Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3508

Search results for: cultural conflict

3508 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen

Abstract:

The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
3507 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
3506 Cross-Cultural Conflict Management in Transnational Business Relationships: A Qualitative Study with Top Executives in Chinese, German and Middle Eastern Cases

Authors: Sandra Hartl, Meena Chavan

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This paper presents the outcome of a four year Ph.D. research on cross-cultural conflict management in transnational business relationships. An important and complex problem about managing conflicts that arise across cultures in business relationships is investigated, and conflict resolution strategies are identified. This paper particularly focuses on transnational relationships within a Chinese, German and Middle Eastern framework. Unlike many papers on this issue which have been built on experiments with international MBA students, this research provides real-life cases of cross-cultural conflicts which are not easy to capture. Its uniqueness is underpinned as the real case data was gathered by interviewing top executives at management positions in large multinational corporations through a qualitative case study method approach. This paper makes a valuable contribution to the theory of cross-cultural conflicts, and despite the sensitivity, this research primarily presents real-time business data about breaches of contracts between two counterparties engaged in transnational operating organizations. The overarching aim of this research is to identify the degree of significance for the cultural factors and the communication factors embedded in cross-cultural business conflicts. It questions from a cultural perspective what factors lead to the conflicts in each of the cases, what the causes are and the role of culture in identifying effective strategies for resolving international disputes in an increasingly globalized business world. The results of 20 face to face interviews are outlined, which were conducted, recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using the NVIVO qualitative data analysis system. The outcomes make evident that the factors leading to conflicts are broadly organized under seven themes, which are communication, cultural difference, environmental issues, work structures, knowledge and skills, cultural anxiety and personal characteristics. When evaluating the causes of the conflict it is to notice that these are rather multidimensional. Irrespective of the conflict types (relationship or task-based conflict or due to individual personal differences), relationships are almost always an element of all conflicts. Cultural differences, which are a critical factor for conflicts, result from different cultures placing different levels of importance on relationships. Communication issues which are another cause of conflict also reflect different relationships styles favored by different cultures. In identifying effective strategies for solving cross-cultural business conflicts this research identifies that solutions need to consider the national cultures (country specific characteristics), organizational cultures and individual culture, of the persons engaged in the conflict and how these are interlinked to each other. Outcomes identify practical dispute resolution strategies to resolve cross-cultural business conflicts in reference to communication, empathy and training to improve cultural understanding and cultural competence, through the use of mediation. To conclude, the findings of this research will not only add value to academic knowledge of cross-cultural conflict management across transnational businesses but will also add value to numerous cross-border business relationships worldwide. Above all it identifies the influence of cultures and communication and cross-cultural competence in reducing cross-cultural business conflicts in transnational business.

Keywords: business conflict, conflict management, cross-cultural communication, dispute resolution

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3505 Community Based Heritage Tourism in the Old City of Nazareth

Authors: Alon Gelbman, Daniel Laven

Abstract:

The paper focuses on a case study of a small-scale heritage tourism venture that seeks to influence tourism development in Nazareth’s old city. This is an exploratory case study that uses qualitative research methods including extensive participant observation and in-depth interviews with the venture’s senior management group and selected employees. Study findings indicate a model of the relationship between community-based tourism development, heritage, and peace-building in a city that has experienced a wide range of cross-cultural conflicts. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict. This model represents an alternative view to the notion that heritage serves to enhance differences and dissonance between different cultural groups. In contrast, findings from this study suggest that heritage in the form of tourism; can help create shared interests between different communities in settings characterized by cross-cultural conflict.

Keywords: cultural heritage tourism, tourism and peace, community-based tourism, sustainable tourism, cross-cultural conflict, Nazareth historic city

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3504 Disparities in Language Competence and Conflict: The Moderating Role of Cultural Intelligence in Intercultural Interactions

Authors: Catherine Peyrols Wu

Abstract:

