Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3740

Search results for: cultural rights

3740 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
3739 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

Abstract:

Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
3738 Analyzing Culture as an Obstacle to Gender Equality in a Non-Western Context: Key Areas of Conflict between International Women’s Rights and Cultural Rights in South Sudan

Authors: C. Leiber

Abstract:

International human rights treaties ensure basic rights to all people, regardless of nationality. These treaties have developed in a predominantly Western environment, and their implementation into non-western contexts often raises questions of the transfer-ability of value systems and governance structures. International human rights treaties also postulate the right to the full enjoyment and expression of one’s own culture, known as cultural rights. Many cultural practices and traditions in South Sudan serve as an obstacle to the adaptation of human rights and internationally agreed-upon standards, specifically those pertaining to women’s rights and gender equality. This paper analyzes the specific social, political, and economic conflicts between women’s rights and cultural rights within the context of South Sudan’s evolution into a sovereign nation. It comprehensively evaluates the legal status of South Sudanese women and –based on the empirical evidence- assesses gender equality in four key areas: Marriage, Education, Violence against Women, and Inheritance. This work includes an exploration into how South Sudanese culture influences, and indeed is intertwined with, social, political, and economic spheres, and how it limits gender equality and impedes the full implementation of international human rights treaties. Furthermore, any negative effects which systemic gender inequality and cultural practices that are oppressive to women have on South Sudan as a developing nation are explored. Finally, those areas of conflict between South Sudanese cultural rights and international women’s rights are outlined which can be mitigated or resolved in favor of elevating gender equality without imperializing or destroying South Sudanese culture.

Keywords: cultural rights, gender equality, international human rights, South Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3737 The Essence and Attribution of Intellectual Property Rights Generated in the Digitization of Intangible Cultural Heritage

Authors: Jiarong Zhang

Abstract:

Digitizing intangible cultural heritage is a complex and comprehensive process from which sorts of intellectual property rights may be generated. Digitizing may be a repacking process of cultural heritage, which creates copyrights; recording folk songs and indigenous performances can create 'related rights'. At the same time, digitizing intangible cultural heritage may infringe the intellectual property rights of others unintentionally. Recording religious rituals of indigenous communities without authorization can violate the moral right of the ceremony participants of the community; making digital copies of rock paintings may infringe the right of reproduction. In addition, several parties are involved in the digitization process: indigenous peoples, museums, and archives can be holders of cultural heritage; companies and research institutions can be technology providers; internet platforms can be promoters and sellers; the public and groups above can be beneficiaries. When diverse intellectual property rights versus various parties, problems and disputes can arise easily. What are the types of intellectual property rights generated in the digitization process? What is the essence of these rights? Who should these rights belong to? How to use intellectual property to protect the digitalization of cultural heritage? How to avoid infringing on the intellectual property rights of others? While the digitization has been regarded as an effective approach to preserve intangible cultural heritage, related intellectual property issues have not received the attention and full discussion. Thus, parties involving in the digitization process may face intellectual property infringement lawsuits. The article will explore those problems from the intersection perspective of intellectual property law and cultural heritage. From a comparative approach, the paper will analysis related legal documents and cases, and shed some lights of those questions listed. The findings show, although there are no intellectual property laws targeting the cultural heritage in most countries, the involved stakeholders can seek protection from existing intellectual property rights following the suggestions of the article. The research will contribute to the digitization of intangible cultural heritage from a legal and policy aspect.

Keywords: copyright, digitization, intangible cultural heritage, intellectual property, Internet platforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3736 At the Crossroads of Education and Human Rights for Girls and Women in Nigeria: The Language Perspective

Authors: Crescentia Ugwuona

Abstract:

Appropriate language use has been central and critical in advancing education and human rights for women and girls in many countries the world over. Unfortunately, these lofty aims have often been violated by rural Igbo-Nigerians as they use stereotyping and dehumansing language in their cultural songs against women and girls. The psychological impact of the songs has a significant negative impact on education, human rights, quality of life, and opportunities for many rural Igbo-women and girls in Nigeria. This study, therefore, examines the forms, shades, and manifestations of derogatory and stereotypical language against women and girls the Igbo cultural songs; and how they impede education and human rights for females in Nigeria. Through Critical discourse analysis (CDA) of data collected via recording, the study identifies manifestations of women and girls’ stereotypes such as subjugations, male dominance, inequality in gender roles, suppression, and oppression, and derogatory use of the language against women and girls in the Igbo cultural songs. This study has a great promise of alerting the issues of derogatory and stereotypical language in songs, and contributes to an education aimed at gender equality, emancipator practice of appropriate language use in songs, equal education and human rights for both male and female, respect and solidarity in Nigeria and beyond.

