Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3614

Search results for: cultural intelligence

3614 Strategies for the Development of Cultural Intelligence in the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Azucena Yearby

Abstract:

This study examined if cultural intelligence can be developed through the study of a foreign language. Specifically, the study sought to determine if strategies such as the Arts/History, Vocabulary and Real or Simulated Experiences have an effect on the development of cultural intelligence in the foreign language classroom. Students enrolled in Spanish 1114 or level 1 Spanish courses at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) completed Linn Van Dyne’s 20-item questionnaire that measures Cultural Intelligence (CQ). Results from the study indicated a slight cultural intelligence increase in those students who received an intervention. Therefore, the study recommended that foreign language educators implement the considered strategies in the classroom in order to increase their students’ cultural intelligence.

Keywords: cultural competency, cultural intelligence, foreign language, language

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3613 International Students in the US: Personality and Cross-Cultural Adaptability

Authors: Nhi Phuoc Thuc Le

Abstract:

Cross-cultural adaptability —one’s readiness to interact with people who are different from oneself or to adapt to living in another culture— is essential to the well-being and experience of international students. This research was set out to find the correlation between certain personality traits of international students and their likelihood to adapt to the U.S., the host culture. The study used Qualtrics, an online survey, to investigate the relationships between international students’ social self-efficacy, ego-resiliency, cultural intelligence, Big Five personality traits and cross-cultural adaptability (sociocultural and psychological adaptability). The data were analysed with the software SPSS. The findings of this quantitative study show that high scores in ego-resiliency, social self-efficacy, cultural intelligence and personality traits (including extraversion, agreeableness, intellect and conscientiousness) are correlated with better cross-cultural adaptation. Meanwhile, the Big-Five trait neuroticism is correlated with lower cross-cultural adaptability. Such insight is suggested to help international students be better prepared for an immersion into the US culture.

Keywords: Big Five, cross-cultural adaptability, cultural intelligence, ego-resiliency, international students, personality, self-efficacy

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3612 Correlation between Potential Intelligence Explanatory Study in the Perspective of Multiple Intelligence Theory by Using Dermatoglyphics and Culture Approaches

Authors: Efnie Indrianie

Abstract:

Potential Intelligence constitutes one essential factor in every individual. This intelligence can be a provision for the development of Performance Intelligence if it is supported by surrounding environment. Fingerprint analysis is a method in recognizing this Potential Intelligence. This method is grounded on pattern and number of finger print outlines that are assumed symmetrical with the number of nerves in our brain, in which these areas have their own function among another. These brain’s functions are later being transposed into intelligence components in accordance with the Multiple Intelligences theory. This research tested the correlation between Potential Intelligence and the components of its Performance Intelligence. Statistical test results that used Pearson correlation showed that five components of Potential Intelligence correlated with Performance Intelligence. Those five components are Logic-Math, Logic, Linguistic, Music, Kinesthetic, and Intrapersonal. Also, this research indicated that cultural factor had a big role in shaping intelligence.

Keywords: potential intelligence, performance intelligence, multiple intelligences, fingerprint, environment, brain

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3611 Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Decision Making Styles of Managers: A Turkish Case

Authors: Fusun Akdag

Abstract:

Today, as business becomes increasingly global, managers/leaders of multinational companies or local companies work with employees or customers from a variety of cultural backgrounds. To do this effectively, they need to develop cultural competence. Therefore, cultural intelligence (CQ) becomes a vitally important aptitude and skill, especially for leaders. The organizational success or failure depends upon the way, the kind of leadership which has been provided to its members. The culture we are born into deeply effects our values, beliefs, and behavior. Cultural intelligence (CQ) focuses on how well individuals can relate and work across cultures. CQ helps minimize conflict and maximize performance of a diverse workforce. The term 'decision,' refers to a commitment to a course of action that is intended to serve the interests and values of particular people. One dimension of culture that has received attention is individualism-collectivism or, independence-interdependence. These dimensions are associated with different conceptualizations of the 'self.' Individualistic cultures tend to value personal goal pursuit as opposed to pursuit of others’ goals. Collectivistic cultures, by contrast, view the 'self' as part of a whole. Each person is expected to work with his or her in-group toward goals, generally pursue group harmony. These differences underlie cross-cultural variation in decision-making, such as the decision modes people use, their preferences, negotiation styles, creativity, and more. The aim of this study is determining the effect of CQ on decision making styles of male and female managers in Turkey, an emergent economy framework. The survey is distributed to gather data from managers at various companies. The questionnaire consists of three parts: demographics, The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) to measure the four dimensions of cultural intelligence and General Decision Making Style (GMDS) Inventory to measure the five subscales of decision making. The results will indicate the Turkish managers’ score at metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral aspects of cultural intelligence and to what extent these scores affect their rational, avoidant, dependent, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles since business leaders make dozens of decisions every day that influence the success of the company and also having an impact on employees, customers, shareholders and the market.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, decision making, gender differences, management styles,