Intercultural interactions are becoming increasingly common in organizations and life. These interactions are often the stage of miscommunication and conflict. In management research, these problems are commonly attributed to cultural differences in values and interactional norms. As a result, the notion that intercultural competence can minimize these challenges is widely accepted. Cultural differences, however, are not the only source of a challenge during intercultural interactions. The need to rely on a lingua franca – or common language between people who have different mother tongues – is another important one. In theory, a lingua franca can improve communication and ease coordination. In practice however, disparities in people’s ability and confidence to communicate in the language can exacerbate tensions and generate inefficiencies. In this study, we draw on power theory to develop a model of disparities in language competence and conflict in a multicultural work context. Specifically, we hypothesized that differences in language competence between interaction partners would be positively related to conflict such that people would report greater conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence and lesser conflict with partners with more similar levels of language competence. Furthermore, we proposed that cultural intelligence (CQ) an intercultural competence that denotes an individual’s capability to be effective in intercultural situations, would weaken the relationship between disparities in language competence and conflict such that people would report less conflict with partners who have more dissimilar levels of language competence when the interaction partner has high CQ and more conflict when the partner has low CQ. We tested this model with a sample of 135 undergraduate students working in multicultural teams for 13 weeks. We used a round-robin design to examine conflict in 646 dyads nested within 21 teams. Results of analyses using social relations modeling provided support for our hypotheses. Specifically, we found that in intercultural dyads with large disparities in language competence, partners with the lowest level of language competence would report higher levels of interpersonal conflict. However, this relationship disappeared when the partner with higher language competence was also high in CQ. These findings suggest that communication in a lingua franca can be a source of conflict in intercultural collaboration when partners differ in their level of language competence and that CQ can alleviate these effects during collaboration with partners who have relatively lower levels of language competence. Theoretically, this study underscores the benefits of CQ as a complement to language competence for intercultural effectiveness. Practically, these results further attest to the benefits of investing resources to develop language competence and CQ in employees engaged in multicultural work.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, intercultural interactions, language competence, multicultural teamwork

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3503 The Efficacy of Contractual Governance on Task and Relationship Conflict in Construction Projects

Authors: Jingya You, Yongqiang Chen, Yuanyuan Hua, Wenqian Wang

Abstract:

Conflict is commonplace in construction projects, and construction projects always involve designing contracts between the owner and the contractor. However, how the contract affects the level of conflict between the owner and the contractor has not been elaborated. The purpose of this paper is to explain the effects of contractual complexity on the level of conflict, including task conflict and relationship conflict, and then to demonstrate the moderating role played by the interdependence between the owner and the contractor. Using data from owners and general contractors in the Chinese construction industry, this research reveals that contractual control will reduce relationship conflict. Contractual coordination will also reduce relationship conflict by the mediating effect of task conflict. Besides, under high joint interdependence, the positive relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict is strengthened, while high interdependence asymmetry has effects on weakening the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. The findings provide guidance for contract designers to draft suitable contracts in order to effectively deal with conflict. Additionally, this research implies that project managers should highlight the importance of contract in conflict management.

Keywords: construction projects, contract governance, interdependence, relationship conflict, task conflict

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3502 The Effect of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflict: Are They Really Reducing Conflict Duration?

Authors: Mustafa Kirisci

Abstract:

Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

Keywords: arms embargo, arms transfer, internal conflict, international conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
3501 Ethnic Conflict and African Women's Capacity for Preventive Diplomacy

Authors: Olaifa Temitope Abimbola

Abstract:

The spate of the occurrence of Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria and indeed Africa is sporadic and to say the least alarming. To scholars of Ethnic Conflict in Africa, it has defied all logical approaches to its resolution. Based on this fact international organisations have begun to look for alternative means of approaching these conflicts. Not a few have agreed that wars are better and cheaper prevented than resolved or transformed. In the light of this, this paper had set out to look at the concept of Preventive Diplomacy, Ethnic Conflict, Women and the role they play in mitigating conflict by researching into activities of women in pre and post-conflict situations in selected African conflict and has been able to establish the peculiar capacity of women in dousing tension both at domestic and communal levels.

Keywords: preventive diplomacy, gender, peacebuilding, low

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
3500 Hausa Home Videos: A Template for Global Peace

Authors: Ibrahim Uba Yusuf

Abstract:

Conflict is a subject or, better put, theme that primarily dominates Hausa home videos. Conflict in Hausa home videos is one of the sources of attraction to viewers, but do such films achieve anything? The Hausa home video industry in Northern Nigeria, popularly called Kannywood has been making attempts by producing cultural products for consumption within and outside the country. The ability of the industry to connect issues of concern within the region is an effort to reckon with. This paper, therefore, examines how Hausa home videos on peacebuilding can serve as a template for peacebuilding. This is coming at a time when global attention to peacebuilding is increasing. The inclusion of peacebuilding as SDG Goal suggests the need for utilizing other approaches that can enhance peace in risk societies like Nigeria. The paper based its arguments using the key proponents of the auteur theory—the director’s bias, thoughts, and sense of reasoning shape the issues emphasized in the home videos. The paper argues that Hausa home video industry is one medium amongst the many producing discourse about peacebuilding, conflict, and justice, social cohesion, education, and understanding, as well as raising social consciousness on issues of public concern. It is the conclusion of the paper that Hausa home videos produced on sustaining peacebuilding in Northern Nigeria are cultural products that have become lenses to understanding the interplay between representations or portrayal of conflict and peaceful resolutions of the conflicting issues.

