Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: haematology

17 Effect of Replacing Maize with Acha Offal in Broiler Chicken Diets on Performance, Haematology and Serum Biochemicals

Authors: Sudik S. D., Raymon J. B., Maidala A., Lawan A., Bagudu I. A.

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted with 240 Abor Acre broilers to determine the effect of replacing maize with acha offal (Digitaria exilis) on performance, haematology, and serum biochemical. Chicks were allotted to six diets (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6) with acha offal (AO) at 0.0%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, 12.5% and 15.0% respectively as replacement of maize with 4 replicates consisting of 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. They were allowed ad libitum accessed to feed and water throughout a 42 days experiment. The results showed that at the starter phase, only feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chicks fed T5 had best FCR more than those fed T1 while those fed T2, T3, T4, and T6 had similar FCR comparable with T1. At the finisher stage, final weight (FW), total weight change (TWC), average daily gain (ADG), and FCR were significantly affected (p < 0.05). Chickens fed T3, T4, T5, and T6 had similar FW, TWC, and ADG and higher than those fed T1; those fed T2 had similar FW, TWG, and DWG with T1. Chickens fed T6 had best FCR, followed by those fed T3, T4, and T5, while those T2 had worse FCR similar with those fed T1. Eviscerated weight was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher eviscerated weight followed by T3 while those fed T2 had least eviscerated weight comparable with those fed T1. The entire organs (Gizzard, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, and proventriculus) were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. Packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell (RBC) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by treatment. Birds fed T4, T5, and T6 had higher and similar PCV and RBC with those fed T1 while those fed T2 and T3 had lower PCV and RBC. The entire serum metabolites were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. In conclusion, acha offal can replace maize in starter and finisher broilers’ diets at 12.5% and 15.0%, respectively, without an adverse effect.

Keywords: broiler, acha offal, maize, performance, eviscerated, haematology, serum

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16 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: rearing systems, stylosanthes, cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen

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15 Haematology and Reproductive Performance of Pubertal Rabbit Do Administer Crude Moringa oleifera (LAM.) Leaf Extract

Authors: Ewuola E. O., Sokunbi O. A., Oyedemi O. M., Sanni K. M

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera leaf has been traditionally used in the local medicine as an ingredient in some herbal formulations for blood purifier, cholesterol reducing agent, immune and reproductive enhancers. Twenty-four pubertal rabbit are divided equally into four groups were administered with varied concentrations of crude extract of the leaves of Moringa oleifera gavage at doses of 2.5ml/kg body weight (BW) in every 48 hours for 63 days. These rabbits were allotted into four treatments and each treatment was replicated six times to investigate the effect of administered crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on haematology and reproductive performance of pubertal rabbit does. Four experimental treatments were used. The animals on the control (T1) were administered water only. Rabbits on treatments 2, 3, and 4 were administered 100ml CMOLE/L, 200ml CMOLE/L, and 300ml CMOLE/L, respectively. The does were placed on extract two weeks before mating, five weeks after mating and continued for another two weeks after kindling. Six proven untreated bucks were used for the mating of the twenty-four treated does and these bucks were randomly allotted to the does such that each buck mated at least one treated does in each treatment. The same management practices and experimental diets were given ad libitum to all animals. Blood was sampled from the gestating does at the third trimester for haematological analysis. The haematology results showed that treated rabbits with 100ml CMOLE/L with mean corpuscular volume value of 93.38fl significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those on the control which is water only (82.24fl) but not significantly different from T3 (200ml CMOLE/L) and T4 (300ml CMOLE/L) which had mean values of 91.69fl and 91.49fl, respectively. While the erythrocyte counts, leukocyte counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and eosinophil count were not significantly different across the treatments. For platelets, treated animals on T2 (100ml CMOLE/L) had the highest numerical value of 148.80 x 109/L which was identical with those on T3 (200ml CMOLE/L) with mean value of 141.50x109/L but significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those on T4 (300ml CMOLE/L) with mean value of 135.00 x 109/L and those on the control which had the least mean value of 126.60 x 109/L. The percentage conception rate of the treated animals was higher than those in the control group. The animals administered 300ml CMOLE/L had the apparently highest litter size of 5.75, while gestation length and litter weight tended to decline with increase in CMOLE concentrations The investigation demonstrated the potential effect of crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract on pubertal rabbit does. The administration of up to 300ml crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract per liter did not adversely affect but improved the haematological response and reproductive potential in gestating rabbit does.

