Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 586

Search results for: aluminium electrodes

586 Simulation of the Extensional Flow Mixing of Molten Aluminium and Fly Ash Nanoparticles

Authors: O. Ualibek, C. Spitas, V. Inglezakis, G. Itskos


This study presents simulations of an aluminium melt containing an initially non-dispersed fly ash nanoparticle phase. Mixing is affected predominantly by means of forced extensional flow via either straight or slanted orifices. The sensitivity to various process parameters is determined. The simulated process is used for the production of cast fly ash-aluminium nanocomposites. The possibilities for rod and plate stock grading in the context of a continuous casting process implementation are discussed.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, fly ash nanoparticles, aluminium 2024, agglomeration

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585 Utilization of Aluminium Dross as a Main Raw Material for Synthesize the Geopolymers via Mechanochemistry Method

Authors: Pimchanok Puksisuwan, Pitak Laorattanakul, Benya Cherdhirunkorn


The use of aluminium dross as a raw material for geopolymer synthesis via mechanochemistry method was studied. The geopolymers were prepared using aluminium dross from secondary aluminium industry, fly ash from a biomass power plant and liquid alkaline activators, which is a mixture of sodium silicate solution (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH) (Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio 4:1, 3:1 and 2:1). Aluminium dross consists mostly of alumina (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2) and aluminium nitride (AlN). The raw materials were mixed and milled using the high energy ball milling method for 5, 10 and 15 minutes in order to reduce the particle size. The milled powders were uniaxially pressed into a cylinder die with the pressure of 2200 psi. The cylinder samples were cured in the sealed plastic bags for 3, 7 and 14 days at the room temperature and 60°C for 24 hour. The mechanical property of geopolymers was investigated. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out in order to study the microstructure and phase structures of the geopolymers, respectively. The results showed that aluminium dross could enhance the mechanical property of geopolymers product by mechanochemistry method and meet the TISI requirements.

Keywords: aluminium dross, fly ash, geopolymer, mechanochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
584 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

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583 Enhancement of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration during the Electrocoagulation Process Using an Innovative Flow Columns-Electrocoagulation Reactor

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar


Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) plays a key role in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it oxidizes the heavy metals, ammonia, and cyanide into other forms that can be removed easily from water. For instance, the DO oxidises Fe (II) to Fe (III), As (III) to As (V), and cyanide to cyanate and then to ammonia. As well as, removal of nitrogenous compounds accomplishes by the presence of DO. Hence, many of the previous investigations used external aerators to provide the required DO inside EC reactors especially when the water being treated has low DO (such as leachate and highly polluted waters with organic matter); or when the DO depleted during the EC treatment. Although the external aeration process effectively enhances the DO concentration, it has a significant impact on energy consumption. Where, the presence of air bubbles increases the electrical resistance of the EC cell that increase the energy consumption in consequence. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container having a controllable working volume of 0.5 to 1 L. It supplied with a flow column that consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with a controlled DO concentration were pumped at different flow rates (110, 220, and 440 ml/min) to the ECR1 for 10 min. The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 increased the DO concentration from 5.0 to 9.54, 10.53, and 11.0 mg/L which equivalent to 90.8%, 110.6%, and 120% at flow rates of 110, 220, and 440 mL/min respectively.

Keywords: dissolved oxygen, flow column, electrocoagulation, aluminium electrodes

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582 Porous Ni Electrodes Modified with Au Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production

Authors: V. Pérez-Herranz, C. González-Buch, E. M. Ortega, S. Mestre


In this work new macroporous Ni electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles for hydrogen production have been developed. The supporting macroporous Ni electrodes have been obtained by means of the electrodeposition at high current densities. Then, the Au nanoparticles were synthesized and added to the electrode surface. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the developed electrocatalysts was studied by means of pseudo-steady-state polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and hydrogen discharge curves. The size of the Au synthetized nanoparticles shows a monomodal distribution, with a very sharp band between 10 and 50 nm. The characteristic parameters d10, d50 and d90 were 14, 20 and 31 nm respectively. From Tafel polarization data has been concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the catalytic activity of the developed electrodes towards the HER respect to the macroporous Ni electrodes. EIS permits to obtain the electrochemically active area by means of the roughness factor value. All the developed electrodes show roughness factor values in the same order of magnitude. From the activation energy results it can be concluded that the Au nanoparticles improve the intrinsic catalytic activity of the macroporous Ni electrodes.