Keywords: hausa home videos, peacebuilding, conflict, northern Nigeria

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3499 Impact of Work and Family Conflict on Employee Self Esteem

Authors: Romana P. Khokhar

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of work-family conflict on self-esteem. On the basis of the literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that 1) work-family conflict has an impact on self- esteem, 2). There would be a gender difference on the variable of work family conflict. Data for this study was taken from a sample of 70 employees within the banking industry since this industry is generally associated with higher levels of work-family conflict. Statistical tests performed were regression and t-test. Self-esteem was assessed with the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Work-Family Conflict Scale (WFCS; Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. 1996) was used to assess the level of work –family conflict. The results indicated that an increase in work-family conflict resulted in lower self-esteem due to the various pressures evidenced in a complicated network of direct and indirect influences. It was also determined that there is less effect of work-family conflict on the female workers, as opposed to the male population, leading to the conclusion that in the case of the female workers the impact on self-esteem was not significant.

Keywords: work and family conflict, self-esteem, employee

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3498 The Effectiveness of Conflict Management of Factories' Employee in Thailand

Authors: Pacharaporn Lekyan

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the conflict management affecting the workplace and analyze the ability of the prediction of leadership of the headman and the methods to handle the conflict in an organization. The quantitative research and developed the questionnaire in order to collect information from the respondents from 200 samples from leader or manager who worked in frozen food factories in Thailand. The result analysis shows about the problem of the relationship between conflict management factors, leadership, and the confliction in organization. The emotion of the leader in the organization is not the only factor that can affect conflict management but also the emotion of surrounding people which this factor can happen all the time and shows that four out of five factors of interpersonal conflict management have affected on emotion intelligence and also shows that the behaviors of leadership have an influence on conflict management.

Keywords: conflict management, emotional intelligence, leadership, factories' employee

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3497 The Effect of Ethnic and Boko Haram Insurgency in the Economic Development of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Industries in Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Juliana Abara, Dayo Keshi

Abstract:

Through cultural heritage materials, nations witness significant boom in the world of art and tourism as well as attract foreign investors and tourists to the benefit of the regions and countries where they are located. There are notable heritage sites which record visits by tourists in their thousands annually. According to UNESCO the cultural heritage reflects the life of the community, its history and its identity. Its preservation helps to rebuild broken communities, re-establish their identities, and link their past with their present and future. During any form of conflict or war, a lot happen. People die, houses destroyed and every other thing in the society suffers. Wars and conflicts in various countries have claimed antiquities, heritage materials, contemporary Arts, Galleries, Museums, Archives and very important Monuments and Heritage sites. My Paper deals with the effects of insurgencies and conflicts on cultural heritage and tourism industries in Nigeria and how they can be protected and restored so as to yield the desirable economic gains. Preceding from the premise that conflict of any type puts our cultural heritage at risk; this paper also explores the practical challenges and opportunities available to us in the face of incessant ethnic and Boko Haram (western education is abomination) insurgents and their wanton destruction of lives and properties. There will be a review of relevant literature and documents on the effects of violence on heritage materials and tourism industries in Nigeria particularly and other parts of the world in generally .My paper also highlights the activities the National Council for Arts and Culture as well as other Cultural Agencies in Nigeria have employed to sensitize the stakeholders, the youth, the elderly, and the community at large on the need for peaceful co-existence so as to collectively strive to safeguard and secure our cultural heritage in the face of all these challenges for posterity and desirable economic gains.

Keywords: cultural heritage, conflict, tourism, insurgency, challenges

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3496 Opportunities for Effective Conflict Management Caused by Global Crises

Authors: Marine Kobalava

Abstract:

The article analyzes current global crises in the world, explains the causes of crises, substantiates that in the main cases the process accompanying the crisis are conflict situations. The paper argues that crises can become predictable if threats are identified and addressed by a company, organization, corporation, and others. Accordingly, mechanisms for the neutralization of conflict potential are proposed, the need to develop a communication strategy and create and redistribute information flows is justified. Conflict situations are assessed according to the types of crisis and it is considered that the conflict can become a prerequisite for the crisis. The paper substantiates the need to differentiate theories of crises and conflicts. Based on the evaluative judgment, conflict management measures are proposed taking into account institutionalization, conflict resolution norms and rules. The paper identifies the potential for conflicts created in the context of global crises and suggests local ways and mechanisms for their effective management. The involvement of the company's Public relations (PR) and relevant communication from the qualified staff is considered important. Conclusions are drawn on the problems of effective conflict management caused by global crises and recommendations for conflict resolution have been proposed.