Keywords: conception, haematology, moringa leaf extract, rabbit does

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14 Probiotics as an Alternative to Antibiotic Use in Pig Production

Authors: Z. C. Dlamini, R. L. S. Langa, A. I. Okoh, O. A. Aiyegoro

Abstract:

The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics in swine production have consequential outcomes; such as development of bacterial resistance to prophylactic antibiotics and possibility of antibiotic residues in animal products. The use of probiotics appears to be the most effective procedure with positive metabolic nutritional implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ625, Lactobacillus reuteri VB4, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 and Streptococcus salivarius NBRC13956) administered as direct-fed microorganisms in weaned piglets. 45 weaned piglets blocked by weight were dived into 5 treatments groups: diet with antibiotic, diet with no-antibiotic and no probiotic, and diet with probiotic and diet with combination of probiotics. Piglets performance was monitored during the trials. Faecal and Ileum samples were collected for microbial count analysis. Blood samples were collected from pigs at the end of the trial, for analysis of haematological, biochemical and IgG stimulation. The data was analysed by Split-Plot ANOVA using SAS statistically software (SAS 9.3) (2003). The difference was observed between treatments for daily weight and feed conversion ratio. No difference was observed in analysis of faecal samples in regards with bacterial counts, difference was observed in ileums samples with enteric bacteria colony forming unit being lower in P2 treatment group as compared with lactic acid and total bacteria. With exception of globulin and albumin, biochemistry blood parameters were not affected, likewise for haematology, only basophils and segmented neutrophils were differed by having higher concentration in NC treatment group as compared with other treatment groups. Moreover, in IgG stimulation analysis, difference was also observed, with P2 treatment group having high concentration of IgG in P2 treatment group as compared to other groups. The results of this study suggest that probiotics have a beneficial effect on growth performances, blood parameters and IgG stimulation of pigs, most effective when they are administered in synergy form. This means that it is most likely that these probiotics will offer a significant benefit in pig farming by reducing risk of morbidity and mortality and produce quality meat that is more affordable to poorer communities, and thereby enhance South African pig industry’s economy. In addition, these results indicate that there is still more research need to be done on probiotics in regards with, i.e. dosage, shelf life and mechanism of action.

Keywords: antibiotics, biochemistry, haematology, IgG-stimulation, microbial count, probiotics

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13 An Audit of the Process of Care in Surveillance Services for Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Wales

Authors: Charlie Jeffkins

Abstract:

Sickle cell disease is a serious life-limiting condition which can reduce the quality of life for many patients. Public Health England (PHE), in partnership with the Sickle Cell Society (SCS), has created guidelines to prevent severe complications from sickle cell disease. Data was collected from Children’s Hospital for Wales between 15/03/21-26/03/21. Methods: A manual search of patient records for children under the care of Rocket Ward and a key term search of online records was used. Results: Penicillin prophylaxis was given at 90 days for 89%, 77% of TCDs scans were done at 2-3 years, and 72% have had a scan in the last year. 53% of patients have had discussions about hydroxycarbamide, whilst 65% have started it. PPV vaccination was documented for 19%. Conclusion: Overall, none of the four standards were reached; however, TCD uptake has improved. There is a need for better documentation of treatment and annual re-audits.

Keywords: paediatric, haematology, sickle cell, audit

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12 The Safety of Microbiologically Prepared Fructooligosaccharide on White Albino Rats

Authors: Olayinka Risiquat Raimi

Abstract:

FOS was produced from FTase of Aspergillus niger. HPLC analysis showed 32.24%. Consisting of 28.57% ketose and 4.67% nystose. Effects of FOS were studied on 12 weeks old albino rats. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia. A low incidence of clinical sign and no toxicological effect were observed. Male rats fed with 2500mg/kg fructooligosaccharides had the highest weight. Male and female rat showed a significant increase in weight from first week to the fifth week. All haematological parameters examined were normal in male and female rats. Mean haematological and haemoglobin values for 2500mg/kg bw FOS fed male rats were the highest. Clinical chemistry test, glucose, albumin, and cholesterol were within normal laboratory values for a rat. The mean glucose value was lower for FOS fed male and female rats compared to those fed with honey and 60% sucrose. Gross necropsy observation showed no remarkable internal gross abnormalities for any of the animals.