Keywords: gender stereotypes, cultural songs, women and girls, language use in Nigeria, critical discourse analysis, CDA, education

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3735 Implied Fundamental Rights under Article 21 of the Constitution of India: Effects and Applicability

Authors: N. Sathish Gowda

Abstract:

A constitution without fundamental rights will become zero. The very object of constitution of three organs viz, legislature, executive and judiciary under the constitution of India is to protect, preserve and promote fundamental rights guaranteed under part-III. In India, along with express fundamental rights, Supreme Court has also recognized implied fundamental rights. But, unfortunately State has not been implementing these implied fundamental rights. In this regard, this research paper discusses the catalogue of implied fundamental rights evolved by the judiciary in interpreting Article 21 of the Constitution of India and seeks to examine the effects and applicability of these rights in India.

Keywords: fundamental rights, nuances of Article 21, express fundamental rights, implied fundamental rights, procedure established by law

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3734 Using Contingency Valuation Approaches to Assess Community Benefits through the Use of Great Zimbabwe World Heritage Site as a Tourism Attraction

Authors: Nyasha Agnes Gurira, Patrick Ngulube

Abstract:

Heritage as an asset can be used to achieve cultural and socio-economic development through its careful use as a tourist attraction. Cultural heritage sites, especially those listed as World Heritage sites generate a lot of revenue through their use as tourist attractions. According to article 5(a) of the World Heritage Convention, World Heritage Sites (WHS) must serve a function in the life of the communities. This is further stressed by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) charter on cultural heritage tourism which recognizes the positive effects of tourism on cultural heritage and underlines that domestic and international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural exchange, conservation should thus provide for responsible and well-managed opportunities for local communities. The inclusion of communities in the world heritage agenda identifies them as the owners of the heritage and partners in the management planning process. This reiterates the need to empower communities and enable them to participate in the decisions which relate to the use of their heritage divorcing from the ideals of viewing communities as beneficiaries from the heritage resource. It recognizes community ownership rights to cultural heritage an element enshrined in Zimbabwe’ national constitution. Through the use of contingency valuation approaches, by assessing the Willingness to pay for visitors at the site the research determined the tourism use value of Great Zimbabwe (WHS). It assessed the extent to which the communities at Great Zimbabwe (WHS) have been developed through the tourism use of the WHS. Findings show that the current management mechanism in place regards communities as stakeholders in the management of the WHS, their ownership and property rights are not fully recognized. They receive indirect benefits from the tourism use of the WHS. This paper calls for a shift in management approach where community ownership rights are fully recognized and more inclusive approaches are adopted to ensure that the goal of sustainable development is achieved. Pro-poor benefits of tourism are key to enhancing the livelihoods of communities and can only be achieved if their rights are recognized and respected.

Keywords: communities, cultural heritage tourism, development, property ownership rights, pro-poor benefits, sustainability, world heritage site

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3733 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

Abstract:

Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
3732 A Comparative Analysis of the Enforceability of Social and Economic Rights: Nigeria and South Africa as Case Studies

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

There are two separate groups of a recognised body of human rights. These are known as Civil and Political Rights, and Economic and Social Rights. There is however an impression that civil and political rights are enforceable in courts while socio-economic rights are not. Nigeria is an example of one of such countries whose constitution has social, economic and cultural rights’ provisions as well as civil and political rights. However, the socio-economic rights provided in the Nigerian constitution are not justiciable or are unenforceable in a court of law. On the other hand, a comparative examination of the socio-economic right provisions in the South African constitution and judgments of the constitutional court of South Africa reveals that socio-economic rights may be enforceable. This position may ensure the protection of the socio-economic rights of the poor and vulnerable groups. These rights include the rights to food, adequate shelter, health, and education. Moreover, the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter) which incorporates similar socio-economic right provisions, has been recognized as a domestic law in Nigeria and its provisions are enforceable by the domestic courts by virtue of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (Ratification and Enforcement) Act Cap A9 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004. It is not only a regional treaty signed and adopted by Nigeria but has been passed into law by the National Assembly and can be enforced like any other local law. This paper will propose that in view of the provisions of the African Charter and mechanisms for implementation as well as other international conventions and national constitutional provisions on human rights, domestic courts may be able to assess state responsibilities in the light of socio-economic rights. Cases decided by South African courts and other jurisdictions will be discussed in order to lend weight to the notion that socio-economic rights can be enforced in jurisdictions such as Nigeria even though the constitution provides otherwise.