Keywords: global crises, conflict situations, conflict identification, conflict management, conflict potential

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3495 The Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Relationship between Cultural Identity and Self-Concordance among Tibetan, Han and Hui Students

Authors: Chunhua Ma

Abstract:

Background: There is a relationship between cultural identity and psychological health. Resilience is an important factor of psychological health, and cultural identity will protect the resilience. The research showed that the cultural identity, resilience, and self-concordance of students from different cultures. It should be a theoretical basis to improve mental health of different nationalities students. And the role of resilience factors for adults’ cultural identity and self-concordance was deserve studied. Aims: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between cultural identity and self-concordance among Chinese academician from 3 minorities, postulating mediating by resilience. Methods: This study used cross-sectional and correlational design. Participants were 328 Chinese aged between 18 and 25 years. Data was collected via self-reports including both closed and opened questions. Results: Linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, the result showed that: (a) Cultural identity was related to self-concordance, resilience was related to self-concordance and cultural identity was related to resilience, (b) Resilience mediated the link between cultural identity and self-concordance, respectively. Discussion: Our findings suggested that resilience and cultural identity are important factors in self-concordance. If minority college students realized the heterogeneous culture, it would alleviate their psychological conflict, stimulate their strength potential and improve their self-concordance.

Keywords: cultural identity, resilience, self-concordance, mediating effect

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3494 Risk Management Strategy for Protecting Cultural Heritage: Case Study of the Institute of Egypt

Authors: Amany A. Ragheb, Ghada Ragheb, Abd ElRahman A.

Abstract:

Egypt has a countless heritage of mansions, castles, cities, towns, villages, industrial and manufacturing sites. This richness of heritage provides endless and matchless prospects for culture. Despite being famous worldwide, Egypt’s heritage still is in constant need of protection. Political conflicts and religious revolutions form a direct threat to buildings in various areas, historic, archaeological sites, and religious monuments. Egypt has witnessed two revolutions in less than 60 years; both had an impact on its architectural heritage. In this paper, the authors aim to review legal and policy framework to protect the cultural heritage and present the risk management strategy for cultural heritage in conflict. Through a review of selected international models of devastated architectural heritage in conflict zones and highlighting some of their changes, we can learn from the experiences of other countries to assist towards the development of a methodology to halt the plundering of architectural heritage. Finally, the paper makes an effort to enhance the formulation of a risk management strategy for protection and conservation of cultural heritage, through which to end the plundering of Egypt’s architectural legacy in the Egyptian community (revolutions, 1952 and 2011); and by presenting to its surrounding community the benefits derived from maintaining it.

Keywords: cultural heritage, legal regulation, risk management, preservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
3493 Impact of Work Experience and Gender on Decisional Conflict

Authors: Mohsin Aslam Khan

Abstract:

Decision making tendency varies in people with different socio demographics. This study was conducted to identify the impact of work experience on decisional conflict and whether there is a gender differences in decisional conflict. Convenience sampling was more appropriate for this exploratory research. AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale, (1995) with cronbach alpha 0.900 was administered on sample size of 109 participants (62males, 47females). The responses were scored according to the AM O’ Connor decisional conflict scale manual, (1995). The results of the study indicate that work experience has no significant impact on decisional conflict, whereas gender differences in decisional conflict illustrates significant mean score differences among male and female participants.

Keywords: decision making, decisional conflict, gender decision making, work experience

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3492 The Influence of Work Experience on Conflict Management Styles of Organizational Members

Authors: Faris Alghamdi

Abstract:

Identifying which conflict management styles organizational members prefer, and what variables influence these selections, is an essential component of organizational conflict management as well as human resource management, particularly in training and development strategies. This study aims to examine the relationship between work experience and preferred conflict management styles. Utilizing the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory- II Form C, data were collected from 109 full-time employees of various organizations in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between the integrating conflict management style and the length of work experience. Nevertheless, this relationship was negative, not positive as hypothesized.

