manila Bianchi

Abstract:

Introdution: Food allergies occurs, in the Western World, 2% of adults and up to 8% of children. The protection of allergic consumers is guaranted, in Eurrope, by Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament which governs the consumer's right to information and identifies 14 food allergens to be mandatory indicated on the label. Among these, mustard is a popular spice added to enhance the flavour and taste of foods. It is frequently present as an ingredient in spice blends, marinades, salad dressings, sausages, and other products. Hypersensitivity to mustard is a public health problem since the ingestion of even low amounts can trigger severe allergic reactions. In order to protect the allergic consumer, high performance methods are required for the detection of allergenic ingredients. Food safety laboratories rely on validated methods that detect hidden allergens in food to ensure the safety and health of allergic consumers. Here we present the test results for the validation and accreditation of a Real time PCR assay (RT-PCR: SPECIALfinder MC Mustard, Generon), for the detection of mustard traces in food. Materials and Methods. The method was tested on five classes of food matrices: bakery and pastry products (chocolate cookies), meats (ragù), ready-to-eat (mixed salad), dairy products (yogurt), grains, and milling products (rice and barley flour). Blank samples were spiked starting with the mustard samples (Sinapis Alba), lyophilized and stored at -18 °C, at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Serial dilutions were then prepared to a final concentration of 0.5 ppm, using the DNA extracted by ION Force FAST (Generon) from the blank samples. The Real Time PCR reaction was performed by RT-PCR SPECIALfinder MC Mustard (Generon), using CFX96 System (BioRad). Results. Real Time PCR showed a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 ppm in grains and milling products, ready-to-eat, meats, bakery, pastry products, and dairy products (range Ct 25-34). To determine the exclusivity parameter of the method, the ragù matrix was contaminated with Prunus dulcis (almonds), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), Glycine max (soy), Apium graveolens (celery), Allium cepa (onion), Pisum sativum (peas), Daucus carota (carrots), and Theobroma cacao (cocoa) and no cross-reactions were observed. Discussion. In terms of sensitivity, the Real Time PCR confirmed, even in complex matrix, a LOD of 0.5 ppm in five classes of food matrices tested; these values are compatible with the current regulatory situation that does not consider, at international level, to establish a quantitative criterion for the allergen considered in this study. The Real Time PCR SPECIALfinder kit for the detection of mustard proved to be easy to use and particularly appreciated for the rapid response times considering that the amplification and detection phase has a duration of less than 50 minutes. Method accuracy was rated satisfactory for sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) and was fully validated and accreditated. It was found adequate for the needs of the laboratory as it met the purpose for which it was applied. This study was funded in part within a project of the Italian Ministry of Health (IZS PLV 02/19 RC).

Keywords: allergens, food, mustard, real time PCR

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