Keywords: african charter, constitutional court of south africa, nigerian constitution, socio-economic rights, south african constitution

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3731 Association of Southeast Asian Nations Caught in between International and Regional Human Rights Frameworks: The Myanmar Rohingya Crisis

Authors: Lynamata Chhun

Abstract:

Human Rights enforcement in the newly independent countries like Asian and African has always been penetrating issues. In spite, the existing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), regions like Africa and Asia where values and cultural norms far differ from the concept had formed their own Human Rights instruments to tackle Human Rights issues in their regions instead of embracing the concept of UDHR completely. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration is one of the examples. This paper aims to examine the enforcement of Human Rights in South East Asia in the context of ASEAN regional integration. Precisely, the author attempts to analyse the effectiveness in undertaking Human Rights issues in the region by applying both the existing international and regional frameworks using the Myanmar Rohingya Crisis as the case study. The methodology of the paper is qualitative analysis where cross-impact analysis is employed to examine the case study. It is anticipated that the main findings of this paper will illuminate how applicable the international instruments are in comparison to the regional instruments in apprehending the human rights issues and will shed light on how ASEAN and dialogue partners should cooperate in the future regarding with the challenging issues of Human Rights in the region.

Keywords: ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, ASEAN integration, ASEAN way, international and regional instruments, Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
3730 Art Market in Oran: Emergence and Constraints

Authors: Hirreche Baghdad Mohamed

Abstract:

Our researches are linked at cultural policies. The initiation to taste and beauty is a matter for all cultural and educational institutions. It is a downstream process (programs, actions, lessons ...) that begins at a young age in order to inscribe aesthetic values in memories, imaginations and practices. Preparing future art lovers probably takes a lot of time. Upstream, continuity is ensured by the "cultural industries" which make cultural products available to actors in the "art market" through professional training, production, dissemination and sales processes. It turns out that the cultural industries borrow from the "classical" industries the same processes and logics: product, production, marketing, diffusion, profit and profits, supply and demand, the market, the creation of wealth, the entrepreneurship. Today, culture has become a product almost like the others. In the cultural industries system, we protect the rights of authors (owners) and the rights of intermediaries (entrepreneurs of culture) and we provide consumers with an accessible product that meets their needs and expectations. We aim to present an inventory and to reveal through the speeches of the actors themselves, the processes and modes of operation and deployment of the plastic arts market by showing how it is perceived, imagined and lived in the city of 'Oran from the 2000s to the present day. However, it is possible to clarify this field of research by looking at previous periods; and even to make comparisons with other regions in Algeria, in order to give meaning to practices in various contexts.

Keywords: Oran, ALGERIA, fine art, art market

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
3729 Analysis of Subordination: The Reproductive Sphere

Authors: Aneesa Shafi

Abstract:

Reproduction is a complex term in a setting where it is continuously being shaped by epistemological shifts in knowledge. It denotes not just fertility, birth and childcare related practices but also the ideas that shape those practices. These ideas and practices figure into understandings of social and cultural renewal. Patriarchy continues to be a dominating force in the formation of these ideas and practices. Contemporary times are characterized by the resurgence of the whims of patriarchal politics in delineating the margins of women’s health care. This has further emboldened the struggle for reproductive rights on the global stage. The paper examines the subordination of the right to bodily autonomy of women within the ambit of their reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are recognized human rights and women’s rights. Why these rights of women face stiff opposition is established, as is the structure that creates hurdles to their enjoyment. The negotiation of this structure in the everyday life through women’s agency is also established. The reproductive sphere includes not just the process of reproduction but also social reproduction- domestic work, spheres of production and reproduction, population and birth (control) issues.

Keywords: patriarchy, women, reproduction, gender

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3728 Through the Lens of Forced Displacement: Refugee Women's Rights as Human Rights

Authors: Pearl K. Atuhaire, Sylvia Kaye

Abstract:

While the need for equal access to civil, political as well as economic, social and cultural rights is clear under the international law, the adoption of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against women in 1979 made this even clearer. Despite this positive progress, the abuse of refugee women's rights is one of the basic underlying root causes of their marginalisation and violence in their countries of asylum. This paper presents a critical review on the development of refugee women's rights at the international levels and national levels. It provides an array of scholarly literature on this issue and examines the measures taken by the international community to curb the problem of violence against women in their various provisions through the instruments set. It is cognizant of the fact that even if conflict affects both refugee women and men, the effects on women refugees are deep-reaching, due to the cultural strongholds they face. An important aspect of this paper is that it is conceptualised against the fact that refugee women face the problem of sexual and gender based first as refugees and second as women, yet, their rights are stumbled upon. Often times they have been rendered "worthless victims" who are only in need of humanitarian assistance than active participants committed to change their plight through their participation in political, economic and social participation in their societies. Scholars have taken notice of the fact that women's rights in refugee settings have been marginalized and call for a need to incorporate their perspectives in the planning and management of refugee settings in which they live. Underpinning this discussion is feminism theory which gives a clear understanding of the root cause of refugee women's problems. Finally, this paper suggests that these policies should be translated into action at local, national international and regional levels to ensure sustainable peace.

Keywords: feminism theory, human rights, refugee women, sexual and gender based violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
3727 The Deprivation of Human Rights Experienced by African Children with Disabilities

Authors: Anna Wiltshire, Rebecca Markham

Abstract:

Over the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that children with disabilities are often amongst the most excluded and vulnerable in society. The World Bank estimates that 20% of those living in poverty in developing countries are disabled which means that those with the least bear the greatest burden. Furthermore, children with disabilities in Africa have to face a multitude of difficulties ranging from the physical to the psychological. Misconceptions and cultural beliefs are used to justify violence against, or complete shunning of these individuals and their families. In addition, discrimination can prevent access to both education and health services, further compromising these individuals. All children, irrespective of their disability should be able to enjoy human rights without discrimination, but this is often not the case. This poster explores how and why children with disabilities in Africa are subject to violations of their human rights, and suggests ways of addressing these problems.

Keywords: Africa, children, disability, discrimination, human rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
3726 The Nexus between Counter Terrorism and Human Rights with a Perspective on Cyber Terrorism

Authors: Allan Munyao Mukuki

Abstract:

The nexus between terrorism and human rights has become a big challenge in the fight against terrorism globally. This is hinged on the fact that terrorism and human rights are interrelated to the extent that, when the former starts, the latter is violated. This direct linkage was recognised in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action as adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna on 25 June 1993 which agreed that acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations are aimed at the destruction of human rights. Hence, terrorism constitutes an assault on our most basic human rights. To this end, the first part of this paper will focus on the nexus between terrorism and human rights and endeavors to draw a co-relation between these two concepts. The second part thereafter will analyse the emerging concept of cyber-terrorism and how it takes place. Further, an analysis of cyber counter-terrorism balanced as against human rights will also be undertaken. This will be done through the analysis of the concept of ‘securitisation’ of human rights as well as the need to create a balance between counterterrorism efforts as against the protection of human rights at all costs. The paper will then concludes with recommendations on how to balance counter-terrorism and human rights in the modern age.

Keywords: balance, counter-terrorism, cyber-terrorism, human rights, security, violation

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
3725 Resistance of African States Against the African Court on Human and People Rights (ACPHR)

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali

Abstract:

At the first glance, it seems that the African Court on Human and People’s Rights has achieved a tremendous development in the protection of human rights in Africa. Since its first judgement in 2009, the court has taken a robust approach/ assertive stance, showing its strength by finding states to be in violation of the Africana Charter and other human rights treaties. This paper seeks to discuss various challenges and resistance that the Court has faced since the adoption of the Founding Protocol to the Establishment of the African Court on Human and People’s Rights. The outcome of the paper casts shadow on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the African Court as the guarantor of human rights within the African continent.

Keywords: African Court on Human and People’s Rights, African Union, African regional human rights system, compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
3724 Global Migration and Endangered Majorities in Europe

Authors: Liav Orgad

Abstract:

This article challenges one of the most fundamental propositions in the democratic theory that the majority culture is protected merely by the forces of democracy and thus needs no special legal protection. By describing changes in the patterns of migration to Europe, in the face of the European society, and in the world as a whole, the Article demonstrates that the majority culture is no longer automatically protected by the forces of democracy. It claims that the changing reality is not adequately addressed by political theory and human rights law and advances the promotion of a new concept—'cultural majority rights'.