Keywords: conflict management style, organizational members, work experience

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3491 On the Use of Reliability Factors to Reduce Conflict between Information Sources in Dempster-Shafer Theory

Authors: A. Alem, Y. Dahmani, A. Hadjali, A. Boualem

Abstract:

Managing the problem of the conflict, either by using the Dempster-Shafer theory, or by the application of the fusion process to push researchers in recent years to find ways to get to make best decisions especially; for information systems, vision, robotic and wireless sensor networks. In this paper we are interested to take account of the conflict in the combination step that took the conflict into account and tries to manage such a way that it does not influence the decision step, the conflict what from reliable sources. According to [1], the conflict lead to erroneous decisions in cases where was with strong degrees between sources of information, if the conflict is more than the maximum of the functions of belief mass K > max1...n (mi (A)), then the decision becomes impossible. We will demonstrate in this paper that the multiplication of mass functions by coefficients of reliability is a decreasing function; it leads to the reduction of conflict and a good decision. The definition of reliability coefficients accurately and multiply them by the mass functions of each information source to resolve the conflict and allow deciding whether the degree of conflict. The evaluation of this technique is done by a use case; a comparison of the combination of springs with a maximum conflict without, and with reliability coefficients.

Keywords: Dempster-Shafer theory, fusion process, conflict managing, reliability factors, decision

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3490 Religion: A Tool for Conflict Resolution and Peace in Nigerian Society

Authors: V. U. Onyemauwa

Abstract:

Conflicts have always been part of human societies. So long as there is interaction amongst individuals or societies, there are bound to be conflicts as a result of the fact that interests among individuals and societies vary. The issue of conflict has become one of the regular headlines in the daily news of the Nigerian and global media today. Nigerian polity has suffered from one conflict or another, ranging from religious, civil, political, cultural, regional and ethnic violence. It has been found out that, the most disturbing part of these acts of conflicts in Nigeria and around the globe is that most of them have traced their roots to religion. Even some perpetrators of these acts of conflicts most of the time justify their actions with religion, thereby wrongly making religion an object of conflict and violence. In this regard, the study seeks to project religion as a potent tool for conflict resolution because it has a way of permeating through the hearts of men. It has a special responsibility of identifying conflicts and proffer solutions. It also has to provide theological reasoning as to why and how these conflicts come about and how they can possibly be solved. Religious actors are known to contribute to the processes of structural reform necessary for the restoration of productive social relations and political stability after a period of conflict and human rights abuses. The study examines the modalities for projecting religious conflict management strategies in Nigeria using an analysis of relevant documents as well as Black’s Social Control Theory and Thomas-Kilmann’s Model of Conflict Management as its theoretical frameworks. It recommends for a religiously-based means of conflict resolution in Nigeria. Religious individuals and faith-based organisations, as carriers of religious ideas are implore to play active roles in conflict resolution and peace-building in Nigeria by creating conducive environment for peaceful talks, mediation and reconciliation. This will enhance social cohesion, provides solid foundation for peace, progress and development in the society.

Keywords: conflict, peace, religion, resolution

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3489 A Study on the Cultural Landscape of the Living Environment of Hoklo-Hakka: Case Study of Dacun

Authors: Meng-Li Lin, Shang-Hsuan Chiu

Abstract:

Taiwan is a country of diverse ethnic groups, the historical background of each ethnic group is different, and the conflict between them influence on each other, result in Taiwan's multi-culture. The Changhua County in Taiwan is the largest county of Hoklo-Hakka. Hakka people get along with Hoklo people for a long time. There are integration and conflict during that time and makes Hakka people gradually assimilated Hoklo-Hakka people. Today in Changhua Plain area, many Hoklo-Hakka people do not speak Hakka language. Therefore, it has been difficult to find information of Hakka from the Hakka language in the group of Hoklo-Hakka. But in the living space or culture to find relevant historical traces of life could be confirmed in Hakka Culture. In this paper, through the investigation of descent, life field, religion, language and other investigations of the Dacun, Changhua County residents to carry out the analysis of the process of assimilating Hoklo in living cultural landscape. First is through the local literature, the elderly and other oral history stories, to investigate the changes in Dacun field historical. Second, the comparison of collected traditional Hakka culture and the living cultural landscape of Hoklo-Haka are done to explore the differences between the living cultural landscape and the traditional Hakka culture. After analysis Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape, the significant differences, we proposed preservation strategy to provide recommendations to save the cultural life of Hoklo-Hakka landscape in future. Changhua Dacun traditional Hakka landscape is disappearing, in this study, we explore and investigate the data of Changhua Dacun Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape to analyze and to provide strategic advice to save. Here we have three study purposes. 1. Discuss the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape of Changhua Dacun. 2. Investigate and record the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape. 3. Propose a reserve strategy of the Hoklo-Hakka living cultural landscape in future.