Keywords: Au nano particles, hydrogen evolution reaction, porous Ni electrodes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

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581 Effect of Electrodes Spacing on Energy Consumption of Electrocoagulation Cells

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al-Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola


In spite of the acknowledged advantages of the electrocoagulation (EC) method to remove a wide range of pollutants from waters and wastewaters, its efficiency is limited by several operational parameters (such as electrolysis time, current density, electrode material, distance between electrodes, and water temperature). Hence, optimizing these key operating parameters is considered a vital step to remove a pollutant efficiently. In this context, the present study has been carried out to explore the influence of electrodes spacing on energy consumption, temperature of the water being treated, and iron removal from water. To achieve this target, iron containing synthetic water samples were electrolysed for 20 min, using a new flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER), at three different gaps between electrodes (5, 10, and 20 mm). These batch experiments were commenced at a constant current density of 1.5 mA/cm² and initial pH of 6. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing gap between electrodes negatively influenced the performance of the EC method. It was found that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the energy consumption from about 3.3 to 7.3 kW.h/m³, and water temperature from 20.2 to 22 °C, respectively. In addition, it has been found, after 20 min of electrolysing, that increasing the gap between electrodes from 5 to 20 mm increased the residual iron concentration from 0.05 to 1.01 mg/L, respectively.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, water, electrodes, iron

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580 An Evaluation of the Oxide Layers in Machining Swarfs to Improve Recycling

Authors: J. Uka, B. McKay, T. Minton, O. Adole, R. Lewis, S. J. Glanvill, L. Anguilano


Effective heat treatment conditions to obtain maximum aluminium swarf recycling are investigated in this work. Aluminium swarf briquettes underwent treatments at different temperatures and cooling times to investigate the improvements obtained in the recovery of aluminium metal. The main issue for the recovery of the metal from swarfs is to overcome the constraints due to the oxide layers present in high concentration in the swarfs since they have a high surface area. Briquettes supplied by Renishaw were heat treated at 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 ℃ for 1-hour and then cooled at 2.3, 3.5 and 5 ℃/min. The resulting material was analysed using SEM EDX to observe the oxygen diffusion and aluminium coalescence at the boundary between adjacent swarfs. Preliminary results show that, swarf needs to be heat treated at a temperature of 850 ℃ and cooled down slowly at 2.3 ℃/min to have thin and discontinuous alumina layers between the adjacent swarf and consequently allowing aluminium coalescence. This has the potential to save energy and provide maximum financial profit in preparation of swarf briquettes for recycling.

Keywords: reuse, recycle, aluminium, swarf, oxide layers

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579 Characterization of Graphene Oxide Coated Gold Electrodes for Bioimpedance Measurements

Authors: Fatma Gülden Şi̇mşek, Osman Meli̇h Can, Mehmet Yumak, Bora Gari̇pcan, Yekta Ülgen


In this study, the impedance spectroscopy is used as a detection tool in order to characterize surface coating with graphene oxide. Gold electrodes are produced by standard lithography procedures and then coated with graphene oxide using self-assembly method. The impedance of redox solution through bare gold electrodes and graphene oxide coated gold electrodes is measured in the low and high frequency range. The graphene oxide coating reduces the impedance value of the gold electrode and this reduction is distinguishable in the low-frequency range.

Keywords: bioimpedance, electrode characterization, graphene oxide, gold electrodes, impedance spectroscopy

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578 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik


The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die-casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption, therefore, increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy-SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis-EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy

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577 Depth of Penetration and Nature of Interferential Current in Cutaneous, Subcutaneous and Muscle Tissues

Authors: A. Beatti, L. Chipchase, A. Rayner, T. Souvlis


The aims of this study were to investigate the depth of interferential current (IFC) penetration through soft tissue and to investigate the area over which IFC spreads during clinical application. Premodulated IFC and ‘true’ IFC at beat frequencies of 4, 40 and 90Hz were applied via four electrodes to the distal medial thigh of 15 healthy subjects. The current was measured via three Teflon coated fine needle electrodes that were inserted into the superficial layer of skin, then into the subcutaneous tissue (≈1 cm deep) and then into muscle tissue (≈2 cm deep). The needle electrodes were placed in the middle of the four IFC electrodes, between two channels and outside the four electrodes. Readings were taken at each tissue depth from each electrode during each treatment frequency then digitized and stored for analysis. All voltages were greater at all depths and locations than baseline (p < 0.01) and voltages decreased with depth (P=0.039). Lower voltages of all currents were recorded in the middle of the four electrodes with the highest voltage being recorded outside the four electrodes in all depths (P=0.000).For each frequency of ‘true’ IFC, the voltage was higher in the superficial layer outside the electrodes (P ≤ 0.01).Premodulated had higher voltages along the line of one circuit (P ≤ 0.01). Clinically, IFC appears to pass through skin layers to depth and is more efficient than premodulated IFC when targeting muscle tissue.