Keywords: European migration, European demography, democratic theory, majority rights, integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
3723 Women Right in Islam and Misconceptions: A Critical Study

Authors: Abubakar Ibrahim Usman, Mustapha Halilu

Abstract:

The provisions of rights to women in Islam have generated and are creating a tense and serious debate among Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Muslims are arguing that Islam provides right to Womenfolk, but their actions, cultural/traditional practices, and treatment reveal otherwise, Non-Muslims, on the other hand, held a different view, saying that Islam has never made such provision. One may not blame their misconception, due to the wide spectrum of treatment given to women in many Muslim societies, which generated, fueled and geared the misconceptions and ceaseless barrage of sensational articles, movies and negative portrayal of Islam today. It has to put in our minds, many actions and Crimes of some Muslims (Who are mostly minority) did not represent the teachings and precepts of Islam, just like one cannot put blame on the parents of a child whose actions fall short of his home background.

Keywords: Islam, women rights, cultural practices, religion

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3722 Horizontal Dimension of Constitutional Social Rights

Authors: Monika Florczak-Wątor

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to determine the applicability of the constitutional social rights in the so-called horizontal relations, i.e. the relations between private entities. Nowadays the constitutional rights are more and more often violated by private entities and not only by the state. The private entities interfere with the privacy of individuals, limit their freedom of expression or disturb their peaceful gatherings. International corporations subordinate individuals in a way which may limit their constitutional rights. These new realities determine the new role of the constitution in protecting human rights. The paper will aim at answering two important questions. Firstly, are the private entities obliged to respect the constitutional social rights of other private entities and can they be liable for violation of these rights? Secondly, how the constitutional social rights can receive horizontal effect? Answers to these questions will have a significant meaning for the popularization of the practice of applying the Constitution among the citizens as well as for the courts which settle disputes between them.

Keywords: social rights, private relations, horizontality, constitutional rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
3721 The Impact of International Human Rights Law on Local Efforts to Address Women’s Realities of Violence: Lessons from Jamaica

Authors: Ramona Georgeta Biholar

Abstract:

Gender-based violence against women plagues societies around the world. The work to eliminate it is an ongoing battle. At the international level, Article 5 (a) CEDAW establishes an agenda for social and cultural transformation: it imposes on States parties to CEDAW an obligation to modify sex roles and stereotypical social and cultural patterns of conduct. Also, it provides for the protection of women from violence stemming from such gender norms. Yet, the lived realities of women are frequently disconnected from this agenda. Nonetheless, it is the reality of the local that is crucial for the articulation, implementation and realization of women’s rights in general, and for the elimination of gender-based violence against women in particular. In this paper we discuss the transformation of sex roles and gender stereotyping with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. This paper is anchored in qualitative data collection undertaken in Jamaica and socio-legal research. Based on this research, 1) We explain the process of vernacularisation as a strategy that enables women’s human rights to hit the ground and benefit rights holders, and 2) We present a synergistic model for the implementation of Article 5 (a) CEDAW so that women’s right to be free from gender-based violence can be realized in a concrete national jurisdiction. This model is grounded in context-based demands and recommendations for social and cultural transformation as a remedy for the incidence of gender-based violence against women. Moreover, the synergistic model offers directions that have a general application for the implementation of CEDAW and Article 5 (a) CEDAW in particular, with a view to realize women’s right to be free from gender-based violence. The model is thus not only a conceptual tool of analysis, but also a prescriptive tool for action. It contributes to the work of both academics and practitioners, such as Governmental officials, and national and local civil society representatives. Overall, this paper contributes to understanding the process necessary to bridge that gap between women’s human rights norms and women’s life realities of discrimination and violence.

Keywords: CEDAW, gender-based violence against women, international human rights law, women’s rights implementation, the Caribbean

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3720 A Philosophical Study of Men's Rights Discourses in Light of Feminism

Authors: Michael Barker

Abstract:

Men’s rights activists are largely antifeminism. Evaluation of men’s rights discourses, however, shows that men’s rights’ goals would be better achieved by working with feminism. Discussion of men’s rights discourses, though, is prone to confusion because there is no commonly used men’s rights language. In the presentation ‘male sexism’, ‘matriarchy’ and ‘masculism’ will be unpacked as part of a suggested men’s rights language. Once equipped with a men’s rights vocabulary, sustained philosophical assessment of the extent to which several categories of male disadvantages are wrongful will be offered. Following this, conditions that cause each category of male sexism will be discussed. It shall be argued that male sexism is caused more so by matriarchy than by patriarchy or by feminism. In closing, the success at which various methods address the categories of male sexism will be contrasted. Ultimately, it will be shown that male disadvantages are addressed more successfully by methods that work with, than against, feminism.