Keywords: Hoklo-Hakka, Dacun, save policy, life Culture

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3488 Neural Correlates of Decision-Making Under Ambiguity and Conflict

Authors: Helen Pushkarskaya, Michael Smithson, Jane E. Joseph, Christine Corbly, Ifat Levy

Abstract:

Studies of decision making under uncertainty generally focus on imprecise information about outcome probabilities (“ambiguity”). It is not clear, however, whether conflicting information about outcome probabilities affects decision making in the same manner as ambiguity does. Here we combine functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and a simple gamble design to study this question. In this design, the levels of ambiguity and conflict are parametrically varied, and ambiguity and conflict gambles are matched on both expected value and variance. Behaviorally, participants avoided conflict more than ambiguity, and attitudes toward ambiguity and conflict did not correlate across subjects. Neurally, regional brain activation was differentially modulated by ambiguity level and aversion to ambiguity and by conflict level and aversion to conflict. Activation in the medial prefrontal cortex was correlated with the level of ambiguity and with ambiguity aversion, whereas activation in the ventral striatum was correlated with the level of conflict and with conflict aversion. This novel double dissociation indicates that decision makers process imprecise and conflicting information differently, a finding that has important implications for basic and clinical research.

Keywords: decision making, uncertainty, ambiguity, conflict, fMRI

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3487 Gender Role Conflict and Subjective Well-Being of Chinese Teenagers: A Study Based on High School Students from Guangdong and Yunnan

Authors: Yuan Zhang, Xin Fu, Yixin Tan

Abstract:

Gender role conflict is a key factor influencing the mental health condition of adolescents. It has a strong connection with the noticeably growing mental health crisis of high school students. This study elucidates the relationship between gender role conflict and reports of subjective well-being of teenagers through mixed-methods empirical research based on surveys conducted in two Chinese cities, namely Shenzhen and Yuxi. These two cities are from two provinces of very distinct economic and cultural backgrounds. We believe a comparison between the two cities reveals the unequally distributed social conditions in China. We found that teenagers who possess a higher degree of gender role conflict tend to exhibit more negative emotions and that this relationship is conditioned upon other important factors such as gender, only child status, and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, we discovered that the social environment that is more progressive and open to various gender roles is correlated with higher levels of subjective well-being of teenagers in Shenzhen and Yunnan.

Keywords: gender role conflict, mental health conditions, subjective well-being, social environment

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3486 Analyzing Culture as an Obstacle to Gender Equality in a Non-Western Context: Key Areas of Conflict between International Women’s Rights and Cultural Rights in South Sudan

Authors: C. Leiber

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International human rights treaties ensure basic rights to all people, regardless of nationality. These treaties have developed in a predominantly Western environment, and their implementation into non-western contexts often raises questions of the transfer-ability of value systems and governance structures. International human rights treaties also postulate the right to the full enjoyment and expression of one’s own culture, known as cultural rights. Many cultural practices and traditions in South Sudan serve as an obstacle to the adaptation of human rights and internationally agreed-upon standards, specifically those pertaining to women’s rights and gender equality. This paper analyzes the specific social, political, and economic conflicts between women’s rights and cultural rights within the context of South Sudan’s evolution into a sovereign nation. It comprehensively evaluates the legal status of South Sudanese women and –based on the empirical evidence- assesses gender equality in four key areas: Marriage, Education, Violence against Women, and Inheritance. This work includes an exploration into how South Sudanese culture influences, and indeed is intertwined with, social, political, and economic spheres, and how it limits gender equality and impedes the full implementation of international human rights treaties. Furthermore, any negative effects which systemic gender inequality and cultural practices that are oppressive to women have on South Sudan as a developing nation are explored. Finally, those areas of conflict between South Sudanese cultural rights and international women’s rights are outlined which can be mitigated or resolved in favor of elevating gender equality without imperializing or destroying South Sudanese culture.

Keywords: cultural rights, gender equality, international human rights, South Sudan

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3485 Religious Cognition and Intergroup Bias in the Trolley Dilemma: Experimental Fieldwork in Fiji

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Julia Smith, Jeremy Ginges

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There is extensive debate about the causal role of religion in intergroup conflict. It is commonly accepted that religious beliefs promote in-group cohesion, but religion is often believed to exacerbate inter-group conflict. Fiji is religiously diverse and has a lengthy history of ethno-religious conflict. In a preregistered field experiment using a modified version of the trolley problem dilemma, Christian and Muslim Fijians were asked, first from their own perspective, and then from their God’s perspective, whether a religious ingroup member should sacrifice their life to save five children who were ingroup or outgroup members. Almost all Muslim participants believed that the person should always sacrifice themselves to save the children. Amongst Christian participants, thinking from God’s perspective increased their likelihood of saying the children should be saved by 35% and removed a 27% gap between responses to saving ingroup versus outgroup children. These results replicate previous findings from a Palestinian sample and demonstrate, in another cross-cultural context with a history of violent conflict, that religious cognition can decrease bias and promote the application of universal moral principles.