Keywords: electrotherapy, interferential current, interferential therapy, medium frequency current

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576 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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575 Mechanochemical Behaviour of Aluminium–Boron Oxide–Melamine Ternary System

Authors: Ismail Seckin Cardakli, Mustafa Engin Kocadagistan, Ersin Arslan


In this study, mechanochemical behaviour of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system was investigated by high energy ball milling. According to the reaction Al + B₂O₃ = Al₂O₃ + B, stochiometric amount of aluminium and boron oxide with melamine up to ten percent of total weight was used in the experiments. The powder characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) after leaching of product by 1M HCl acid. Results show that mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) between aluminium and boron oxide takes place after four hours high energy ball milling. Al₂O₃/h-BN composite powder is obtained as the product of aluminium - boron oxide - melamine ternary system.

Keywords: high energy ball milling, hexagonal boron nitride, mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction, melamine

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574 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem


Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: biofuel cells, glucose oxidation, electrocatalysis, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

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573 Developing Biocompatible Iridium Oxide Electrodes for Bone-Guided Extra-Cochlear Implant

Authors: Yung-Shan Lu, Chia-Fone Lee, Shang-Hsuan Li, Chien-Hao Liu


Recently, various bioelectronic devices have been developed for neurologic disease treatments via electro-stimulations such as cochlear implants and retinal prosthesis. Since the electric signal needs electrodes to be transmitted to an organism, electrodes play an important role of stimulations. The materials of stimulation electrodes affect the efficiency of the delivered currents. The higher the efficiency of the electrodes, the lower the threshold current can be used to stimulate the organism which minimizes the potential damages to the adjacent tissues. In this study, we proposed a biocompatible composite electrode composed of high-charge-capacity iridium oxide (IrOₓ) film for a bone-guide extra-cochlear implant. IrOₓ was exploited to decrease the threshold current due to its high capacitance and low impedance. The IrOₓ electrode was fabricated via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) photolithography and examined with in-vivo tests with guinea pigs. Based on the measured responses of brain waves to sound, the results demonstrated that IrOₓ electrodes have a lower threshold current compared with the Platinum (Pt) electrodes. The research results are expected to be beneficial for implantable and biocompatible electrodes for electrical stimulations.

Keywords: cochlear implants, electrode, electrical stimulation, iridium oxide

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572 The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture

Authors: Mosima M. Mabitsela


Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.

Keywords: aluminium toxicity, cultivars, reduction, root growth

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571 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda


Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: array electrodes, biceps brachii, electrode placement, EMG, isometric contractions, muscle fatigue

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570 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

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569 Corrosion Characterization of Al6061, Quartz Metal Matrix Composites in Alkali Medium

Authors: Radha H. R., Krupakara P. V.


Metal matrix composites are attracting today's manufacturers of many automobile parts so that they lost longer and their properties can be tailored according to the requirement. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the corrosion characteristics of Aluminium 6061 / quartz metal matrix composites in alkali medium like sodium hydroxide solutions. Metal matrix composites are heterogeneous mixtures of a matrix and reinforcement. In this work the matrix selected is Aluminium 6061 alloy which is commercially available and the reinforcement selected is quartz particulates of 50-80 micron size which is available in plenty in and around Bangalore district, India. Composites containing Aluminium 6061 with 2, 4 and 6 weight percent of quartz are manufactured by liquid melt metallurgy technique using vortex method. Corrosion tests like static weight loss and open circuit potential tests are conducted in different concentrated solutions of sodium hydroxide. To compare the results the matrix Aluminium 6061 is also casted in the same way. Specimens for the test are prepared according to ASTM standards. In all the tests the metal matrix composites showed better corrosion resistance than matrix alloy.

Keywords: aluminium 6061, corrosion, quartz, vortex

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568 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour


The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, aluminium production, supply chain, ecological impacts

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567 Biologically Synthesized Palladium Nanoparticles Impregnated Porous Aluminium Catalyst in CO2 Detection

Authors: I. B. Patel, K. A. Mistry, A. H. Prajapati


Biologically synthesized colloidal Pd nanoparticles were impregnated on porous aluminium. In this paper, the obtained Pd/Al2O3 catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The effects of deposited films on the performances of Pd/Al2O3 in adsorption, reduction, and catalytic reaction of CO2 were investigated. The results showed that the deposited films can remarkably improve the dispersion of active components and enhance the reactivity of Pd/Al2O3 catalyst. The catalytic performance of Pd/Al2O3 in term of surface reaction is also enhanced in terms of sensitivity (SF = 850) obtained through conventional CBD method.