Keywords: gender studies, feminism, patriarchy, men’s rights, male sexism, matriarchy, masculism

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3719 Women's Liberation: A Study of the Movement in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rachel Hasan

Abstract:

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed various significant social and political developments in 2018. Crown Prince of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Muhammad bin Salman, also serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, has made several social, cultural, and political changes in the country under his grand National Transformation Program. Program provides a vision of more economically viable, culturally liberal, and politically pleasant Saudi Arabia. One of the most significant and ground breaking changes that has been made under this program is awarding women the long awaited rights. Legislative changes are made to allow woman to drive. Seemingly basic on surface but driving rights to women represent much deeper meaning to the culture of Saudi Arabia and to the world outside. Ever since this right is awarded to the women, world media is interpreting this change in various colors. This paper aims to investigate the portrayal of gender rights in various online media publications and websites. The methodology applied has been quantitative content analysis method to analyze the various aspects of media's coverage of various social and cultural changes with reference to women's rights. For the purpose of research, convenience sampling was done for eight international online articles from media websites. The articles discussed the lifting of ban for females on driving cars in Saudi Arabia as well as gender development for these women. These articles were analyzed for media frames, and various categories of analysis were developed, which highlighted the stance that was observed. Certain terms were conceptualized and operationalized and were also explained for better understanding of the context.

Keywords: gender rights, media coverage, political change, women's liberation

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3718 Comparative International Law and Feminist Legal Studies, Uniting to Make a Difference in Addressing the Disempowerment of Women

Authors: Isaac Kfir

Abstract:

In thinking about the role of the law and its impact on socially constructed norms and identities, scholars have come to explore a multitude of issues to do with equality, empowerment, and views. The aim of this contribution is threefold. Firstly, offer a descriptive framework of feminist legal studies (FLS) through a review of the evolution of the field in the context of equality, rights, and justice. Secondly, encourage those working on equality, rights, and justice in respect to ‘women’s issues’ to engage in international comparative legal studies. Third, to highlight that those seeking solutions to disempowerment and discrimination must recognize that they need to contend with claims that one is seeking to undermine cultural norms. Therefore, one effective way for feminists to address this situation is by relying more on the international legal mechanism, which reflects basic legal tenets as to the universality of equality, rights, and justice, that can then help shape the domestic setting.

Keywords: international comparative law, feminist legal studies, equality, rights, justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
3717 Land Rights, Policy and Cultural Identity in Uganda: Case of the Basongora Community

Authors: Edith Kamakune

Abstract:

As much as Indigenous rights are presumed to be part of the broad human rights regime, members of the indigenous communities have continually suffered violations, exclusions, and threat. There are a number of steps taken from the international community in trying to bridge the gap, and this has been through the inclusion of provisions as well as the passing of conventions and declarations with specific reference to the rights of indigenous peoples. Some examples of indigenous people include theSiberian Yupik of St Lawrence Island; the Ute of Utah; the Cree of Alberta, and the Xosa andKhoiKhoi of Southern Africa. Uganda’s wide cultural heritage has played a key role in the failure to pay special attention to the needs of the rights of indigenous peoples. The 1995 Constitution and the Land Act of 1998 provide for abstract land rights without necessarily paying attention to indigenous communities’ special needs. Basongora are a pastoralist community in Western Uganda whose ancestral land is the present Queen Elizabeth National Park of Western Uganda, Virunga National Park of Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, and the small percentage of the low lands under the Rwenzori Mountains. Their values and livelihood are embedded in their strong attachment to the land, and this has been at stake for the last about 90 Years. This research was aimed atinvestigating the relationship between land rights and the right to cultural identity among indigenous communities, looking at the policy available on land and culture, and whether the policies are sensitive of the specific issues of vulnerable ethnic groups; and largely the effect of land on the right to cultural identity. The research was guided by three objectives: to examine and contextualize the concept of land rights among the Basongora community; to assess the policy frame work available for the protection of the Basongora community; to investigate the forms of vulnerability of the Basongora community. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. a case of Kaseseand Kampala Districts were purposefully selected .138 people were recruited through random and nonrandom techniques to participate in the study, and these were 70 questionnaire respondents; 20 face to face interviews respondents; 5 key informants, and 43 participants in focus group discussions; The study established that Land is communally held and used and thatit continues to be a central source of livelihood for the Basongora; land rights are important in multiplication of herds; preservation, development, and promotion of culture and language. Research found gaps in the policy framework since the policies are concerned with tenure issues and the general provisions areambiguous. Oftenly, the Basongora are not called upon to participate in decision making processes, even on issues that affect them. The research findings call forauthorities to allow Basongora to access Queen Elizabeth National Park land for pasture during particular seasons of the year, especially during the dry seasons; land use policy; need for a clear alignment of the description of indigenous communitiesunder the constitution (Uganda, 1995) to the international definition.