Keywords: fructooligosaccharide, white albino rat, haematology values, clinical chemistry values

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11 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Fed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: Nnennaya Samuel Okoro

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PPSM). The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that haematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P<0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23 g/d) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: haematology, internal organs, pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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10 Patients' Perceptions of Receiving a Diagnosis of a Haematological Malignancy, following the SPIKES Protocol

Authors: Lauren Dixon, David Galvani

Abstract:

Objective: Sharing devastating news with patients is often considered the most difficult task of doctors. This study aimed to explore patients’ perceptions of receiving bad news including which features improve the experience and which areas need refining. Methods: A questionnaire was written based on the steps of the SPIKES model for breaking bad news. 20 patients receiving treatment for a haematological malignancy completed the questionnaire. Results: Overall, the results are promising as most patients praised their consultation. ‘Poor’ was more commonly rated by women and participants aged 45-64. The main differences between the ‘excellent’ and ‘poor’ consultations include the doctor’s sensitivity and checking the patients’ understanding. Only 35% of patients were asked their existing knowledge and 85% of consultations failed to discuss the impact of the diagnosis on daily life. Conclusion: This study agreed with the consensus of existing literature. The commended aspects include consultation set-up and information given. Areas patients felt needed improvement include doctors determining the patient’s existing knowledge and exploring how the diagnosis will affect the patient’s life. With a poorer prognosis, doctors should work on conveying appropriate hope. The study was limited by a small sample size and potential recall bias.

Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, haematology, patients

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9 Effect of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on Haematological Profiles of the Sex Reversed, Sarotherodon Melanotheron

Authors: Ayoola, Simeon Oluwatoyin, Omogoriola Hannah Omoloye

Abstract:

The effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone Hormone on blood composition of the Sex Reversed Sarotherodon melanotheron were investigated. S. melanotheron fry were reared in six (6) plastic tanks for three (3) months, of which three (3) tanks served as treatment tanks while the other three (3) served as the control. The fry were fed with 17α-methyl testosterone enzyme, which functions as a sex reversal hormone. The fry were administered this hormone for 30 days, to ensure complete sex reversal. All the S. melanotheron fry were reared to table size for duration of three (3) months, after which, blood samples were taken from both the control and treatment fishes. The blood parameters showed no significant differences with the same values of White Blood Cell count (WBC) and Total plasma protein for the control and experimental fishes. A total protein value for sex reversed specimens was 3.99g/dL, while urea and creatinine values were 0.2g/dL. Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase and Alanine transaminase for the treatment specimen were 183nm/mg protein/min, 98nm/mg protein/min and 105nm/mg protein/min respectively. A total protein value for control specimens was 2.81g/dL, while urea and creatinine values were 0.2g/dL. Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate transaminase and Alanine transaminase for the control species were 174nm/mg protein/min, 93nm/mg protein/min and 106nm/mg protein/min respectively. The safety of MT on S. melanotheron is therefore proved since there is no adverse effect on the fish.

Keywords: 17α-Methyltestosterone, haematology, sex reversal, sarotherodon melanotheron

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8 Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race

Authors: Renato André S. Silva, Nana L. F. Sampaio, Carlos J. G. Cruz, Bruno Vianna, Flávio O. Pires

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multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p <0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.