Keywords: palladium nanoparticles, Pd/Al2O3, carbon dioxide, aluminium catalyst

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566 Preparation Static Dissipative Nanocomposites of Alkaline Earth Metal Doped Aluminium Oxide and Methyl Vinyl Silicone Polymer

Authors: Aparna M. Joshi


Methyl vinyl silicone polymer (VMQ) - alkaline earth metal doped aluminium oxide composites are prepared by conventional two rolls open mill mixing method. Doped aluminium oxides (DAO) using silvery white coloured alkaline earth metals such as Mg and Ca as dopants in the concentration of 0.4 % are synthesized by microwave combustion method and referred as MA ( Mg doped aluminium oxide) and CA ( Ca doped aluminium oxide). The as-synthesized materials are characterized for the electrical resistance, X–ray diffraction, FE-SEM, TEM and FTIR. The electrical resistances of the DAOs are observed to be ~ 8-20 MΩ. This means that the resistance of aluminium oxide (Corundum) α-Al2O3 which is ~ 1010Ω is reduced by the order of ~ 103 to 104 Ω after doping. XRD studies reveal the doping of Mg and Ca in aluminium oxide. The microstructural study using FE-SEM shows the flaky clusterous structures with the thickness of the flakes between 10 and 20 nm. TEM images depict the rod-shaped morphological geometry of the particles with the diameter of ~50-70 nm. The nanocomposites are synthesized by incorporating the DAOs in the concentration of 75 phr (parts per hundred parts of rubber) into VMQ polymer. The electrical resistance of VMQ polymer, which is ~ 1015Ω, drops by the order of 108Ω. There is a retention of the electrical resistance of ~ 30-50 MΩ for the nanocomposites which is a static dissipative range of electricity. In this work white coloured electrically conductive VMQ polymer-DAO nanocomposites (MAVMQ for Mg doping and CAVMQ for Ca doping) have been synthesized. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites such as specific gravity, hardness, tensile strength and rebound resilience are measured. Hardness and tensile strength are found to increase, with the negligible alteration in the other properties.

Keywords: doped aluminium oxide, methyl vinyl silicone polymer, microwave synthesis, static dissipation

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565 An Analytical Systematic Design Approach to Evaluate Ballistic Performance of Armour Grade AA7075 Aluminium Alloy Using Friction Stir Processing

Authors: Lahari Ramya Pa, Sudhakar Ib, Madhu Vc, Madhusudhan Reddy Gd, Srinivasa Rao E.


Selection of suitable armor materials for defense applications is very crucial with respect to increasing mobility of the systems as well as maintaining safety. Therefore, determining the material with the lowest possible areal density that resists the predefined threat successfully is required in armor design studies. A number of light metal and alloys are come in to forefront especially to substitute the armour grade steels. AA5083 aluminium alloy which fit in to the military standards imposed by USA army is foremost nonferrous alloy to consider for possible replacement of steel to increase the mobility of armour vehicles and enhance fuel economy. Growing need of AA5083 aluminium alloy paves a way to develop supplement aluminium alloys maintaining the military standards. It has been witnessed that AA 2xxx aluminium alloy, AA6xxx aluminium alloy and AA7xxx aluminium alloy are the potential material to supplement AA5083 aluminium alloy. Among those cited aluminium series alloys AA7xxx aluminium alloy (heat treatable) possesses high strength and can compete with armour grade steels. Earlier investigations revealed that layering of AA7xxx aluminium alloy can prevent spalling of rear portion of armour during ballistic impacts. Hence, present investigation deals with fabrication of hard layer (made of boron carbide) i.e. layer on AA 7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing with an intention of blunting the projectile in the initial impact and backing tough portion(AA7xxx aluminium alloy) to dissipate residual kinetic energy. An analytical approach has been adopted to unfold the ballistic performance of projectile. Penetration of projectile inside the armour has been resolved by considering by strain energy model analysis. Perforation shearing areas i.e. interface of projectile and armour is taken in to account for evaluation of penetration inside the armour. Fabricated surface composites (targets) were tested as per the military standard (JIS.0108.01) in a ballistic testing tunnel at Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Hyderabad in standardized testing conditions. Analytical results were well validated with experimental obtained one.