Keywords: cultural identity, land rights, protection, uganda

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3716 Beyond the 'Human Rights and Development' Discourse: A Quest for a Right to Sustainable Development in International Human Rights Law

Authors: Roman Girma Teshome

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The intersection between development and human rights has been the point of scholarly debate for a long time. Consequently, a number of principles, which extend from the right to development to the human rights-based approach to development, have been adopted to understand the dynamics between the two concepts. Despite these attempts, the exact relationship between development and human rights has not been fully discovered yet. However, the inevitable interdependence between the two notions and the idea that development efforts must be undertaken by giving due regard to human rights guarantees has gained momentum in recent years. On the other hand, the emergence of sustainable development as a widely accepted approach in development goals and policies makes this unsettled convergence even more complicated. The place of sustainable development in human rights law discourse and the role of the latter in ensuring the sustainability of development programs call for a systematic study. Hence, this article seeks to explore the relationship between development and human rights, particularly focusing on the place given to sustainable development principles in international human right law. It will further quest whether there is a right to sustainable development recognized therein. Accordingly, the article asserts that the principles of sustainable development are directly or indirectly recognized in various human rights instruments, which provides an affirmative response to the question raised hereinabove. This work, therefore, will make expeditions through international and regional human rights instruments as well as case laws and interpretative guidelines of human rights bodies to prove this hypothesis.

Keywords: sustainable development, human rights, the right to development, the human rights-based approach to development, environmental rights, economic development, social sustainability

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3715 The Urgency of ASEAN Human Rights Court Establishment to Protect Human Rights in Southeast Asia

Authors: Tareq M. Aziz Elven

Abstract:

The issue of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia has become the serious problem and attract the attention of international community. Principally, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has mentioned the Human Rights as one of the focus and be a part of the ASEAN Charter in 2008. It was followed by the establishment of ASEAN Inter-Governmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). AICHR is the commission of Human Rights enforcement in Southeast Asia which has a duty, function, and an authority to conduct dissemination and protection of Human Rights. In the end of 2016, however, the function of protection mandated to AICHR have not achieved yet. It can be proved by several cases of Human Rights violation which still exist and have not settled yet. One of case which attracts the public attention recently is human rights violation towards Rohingya in Myanmar. Using the juridical-normative method, the research aims to examine the urgency of Human Rights court establishment in Southeast Asia region which able to issue the decision that binds the ASEAN members or the violating parties. The data shows that ASEAN needs to establish a regional court which intended to settle the Human Rights violations in ASEAN region. Furthermore, the research also highlights three strong factors should be settled by ASEAN for establishing human rights court i.e. the significant distinction of democracy and human rights development among the members, the strong implementation of non-intervention principle, and the financial matter to sustain the court.

Keywords: AICHR, ASEAN, human rights, human rights court

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3714 Life-Narratives and Human Rights: Reflections about the Women's Rights and State of Exception

Authors: Luana Mathias Souto

Abstract:

The situation about women’s rights it’s a sensitive issue when it’s talking about human rights. More difficult its find a way to protect these rights. Aware of this problem, this article aims to analyze the women’s rights in the Brazilian context, mainly, the reproductive rights. So, to achieve this purpose, this paper through the combination of Law, philosophy, and Literature tries to rethinking why women can’t have a voice when the decisions about their rights are taken. Methodologically, it was used as an interdisciplinary bibliographical revision between Law, philosophy, and Literature. From Literature it brings the contributions from the life-narratives as an instrument to promote human rights. Besides the life-narratives theory, it’s also used the novel The Handmaid’s tale from Margaret Atwood, which became a symbol to reflect about reproductive rights. From philosophy, it’s adopted the concepts of Homo sacer and state of exception developed by the philosopher Giorgio Agamben. The contributions of these different researches fields made possible to conclude that women are Homo sacer because governments ignore their voices and opinions when they talk about abortion. The control of the human body, mainly, women bodies it’s more important than preserving some fundamental rights and because of this, it’s so difficult to preserve and promote the human rights. Based on these conclusions, it is understood that when the state is incapable or does not want to guarantee the adequate protection of human rights, it is up to society through its various means to find ways to protect them, and this is the main proposal sought by this article.