Keywords: cycling, health effects, cycling stages races, haematology

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7 Knowledge, Experiences, and Attitudes of Paediatric Nurses regarding Complementary Health Approaches Used by Themselves and Parents for Their Children in Turkey

Authors: Vildan Cırık, Emine Efe

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Complementary health approaches are growing in popularity worldwide and play a substantial role in health care. It is very important for paediatric nurses to have knowledge of practices affecting the medical conditions of patients and to communicate with them through integrative nursing care. The purpose of this study was to determine paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of complementary health approaches (CHA) and their personal and professional attitudes to the use of complementary health approaches. This multicentre study was conducted with 1450 paediatric nurses in 18 hospitals in Turkey. Paediatric nurses included in the study were working in the following clinics: Paediatric Service, Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Haematology/Oncology. Data collection focused on the paediatric nurses’ knowledge and experiences of CHA. A high proportion of our sample of paediatric nurses reported that they had used some form of CHA themselves; the most popular choices of CHA were prayer, massage, and vitamins techniques. Paediatric nurses reported positive experiences (drawing/music/art/dance therapies, prayer, herbs, thermal springs, massage, and reflexology) and negative experiences (herbs, thermal springs, prayer, and massage). This study may contribute to increased awareness of the potentially important role of paediatric nurses in the delivery of CHA. Paediatric nurses play important roles in helping patients to use complementary health approaches safely and accurately. Trainings on CHA should be organised, data collection forms including CHA should be created, and evidence-based studies should be focused towards improving the clinical practice of paediatric nurses.

Keywords: complementary health approaches, paediatric nurses, knowledge, experience, attitude, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
6 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: broilers, growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry

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5 Haematological Changes and Anticoccidial Activities of Kaempferol in Eimeria Tenella Infected Broiler Chickens

Authors: Ya'u Muhammad, Umar Umar A. Mallammadori, Dahiru Mansur

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Effect of kaempferol on haematological parameters in two weeks old broiler chickens with experimental Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated in this study. Sixty-day old broilers were randomly allotted into six groups (I-VI) of ten broilers each and brooded for two weeks with commercial broiler feed (vital feed®) and provided water ad libitum. At two weeks of age broilers in group 1 were neither infected nor treated. Broilers in groups II-VI were infected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocyst (104/ml) via oral inoculation. After infection was established, broilers in groups II-IV were treated orally with 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg of kaempferol, respectively. Broilers in group V were treated for five days with amprolium, 1.25 g/L in drinking water. Broilers in group VI were administered normal saline, 5 ml/kg per os for five days. Five days post infection; all broilers were sacrificed by severing their jugular veins. Blood sample from each bird was collected in EDTA container for haematology. Caecal contents were harvested and used to determine the lesion score and caecal Oocyst count respectively. Data obtained was analyzed using pad prism version 5.0. Mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and Red Blood Cell (RBC) count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, PCV, Hb concentration, and RBC count significantly (P < 0.05) increased in groups II, III, and IV when compared to VI. No significant (P > 0.05) difference in the mean values of PCV, Hb and RBC count were recorded between groups treated with kaempferol and group V. Caecal Oocyst counts and lesion scores reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in groups II, III, and IV in a dose dependent manner. It was therefore observed in this study that kaempferol improved haematological parameters and reduced Oocyst count as well as the lesion scores in broilers infected with Eimeria tenella.

Keywords: broilers, Eimeria tenella, kaempferol, lesion scores, oocyst count,

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4 Haematological Correlates of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack: Lessons Learned

Authors: Himali Gunasekara, Baddika Jayaratne

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Haematological abnormalities are known to cause Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA). The identification of haematological correlates plays an important role in a management and secondary prevention. The objective of this study was to describe haematological correlates of stroke and their association between stroke profile. The haematological correlates screened were Lupus Anticoagulant, Dysfibroginemia, Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea (PNH), Sickle cell disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) and Myeloploriferative Neoplasms (MPN). A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in a sample of 152 stroke patients referred to haematology department of National Hospital of Sri Lanka for thrombophilia screening. Different tests were performed to assess each hematological correlate. Diluted Russels Viper Venom Test and Kaolin clotting time were done to assess Lupus anticoagulant. Full blood count (FBC), blood picture, Sickling test and High Performance Liquid Chromatography were the tests used for detection of Sickle cell disease. Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinurea was assessed by FBC, blood picture, Ham test and Flowcytometry. FBC, blood picture, Janus Kinase 2 (V617F) mutation analysis, erythropoietin level and bone marrow examination were done to look for the Myeloproliferative neoplasms. Dysfibrinogenaemia was assessed by TT, fibrinogen antigen test, clot observation and clauss test. Anti nuclear antibody test was done to look for systemic lupus erythematosis. Among study sample, 134 patients had strokes and only 18 had TIA. The recurrence of stroke/TIA was observed in 13.2% of patients. The majority of patients (94.7%) have had radiological evidence of thrombotic event. One fourth of patients had past thrombotic events while 12.5% had family history of thrombosis. Out of haematological correlates screened, Lupus anticoagulant was the commonest haematological correlate (n=16 ) and dysfibrigonaemia(n=11 ) had the next high prevalence. One patient was diagnosed with Essential thrombocythaemia and one with SLE. None of the patients were positive for screening tests done for sickle cell disease and PNH. The Haematological correlates were identified in 19% of our study sample. Among stroke profile only presence of past thrombotic history was statistically significantly associated with haematological disorders (P= 0.04). Therefore, hematological disorders appear to be an important factor in etiological work-up of stroke patients particularly in patients with past thrombotic events.