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3610 Analyzing the Influence of Principals’ Cultural Intelligence on Teachers’ Perceived Diversity Climate

Authors: Meghry Nazarian, Ibrahim Duyar

Abstract:

Effective management of a diverse workforce in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) presents peculiar importance as two-thirds of residents are expatriates who have diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Like any other organization in the country, UAE schools have become upmost diverse settings in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine whether principals’ cultural intelligence has direct and indirect (moderating) influences on teachers’ perceived diversity climate. A quantitative causal-comparative research design was employed to analyze the data. Participants included random samples of principals and teachers working in the private and charter schools in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The data-gathering online questionnaires included previously developed and validated scales as the measures of study variables. More specifically, the multidimensional short-form measure of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and the diversity climate scale were used to measure the study variables. Multivariate statistics, including the analysis of multivariate analysis of variance (MANCOVA) and structural equation modeling (SEM), were employed to examine the relationships between the study variables. The preliminary analyses of data showed that principals and teachers have differing views of diversity management and climate in schools. Findings also showed that principals’ cultural intelligence has both direct and moderating influences on teachers’ perceived diversity climate. The study findings are expected to inform policymakers and practicing educational leaders in addressing diversity management in a country where the majority of the residents are the minority who have diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

Keywords: diversity management, united arab emirates, school principals’ cultural intelligence (CQ), teachers’ perceived diversity climate

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3609 Creativity, Skill, and Intelligence as Understood by Tradition Rooted Craftspersons

Authors: Swasti Singh Ghai

Abstract:

Creativity is understood as an intersubjective phenomenon shaped by socio-cultural values and economic forces. Creativity as a means to achieve progress is a very modern concept, driven by a global capitalist market economy. The dominant urban, often first-world articulations of creativity, overshadow the rural, local and cultural notions of people in the developing nations. Artisanal practices of making grounded in preindustrial and pre-capitalist contexts hold varying cultural and region-specific concepts and standards for ascribing creativity to a person or product, or process. These notions reflect the underlying philosophy that constitutes their worldview. The process of colonization through western education has blurred or overlapped some of these key philosophical concepts. This article adopts a post-colonial stance to understand the perceptions of skill, intelligence and creativity among tradition rooted textile craft practitioners of Kutch, Gujarat in India. The artisans, while negotiating their space in the contemporary markets, are making efforts to include the modern categories of art, craft, and design in their worldview. The paper will first review theories of creativity that throw light on the link between skill, intelligence and creativity. Then the paper will use secondary research and data from interviews to share crafts person notions of skill, creativity and intelligence and their interrelationship.

Keywords: traditional craft, textile, creativity, skill, intelligence

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3608 Creative Resolutions to Intercultural Conflicts: The Joint Effects of International Experience and Cultural Intelligence

Authors: Thomas Rockstuhl, Soon Ang, Kok Yee Ng, Linn Van Dyne

Abstract:

Intercultural interactions are often challenging and fraught with conflicts. To shed light on how to interact effectively across cultures, academics and practitioners alike have advanced a plethora of intercultural competence models. However, the majority of this work has emphasized distal outcomes, such as job performance and cultural adjustment, rather than proximal outcomes, such as how individuals resolve inevitable intercultural conflicts. As a consequence, the processes by which individuals negotiate challenging intercultural conflicts are not well understood. The current study advances theorizing on intercultural conflict resolution by exploring antecedents of how people resolve intercultural conflicts. To this end, we examine creativity – the generation of novel and useful ideas – in the context of resolving cultural conflicts in intercultural interactions. Based on the dual-identity theory of creativity, we propose that individuals with greater international experience will display greater creativity and that the relationship is accentuated by individual’s cultural intelligence. Two studies test these hypotheses. The first study comprises 84 senior university students, drawn from an international organizational behavior course. The second study replicates findings from the first study in a sample of 89 executives from eleven countries. Participants in both studies provided protocols of their strategies for resolving two intercultural conflicts, as depicted in two multimedia-vignettes of challenging intercultural work-related interactions. Two research assistants, trained in intercultural management but blind to the study hypotheses, coded all strategies for their novelty and usefulness following scoring procedures for creativity tasks. Participants also completed online surveys of demographic background information, including their international experience, and cultural intelligence. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that surprisingly, while international experience is positively associated with usefulness, it is unrelated to novelty. Further, a person’s cultural intelligence strengthens the positive effect of international experience on usefulness and mitigates the effect of international experience on novelty. Theoretically, our findings offer an important theoretical extension to the dual-identity theory of creativity by identifying cultural intelligence as an important individual difference moderator that qualifies the relationship between international experience and creative conflict resolution. In terms of novelty, individuals higher in cultural intelligence seem less susceptible to rigidity effects of international experiences. Perhaps they are more capable of assessing which aspects of culture are relevant and apply relevant experiences when they brainstorm novel ideas. For utility, individuals high in cultural intelligence are better able to leverage on their international experience to assess the viability of their ideas because their richer and more organized cultural knowledge structure allows them to assess possible options more efficiently and accurately. In sum, our findings suggest that cultural intelligence is an important and promising intercultural competence that fosters creative resolutions to intercultural conflicts. We hope that our findings stimulate future research on creativity and conflict resolution in intercultural contexts.