Keywords: conflict, moral dilemma, psychology, religion, thought experiments

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3484 Creative Resolutions to Intercultural Conflicts: The Joint Effects of International Experience and Cultural Intelligence

Authors: Thomas Rockstuhl, Soon Ang, Kok Yee Ng, Linn Van Dyne

Abstract:

Intercultural interactions are often challenging and fraught with conflicts. To shed light on how to interact effectively across cultures, academics and practitioners alike have advanced a plethora of intercultural competence models. However, the majority of this work has emphasized distal outcomes, such as job performance and cultural adjustment, rather than proximal outcomes, such as how individuals resolve inevitable intercultural conflicts. As a consequence, the processes by which individuals negotiate challenging intercultural conflicts are not well understood. The current study advances theorizing on intercultural conflict resolution by exploring antecedents of how people resolve intercultural conflicts. To this end, we examine creativity – the generation of novel and useful ideas – in the context of resolving cultural conflicts in intercultural interactions. Based on the dual-identity theory of creativity, we propose that individuals with greater international experience will display greater creativity and that the relationship is accentuated by individual’s cultural intelligence. Two studies test these hypotheses. The first study comprises 84 senior university students, drawn from an international organizational behavior course. The second study replicates findings from the first study in a sample of 89 executives from eleven countries. Participants in both studies provided protocols of their strategies for resolving two intercultural conflicts, as depicted in two multimedia-vignettes of challenging intercultural work-related interactions. Two research assistants, trained in intercultural management but blind to the study hypotheses, coded all strategies for their novelty and usefulness following scoring procedures for creativity tasks. Participants also completed online surveys of demographic background information, including their international experience, and cultural intelligence. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that surprisingly, while international experience is positively associated with usefulness, it is unrelated to novelty. Further, a person’s cultural intelligence strengthens the positive effect of international experience on usefulness and mitigates the effect of international experience on novelty. Theoretically, our findings offer an important theoretical extension to the dual-identity theory of creativity by identifying cultural intelligence as an important individual difference moderator that qualifies the relationship between international experience and creative conflict resolution. In terms of novelty, individuals higher in cultural intelligence seem less susceptible to rigidity effects of international experiences. Perhaps they are more capable of assessing which aspects of culture are relevant and apply relevant experiences when they brainstorm novel ideas. For utility, individuals high in cultural intelligence are better able to leverage on their international experience to assess the viability of their ideas because their richer and more organized cultural knowledge structure allows them to assess possible options more efficiently and accurately. In sum, our findings suggest that cultural intelligence is an important and promising intercultural competence that fosters creative resolutions to intercultural conflicts. We hope that our findings stimulate future research on creativity and conflict resolution in intercultural contexts.

Keywords: cultural Intelligence, intercultural conflict, intercultural creativity, international experience

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3483 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context

Authors: V. Charaia

Abstract:

This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?

Keywords: conflict economics, investments, trade, remittances

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
3482 Perceived Procedural Justice and Conflict Management in Romantic Relations

Authors: Inbal Peleg Koriat, Rachel Ben-Ari

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to test individual’s conflict management style in romantic relations as a function of their perception of the extent of procedural justice in their partner behavior, and to what extant this relationship is mediated by the quality of the relations. The research procedure included two studies: The first study was a correlative study with 160 participants in a romantic relation. The goal of the first study was to examine the mediation model with self-report questionnaires. The second study was an experimental study with 241 participants. The study was designed to examine the causal connection between perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and conflict management styles. Study 1 indicated a positive connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles (integrating, compromising and obliging). In contrast, a negative connection was not found between PPJ and non-collaborative conflict management styles (avoiding, and dominating). In addition, perceived quality of the romantic relations was found to mediate the connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles. Study 2 validated the finding of Study 1 by showing that PPJ leads the individual to use compromising and integrating conflict management styles. In contrast to Study 1, Study 2 shows that a low PPJ increases the individual’s tendency to use an avoiding conflict management style. The study contributes to the rather scarce research on PPJ role in conflict management in general and in romantic relations in particular. It can provide new insights into cognitive methods of coping with conflict that encourage transformation in the conflict and a way to grow and develop both individually and as a couple.