Keywords: dystopian fiction, human rights, life-narratives, state of exception

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3713 Battling with Patriarchy: Political Sexuality and Gender Democracy in Nigeria

Authors: Lenshie, Nsemba Edward

Abstract:

This paper examines political sexuality as an identity construct, which imparts on democratic practices globally. The manifestation of political sexuality reflect on the dynamics of social, economic, cultural and political relations among different gender affecting a number of issues, such as the questions of citizenship, poverty alleviation, property rights, ownership and inheritance, rights to sexual consent, polygamous marriage, governance and representation among other issues. This paper is concerned with the aspect of political participation among different genders in Nigeria. This paper posit that political sexuality is an outcome of ‘sexuality differences’, which seeks to glorify and gratify the superiority of a particular sexuality over another. Political sexuality, therefore, motivate and exacerbate socio-cultural, economic, and political struggles among different sexualities. The paper asserts further that majority of women have been discriminated, sexually harassed, and are often denied certain rights and privileges in Nigeria. A few number of women who have found themselves at the corridors of government have used the Beijing protocol on Women to demand for ‘affirmative action’ to expand their political space. It contends that the ‘affirmative action’ in Nigeria is far from achieving it throughout the country. The paper conclude that women require more than just a ‘self-rediscovery’ to assertively demand for a more and proper inclusion in Nigeria’s democratic process.

Keywords: gender democracy, identity, politics, political sexuality

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3712 Examining the European Central Bank's Marginal Attention to Human Rights Concerns during the Eurozone Crisis through the Lens of Organizational Culture

Authors: Hila Levi

Abstract:

Respect for human rights is a fundamental element of the European Union's (EU) identity and law. Surprisingly, however, the protection of human rights has been significantly restricted in the austerity programs ordered by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European Commission (EC) (often labeled 'the Troika') in return for financial aid to the crisis-hit countries. This paper focuses on the role of the ECB in the crisis management. While other international financial institutions, such as the IMF or the World Bank, may opt to neglect human rights obligations, one might expect a greater respect of human rights from the ECB, which is bound by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. However, this paper argues that ECB officials made no significant effort to protect human rights or strike an adequate balance between competing financial and human rights needs while coping with the crisis. ECB officials were preoccupied with the need to stabilize the economy and prevent a collapse of the Eurozone, and paid only marginal attention to human rights concerns in the design and implementation of Troikas' programs. This paper explores the role of Organizational Culture (OC) in explaining this marginalization. While International Relations (IR) research on Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) behavior has traditionally focused on external interests of powerful member states, and on national and economic considerations, this study focuses on particular institutions' internal factors and independent processes. OC characteristics have been identified in OC literature as an important determinant of organizational behavior. This paper suggests that cultural characteristics are also vital for the examination of IGOs, and particularly for understanding the ECB's behavior during the crisis. In order to assess the OC of the ECB and the impact it had on its policies and decisions during the Eurozone crisis, the paper uses the results of numerous qualitative interviews conducted with high-ranking officials and staff members of the ECB involved in the crisis management. It further reviews primary sources of the ECB (such as ECB statutes, and the Memoranda of Understanding signed between the crisis countries and the Troika), and secondary sources (such as the report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on Austerity measures and economic, social, and cultural rights). It thus analyzes the interaction between the ECBs culture and the almost complete absence of human rights considerations in the Eurozone crisis resolution scheme. This paper highlights the importance and influence of internal ideational factors on IGOs behavior. From a more practical perspective, this paper may contribute to understanding one of the obstacles in the process of human rights implementation in international organizations, and provide instruments for better protection of social and economic rights.

Keywords: European central bank, eurozone crisis, intergovernmental organizations, organizational culture

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3711 Analyzing a Human Rights Approach to Poverty and Development Goals in the ASEAN Region

Authors: Nithya Devi

Abstract:

Poverty, hunger and water scarcity are threats to human rights and are assaults on human dignity. The very existence of man is questioned when his basic rights are violated. Addressing this social phenomenon should be a key objective of any human rights discourse. The origins of these problems have various root causes. For Asia, colonisation was an essential factor that caused great inequalities in the distribution of wealth. In the post-colonial era, the colonised states were developing nations grappling with these issues. Today, some of the developing states have progressed to developed nations. However, others remain as economically vulnerable countries. Within states, the widening income gap poses further threat to human rights. Hence ASEAN states have prioritised socio-economic rights, particularly basic needs, in the human rights discourse in this region. To date, poverty and development goals are given primary importance. This paper seeks to show how a human rights approach has dealt with poverty and development goals in this region and evaluates its effectiveness in addressing these concerns.

Keywords: ASEAN, development, human rights, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 267