Keywords: cultural Intelligence, intercultural conflict, intercultural creativity, international experience

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3607 A Cross-Cultural Approach for Communication with Biological and Non-Biological Intelligences

Authors: Thomas Schalow

Abstract:

This paper posits the need to take a cross-cultural approach to communication with non-human cultures and intelligences in order to meet the following three imminent contingencies: communicating with sentient biological intelligences, communicating with extraterrestrial intelligences, and communicating with artificial super-intelligences. The paper begins with a discussion of how intelligence emerges. It disputes some common assumptions we maintain about consciousness, intention, and language. The paper next explores cross-cultural communication among humans, including non-sapiens species. The next argument made is that we need to become much more serious about communicating with the non-human, intelligent life forms that already exist around us here on Earth. There is an urgent need to broaden our definition of communication and reach out to the other sentient life forms that inhabit our world. The paper next examines the science and philosophy behind CETI (communication with extraterrestrial intelligences) and how it has proven useful, even in the absence of contact with alien life. However, CETI’s assumptions and methodology need to be revised and based on the cross-cultural approach to communication proposed in this paper if we are truly serious about finding and communicating with life beyond Earth. The final theme explored in this paper is communication with non-biological super-intelligences using a cross-cultural communication approach. This will present a serious challenge for humanity, as we have never been truly compelled to converse with other species, and our failure to seriously consider such intercourse has left us largely unprepared to deal with communication in a future that will be mediated and controlled by computer algorithms. Fortunately, our experience dealing with other human cultures can provide us with a framework for this communication. The basic assumptions behind intercultural communication can be applied to the many types of communication envisioned in this paper if we are willing to recognize that we are in fact dealing with other cultures when we interact with other species, alien life, and artificial super-intelligence. The ideas considered in this paper will require a new mindset for humanity, but a new disposition will prepare us to face the challenges posed by a future dominated by artificial intelligence.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, CETI, communication, culture, language

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3606 Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence in a Middle Eastern Population

Authors: Said S. Aldhafri, Marwa N. Alrajhi

Abstract:

This study examines gender differences in emotional intelligence levels in the Sultanate of Oman, an Arabic country in the Middle East. As a collective culture, the Omani culture rears children differently based on the Islamic beliefs and the Arabic culture. Gender differences across the different dimensions of emotional intelligence are possible within this collective culture. Emotional intelligences reflect the ability to understand and act upon one’s and others’ emotions. The sample of the study consisted of 338 (50.6% were females) adults from different regions in Oman. The participants completed a 25-item emotional intelligence scale, using 5-point Likert type responses. The results showed that the total scores of the scale as well as the scores from the five dimensions (self management, self motivation, social skills, empathy, and self-awareness) all have good reliability coefficients. Using independent sample t-tests, the findings show that female adults scored higher than male adults. The differences were all statistically significant across the five dimensions of emotional intelligence. The findings are discussed from a cultural perspective and applications for the development of emotional intelligence skills are outlined.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, gender, Arab, Oman

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3605 The Cultural Persona of Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Anthropological Challenges to Public Communication

Authors: Abhivardhan, Ritu Agarwal

Abstract:

The role of entrepreneurial ethics is connected with materializing the core components of human life, and the flexible and gullible attributions dominate the materialization of human lifestyle and outreach in the age of the internet and globalization. One of the key bi-products of the age of information – Artificial Intelligence has become a relevant mechanism to materialize and understand human empathy and originality via various algorithmic policing methodologies with specific intricacies. Since it has a special connection with ethnocentrism – it has the potential to influence the approach of international law and politics owed to the rise of and approach towards perception and communication via populism in progressive and third world countries. The paper argues about the cultural persona of artificial intelligence, and its ontological resemblance in human life is connected with the ethnocentric treatment of cyberspace, with an analysis of the influence of the ethics of entrepreneurship in international politics. The paper further provides an analysis of fake news and misinformation as the sub-strata of communication strategies involving populism determined as a communication strategy and about the legal case of constitutional redemption in recent legislative developments in Europe, the U.S, and Asia with reference to certain important strategies, policy documentation, declarations, and legal instruments. The paper concludes that the capillaries of the anthropomorphic developments of cultural perception via towards artificial intelligence have a hidden and unstable connection with the common approach of entrepreneurial ethics, which influences populism to disrupt the peaceful order of international politics via some minor backlashes in the technological, legal and social realm of human life. Suggestions with the conclusion are hereby provided.

Keywords: ethnocentrism, perception politics, populism, international law, slacktivism, artificial intelligence ethics, enculturation

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3604 Using Information Theory to Observe Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Limei Li, Yanming Pearl Zhang

Abstract:

This paper takes a philosophical view as axiom, and reveals the relationship between information theory and Natural Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence under real world conditions. This paper also derives the relationship between natural intelligence and nature. According to communication principle of information theory, Natural Intelligence can be divided into real part and virtual part. Based on information theory principle that Information does not increase, the restriction mechanism of Natural Intelligence creativity is conducted. The restriction mechanism of creativity reveals the limit of natural intelligence and artificial intelligence. The paper provides a new angle to observe natural intelligence and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: natural intelligence, artificial intelligence, creativity, information theory, restriction of creativity

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3603 Artificial Intelligence Created Inventions

Authors: John Goodhue, Xiaonan Wei

Abstract:

Current legal decisions and policies regarding the naming as artificial intelligence as inventor are reviewed with emphasis on the recent decisions by the European Patent Office regarding the DABUS inventions holding that an artificial intelligence machine cannot be an inventor. Next, a set of hypotheticals is introduced and examined to better understand how artificial intelligence might be used to create or assist in creating new inventions and how application of existing or proposed changes in the law would affect the ability to protect these inventions including due to restrictions on artificial intelligence for being named as inventors, ownership of inventions made by artificial intelligence, and the effects on legal standards for inventiveness or obviousness.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, innovation, invention, patent

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3602 Analysis of Teachers' Self Efficacy in Terms of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Ercan Yilmaz, Ali Murat Sünbül

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to investigate teachers’ self-efficacy with regards to their emotional intelligence. The relational model was used in the study. The participant of the study included 194 teachers from secondary schools in Konya, Turkey. In order to assess teachers’ emotional intelligence, “Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short Form was implemented. For teachers’ self-efficacy, “Teachers’ Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale” was used. As a result of the study, a significant relationship is available between teachers’ sense of self-efficacy and their emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence enucleates approximate eighteen percent of the variable in dimension named teachers’ self-efficacy for the students’ involvement. About nineteen percent of the variable in dimension “self-efficacy for teaching strategies is represented through emotional intelligence. Teachers’ emotional intelligence demonstrates about seventeen percent of variable aimed at classroom management.

Keywords: teachers, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, education

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3601 Discrimination of Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Iman Abu-Rub

Abstract:

This research paper examines if Artificial Intelligence is, in fact, racist or not. Different studies from all around the world, and covering different communities were analyzed to further understand AI’s true implications over different communities. The black community, Asian community, and Muslim community were all analyzed and discussed in the paper to figure out if AI is biased or unbiased towards these specific communities. It was found that the biggest problem AI faces is the biased distribution of data collection. Most of the data inserted and coded into AI are of a white male, which significantly affects the other communities in terms of reliable cultural, political, or medical research. Nonetheless, there are various research was done that help increase awareness of this issue, but also solve it completely if done correctly. Governments and big corporations are able to implement different strategies into their AI inventions to avoid any racist results, which could cause hatred culturally but also unreliable data, medically, for example. Overall, Artificial Intelligence is not racist per se, but the data implementation and current racist culture online manipulate AI to become racist.