Keywords: conflict management style, marriage, procedural justice, romantic relations

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3481 Does Rumor Shakes Trust: The Role of Emotions in Local Conflict and Peacemaking

Authors: Safiye Ates Burc

Abstract:

This proposal is based on the story of Kurdish tribal conflict and peace in Mardin (Turkey). In the stories that will be detailed with in-depth interviews with the parties to the conflict (family elders, mediators and other tribal lords); It will be examined how rumor has an effect on establishing conflict and peace and whether it shakes the trust between the parties. In fact, this research is still at an ongoing stage. In this paper, the effect of emotions on conflict and reconciliation, which is the main subject of this ongoing study, will be conveyed in line with the data obtained from the preliminary research. In-depth interviews are conducted in the research in which the ethnography method is used. As an early result, it can be said that in organizations such as the Kurdish tribes, where local loyalties and traditions are very strong, the rumor has the potential to shake the trust between the parties and thus can become the excuse for conflict. Because rumors damage the prestige of tribes, that’s, it’s social capital.

Keywords: rumor, trust, Kurdish tribes, local peacemaking, conflict

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3480 The Underestimation of Cultural Risk in the Execution of Megaprojects

Authors: Alan Walsh, Peter Walker, Michael Ellis

Abstract:

There is a real danger that both practitioners and researchers considering risks associated with megaprojects ignore or underestimate the impacts of cultural risk. The paper investigates the potential impacts of a failure to achieve cultural unity between the principal actors executing a megaproject. The principle relationships include the relationships between the principle Contractors and the project stakeholders or the project stakeholders and their principle advisors, Western Consultants. This study confirms that cultural dissonance between these parties can delay or disrupt the megaproject execution and examines why cultural issues should be prioritized as a significant risk factor in megaproject delivery. This paper addresses the practical impacts and potential mitigation measures, which may reduce cultural dissonance for a megaproject's delivery. This information is retrieved from on-going case studies in live infrastructure megaprojects in Europe and the Middle East's GCC states, from Western Consultants' perspective. The collaborating researchers each have at least 30 years of construction experience and are engaged in architecture, project management and contracts management, dealing with megaprojects in Europe or the GCC. After examining the cultural interfaces they have observed during the execution of megaprojects, they conclude that globally, culture significantly influences their efficient delivery. The study finds that cultural risk is ever-present, where different nationalities co-manage megaprojects and that cultural conflict poses a real threat to the timely delivery of megaprojects. The study indicates that the higher the cultural distance between the principal actors, the more pronounced the risk, with the risk of cultural dissonance more prominent in GCC megaprojects. The findings support a more culturally aware and cohesive team approach and recommend cross-cultural training to mitigate the effects of cultural disparity.

Keywords: cultural risk underestimation, cultural distance, megaproject characteristics, megaproject execution

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3479 Examining the Factors That Mediate the Effects of Mindfulness on Conflict Resolution Strategies

Authors: Franco Ceasar Agbalog, Shintaro Yukawa

Abstract:

Mindfulness is increasingly being used as a method for resolving conflict. However, less is known about how its positive outcome develops. To better understand the underlying effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies, this study examines the potential mediating factors between them. The researchers hypothesized that Emotional Intelligence (EI) mediates the effects of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies due to its similar components to the benefits of mindfulness, such as awareness and control of one’s emotions, awareness and understanding of other’s emotions, and cultivation of compassion and empathy. Using a random sampling, 157 participants completed three questionnaires: Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II (ROCI-II). Utilizing the SPSS Process, results showed a significant relationship between mindfulness and EI. However, among the five approaches to conflict resolution, only the integrating style was significantly related to EI. Following the principle of Mediation Analysis, mindfulness has an indirect effect on integrating style. Moreover, mindfulness and conflict resolution strategies were not significantly related. This is a rather surprising result because research literature has always indicated a positive relationship between the two variables. These findings imply that although integrating style is generally considered the best approach in handling conflict, each style may be appropriate depending on the situation. Mindfulness allows practitioners to have a holistic view of the conflict situation and choose the approach they think best for that specific situation. This could explain why statistically, there is no direct effect of mindfulness on conflict resolution strategies. This work provides basis for the necessity to investigate the factors of conflict instead of the conflict resolution strategies; factors that can be manipulated and may be directly influenced by mindfulness.

Keywords: conflict resolution strategies, emotional intelligence, mindfulness and conflict, ROCI-II integrating style

Procedia PDF Downloads 193