Keywords: stroke, transient ischemic attack, hematological correlates, hematological disorders

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3 Challenging Clinical Scenario of Blood Stream Candida Infections – An Indian Experience

Authors: P. Uma Devi, S. Sujith, K. Rahul, T. S. Dipu, V. Anil Kumar , Vidya Menon

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Introduction: Candida is an important cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs), causing significant mortality and morbidity. The epidemiology of Candida infection is also changing, mainly in relation to the number of episodes caused by species Candida non-albicans. However, in India, the true burden of candidemia is not clear. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the clinical characteristics, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia at our hospital. Methodology: Between January 2012 and April 2014, adult patients with at least one positive blood culture for Candida species were identified through the microbiology laboratory database (for each patient only the first episode of candidemia was recorded). Patient data was collected by retrospective chart review of clinical characteristics including demographic data, risk factors; species distribution, resistance to antifungals and survival. Results: A total of 165 episodes of Candida BSI were identified, with 115 episodes occurring in adult patients. Most of the episodes occurred in males (69.6%). Nearly 82.6% patients were between 41 to 80 years and majority of the patients were in the intensive care unit (65.2%) at the time of diagnosis. On admission, 26.1% and 18.3% patients had pneumonia and urinary tract infection, respectively. Majority of the candidemia episodes were found in the general medicine department (23.5%) followed by gastrointestinal surgery (13.9%) and medical oncology & haematology (13%). Risk factors identified were prior hospitalization within one year (83.5%), antibiotic therapy within the last one month (64.3%), indwelling urinary catheter (63.5%), central venous catheter use (59.1%), diabetes mellitus (53%), severe sepsis (45.2%), mechanical ventilation (43.5%) and surgery (36.5%). C. tropicalis (30.4%) was the leading cause of infection followed by C. parapsilosis (28.7%) and C. albicans (13%). Other non-albicans species isolated included C. haemulonii (7.8%), C. glabrata (7%), C. famata (4.3%) and C. krusei (1.7%). Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole was 87.9% (C. parapsilosis), 100% (C. tropicalis) and 93.3% (C. albicans). Mortality was noted in 51 patients (44.3%). Early mortality (within 7 days) was noted in 32 patients while late mortality (between 7 and 30 days) was noted in 19 patients. Conclusion: In recent years, candidemia has been flourishing in critically ill patients. Comparison of data from our own hospital from 2005 shows a doubling of the incidence. Rapid changes in the rate of infection, potential risk factors, and emergence of non-albicans Candida demand continued surveillance of this serious BSI. High index of suspicion and sensitive diagnostics are essential to improve outcomes in resource limited settings with emergence of non-albicans Candida.

Keywords: antifungal susceptibility, candida albicans, candidemia, non-albicans candida

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2 Radioprotective Efficacy of Costus afer against the Radiation-Induced Hematology and Histopathology Damage in Mice

Authors: Idowu R. Akomolafe, Naven Chetty

Abstract:

Background: The widespread medical application of ionizing radiation has raised public concern about radiation exposure and, thus, associated cancer risk. The production of reactive oxygen species and free radicals as a result of radiation exposure can cause severe damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of cells, thus leading to biological effect. Radiotherapy is an excellent modality in the treatment of cancerous cells, comes with a few challenges. A significant challenge is the exposure of healthy cells surrounding the tumour to radiation. The last few decades have witnessed lots of attention shifted to plants, herbs, and natural product as an alternative to synthetic compound for radioprotection. Thus, the study investigated the radioprotective efficacy of Costus afer against whole-body radiation-induced haematological, histopathological disorder in mice. Materials and Method: Fifty-four mice were randomly divided into nine groups. Animals were pretreated with the extract of Costus afer by oral gavage for six days before irradiation. Control: 6 mice received feed and water only; 6 mice received feed, water, and 3Gy; 6 mice received feed, water, and 6Gy; experimental: 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract; 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract and 3Gy; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract and 3Gy; 6 mice received 250 mg/kg extract and 6Gy; 6 mice received 500 mg/kg extract and 6Gy in addition to feeding and water. The irradiation was done at the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of Grey's Hospital using linear accelerator (LINAC). Thirty-six mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation 48 hours after irradiation, and blood was collected for haematology tests. Also, the liver and kidney of the sacrificed mice were surgically removed for histopathology tests. The remaining eighteen (18) mice were used for mortality and survival studies. Data were analysed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: Prior administration of Costus afer extract decreased the symptoms of radiation sickness and caused a significant delay in the mortality as demonstrated in the experimental mice. The first mortality was recorded on day-5 post irradiation, and this happened to the group E- that is, mice that received 6Gy but no extract. There was significant protection in the experimental mice, as demonstrated in the blood counts against hematopoietic and gastrointestinal damage when compared with the control. The protection was seen in the increase in blood counts of experimental animals and the number of survivor. The protection offered by Costus afer may be due to its ability to scavenge free radicals and restore gastrointestinal and bone marrow damage produced by radiation. Conclusions: The study has demonstrated that exposure of mice to radiation could cause modifications in the haematological and histopathological parameters of irradiated mice. However, the changes were relieved by the methanol extract of Costus afer, probably through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties.

Keywords: costus afer, hematological, mortality, radioprotection, radiotherapy

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1 Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Blood Biochemical Changes and Lipid Profile of Vanaraja Chicken in Tropics

Authors: Kaushalendra Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Chandra Moni, Sanjay Kumar, P. K. Singh, Ajeet Kumar

Abstract:

Present study investigated the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on production efficiency, hemato-biochemical profile and economy of Vanaraja birds under tropical condition. Experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days on 300 Vanaraja birds randomly divided in to five different experimental groups including control of 60 birds each group replicated with 20 chicks in each replicate. T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were offered with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Moringa oleifera leaf meal along with basal ration. All the standard managemental practices were followed during experimental period including vaccination schedule. Locally available Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested at mature stage and allowed to dry under shady and aerated conditions. Thereafter, dried leaves were milled to make a leaf meal and stored in the airtight nylon bags to avoid any possible contamination from foreign material and use for experiment. Production parameters were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed and weight gain every weeks. The body weight gain of T2 group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher side whereas T3 group was comparable with control. The feed conversion ratio for T2 group was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other treatment groups, while none of the group was comparable with each other. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected from birds for haematology study while serum biochemistry performed using spectrophotometer following statndard protocols. The haematological attributes were significantly (P > 0.05) not differed among the groups. However, serum biochemistry showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine level with higher level of MOLM diet, indicates better utilization of protein supplemented through MOLM. The total cholesterol and triglyceride level was declined significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group with increased level of MOLM in basal diet, decreasing trend of serum cholesterol noted. However, value of HDL for T3 group was highest and for T1 group was lowest but no significant difference (P < 0.05) found among the groups. It might be due to presence of β-sitosterol a bioactive compound present in MOLM which causes lowering of plasma concentration of LDL. During experiment total, LDL and VLDL level was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group. It was observed that the production efficiency of birds significantly improved with 5% followed by 10% Moringa oleifera leaf meal among the treatment groups. However, the maximum profit per kg live weight was noted in 10 % level and least profit observed in 20% MOLM fed group. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of MOLM improved overall performances without affecting metabolic status and effective in reducing cholesterol level reflects healthy chicken production for human consumption.

Keywords: hemato biochemistry, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, performance, Vanaraja birds

Procedia PDF Downloads 97