Keywords: AA7075 aluminium alloy, friction stir processing, boron carbide, ballistic performance, target

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564 Changes in Secretory Products and Lipid Profile in the Epididymis and Spermatozoa of Rats Induced by Aluminium Chloride

Authors: Ramalingam Venugopal, Kalaiselvi Arumugam


Environmental exposure to heavy metals is associated with a wide range of toxic effects. It is evident that heavy metals released in the environment affect the reproductive processes and fertility of animals. Toxic metals affect the male and female reproductive system directly or indirectly. Considering the toxic nature of aluminium and also the major role of secretory products and lipids in sperm maturation, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride on secretory products like glyceryl phosphoryl choline (GPC), sialic acid, carnitine and acetyl carnitine content and also lipid profiles in the epididymis and spermatozoa of adult rats. Aluminium chloride, 50 mg/kg body weight was administered orally daily for 60 days. 24 hours after the last dose the rats were sacrificed and immediately epididymis was dissected out and spermatozoa was isolated. The weight of the epididymis decreased significantly. GPC and sialic acid content was significantly reduced in the epididymis and not much altered in spermatozoa. Carnitine and acetyl carnitine contents were markedly decreased in the spermatozoa as well as in the epididymis. Aluminium chloride administration caused a marked reduction in total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids and cholesterol content in epididymis and no significant changes in spermatozoa. Several changes take place in the spermatozoa as they pass through the epididymis. These changes are directly related to the acquisition of fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. From the results, it is evident that aluminium chloride has definite influence on secretory products and lipid profiles in the epididymis. This may eventually have an adverse impact on the fertility of the animal.

Keywords: aluminium chloride, rat, carnitine, GPC, sialic acid, epididymis, spermatozoa

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563 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary


This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

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562 Effect of the Aluminium Concentration on the Laser Wavelength of Random Trimer Barrier AlxGa1-xAs Superlattices

Authors: Samir Bentata, Fatima Bendahma


We have numerically investigated the effect of Aluminium concentration on the the laser wavelength of random trimer barrier AlxGa1-xAs superlattices (RTBSL). Such systems consist of two different structures randomly distributed along the growth direction, with the additional constraint that the barriers of one kind appear in triply. An explicit formula is given for evaluating the transmission coefficient of superlattices (SL's) with intentional correlated disorder. The method is based on Airy function formalism and the transfer-matrix technique. We discuss the impact of the Aluminium concentration associate to the structure profile on the laser wavelengths.

Keywords: superlattices, correlated disorder, transmission coefficient, laser wavelength

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561 Developing an Empirical Relationship to Predict Tensile Strength and Micro Hardness of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh Kang


Aluminium alloy 6061 is a medium to high strength heat-treatable alloy which has very good corrosion resistance and very good weldability. Friction Stir Welding was developed and this technique has attracted considerable interest from the aerospace and automotive industries since it is able to produce defect free joints particularly for light metals i.e aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy. In the friction stir welding process, welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this research work, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool rotational speed, welding speed and tool shoulder diameter on friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Statistical tool such as central composite design is used to develop the mathematical relationships. The mathematical model was developed to predict mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy joints at the 95% confidence level.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, friction stir welding, central composite design, mathematical relationship

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560 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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559 Numerical Investigation for Ductile Fracture of an Aluminium Alloy 6061 T-6: Assessment of Critical J-Integral

Authors: R. Bensaada, M. Almansba, M. Ould Ouali, R. Ferhoum, N. E. Hannachi


The aim of this work is to simulate the ductile fracture of SEN specimens in aluminium alloy. The assessment of fracture toughness is performed with the calculation of Jc (the critical value of J-Integral) through the resistance curves. The study is done using finite element code calculation ABAQUSTM including an elastic plastic with damage model of material’s behaviour. The procedure involves specimens of four different thicknesses and four ligament sizes for every thickness. The material of study is an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for which the necessary parameters to complete the study are given. We found the same results for the same specimen’s thickness and for different ligament sizes when the fracture criterion is evaluated.

Keywords: j-integral, critical-j, damage, fracture toughness

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558 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir


This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems. Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plate, crack, failure

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557 A Virtual Electrode through Summation of Time Offset Pulses

Authors: Isaac Cassar, Trevor Davis, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu


Retinal prostheses have been successful in eliciting visual responses in implanted subjects. As these prostheses progress, one of their major limitations is the need for increased resolution. As an alternative to increasing the number of electrodes, virtual electrodes may be used to increase the effective resolution of current electrode arrays. This paper presents a virtual electrode technique based upon time-offsets between stimuli. Two adjacent electrodes are stimulated with identical pulses with too short of pulse widths to activate a neuron, but one has a time offset of one pulse width. A virtual electrode of twice the pulse width was then shown to appear in the center, with a total width capable of activating a neuron. This can be used in retinal implants by stimulating electrodes with pulse widths short enough to not elicit responses in neurons, but with their combined pulse width adequate to activate a neuron in between them.

Keywords: electrical stimulation, neuroprosthesis, retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, virtual electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 223