Keywords: social media, artificial intelligence, racism, discrimination

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3600 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

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3599 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz

Abstract:

This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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3598 The Nature of Intelligence and Its Forms: An Ontological-Modeling Approach

Authors: Husam El-Asfour, Fateh Adhnouss, Kenneth McIsaac, Abdul Mutalib Wahaishi, Raafat Aburukba, Idris El-Feghia

Abstract:

Although intelligence is commonly referred to as the observable behavior in various fields and domains, it must also be shown how it develops by exhibiting multiple forms and without observing the inherent behavior. There have been several official and informal definitions of intelligence in various areas; however, no scientific agreement on a definition has been agreed upon. There must be a single definition, structure, and precise modeling for articulating how intelligence is perceived by people and machines in order to comprehend intelligence. Another key challenge is defining the different environment types based on the integral elements (agents) and their possible interactions. On the basis of conceptualization, this paper proposes a formal model for defining and developing intelligence. Forms of intelligence are derived from an ontological view, and thus intelligence is defined, described, and modeled based on the various types of environments.

Keywords: intelligence, forms, transformation, conceptualization, ontological view

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3597 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

Abstract:

Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values, Mergers and Acquisitions

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3596 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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3595 Competitive Intelligence within the Maritime Security Intelligence

Authors: Dicky R. Munaf, Ayu Bulan Tisna

Abstract:

Competitive intelligence (business intelligence) is the process of observing the external environment which often conducted by many organizations to get the relevant information which will be used to create the organization policy, whereas, security intelligence is related to the function of the officers who have the duties to protect the country and its people from every criminal actions that might harm the national and individual security. Therefore, the intelligence dimension of maritime security is associated with all the intelligence activities including the subject and the object that connected to the maritime issues. The concept of intelligence business regarding the maritime security perspective is the efforts to protect the maritime security using the analysis of economic movements as the basic strategic plan. Clearly, a weak maritime security will cause high operational cost to all the economic activities which uses the sea as its media. Thus, it affects the competitiveness of a country compared to the other countries that are able to maintain the maritime law enforcement and secure their marine territory. So, the intelligence business within the security intelligence is important to conduct as the beginning process of the identification against the opponent strategy that might happen in the present or in the future. Thereby, the scenario of the potential impact of all the illegal maritime activities, as well as the strategy in preventing the opponent maneuver can be made.

Keywords: competitive intelligence, maritime security intelligence, intelligent systems, information technology

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3594 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori

Abstract:

Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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3593 Integrating Cultures in Institutions of Higher Learning in South Africa

Authors: N. Mesatywa

Abstract:

The aim of the article is to emphasize and motivate for the role of integrating cultures in institutions of learning. The article has used a literature review methodology. Findings indicate that cultures espouse immense social capital that can: facilitate and strengthen moral education that will help learners in mitigating moral decadence and HIV/AIDS; embrace and strengthen the tenets of peace and tranquility among learners from different backgrounds; can form education against xenophobia; can facilitate the process of cultural paradigm shift that will slow down cultural attrition and decadence; can bring back cultural strength, cultural revival, cultural reawakening and cultural emancipation, etc. The article recommends governments to finance cultural activities in institutions of learning; to allow cultural practitioners to be part and parcel of cultural education; and challenge people to pride in the social capital of their indigenous cultures.

Keywords: cultures, cultural practitioners, integration, traditional healers

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3592 The Role of Emotional Intelligence on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation of the Jordanian Universities

Authors: Alfalah Tasneem, Abdallah Bataineh, Falah Jannat, Alfalah Salsabeel

Abstract:

The term emotional intelligence has been unnoticed by a number of scholars in the early 1990s, which was then a major factor that many business managers became interested in understanding its meaning, functions and how it could be integrated in their business life, emotional intelligence is very important for the top managers, to operate in emotionally intelligence way to meet the needs of their employees. Speaking of emotional intelligence success is influenced by personal qualities such as self-awareness, motivation, empathy and relationship skills. The aim of this research is to critically evaluate the potential contribution of emotional intelligence for the Jordanian universities on the level of job satisfaction and the performance of faculty as well as its positive impact on the educational standards.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, higher education, job performance, job satisfaction

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3591 [Keynote Talk]: Swiss Scientific Society for Developing Countries: A Concept of Relationship

Authors: Jawad Alzeer

Abstract:

Cultural setup is varied from country to country and nation to nation, but the ability to adapt successfully to the new cultural setup may pave the way toward the development of cultural intelligence. Overcoming differences may require to build up our personality with the ability to learn, exchange thoughts, and have a constructive dream. Adaptation processes can be accelerated if we effectively utilize our cultural diversity. This can be done through a unified body or society; people with common goals can collectively work to satisfy their values. Narrowing the gap between developed and developing countries is of prime importance. Many international organizations are trying to resolve these issues by rational and peaceful means. Failing to understand the cultural differences, mentalities, strengths and weaknesses of developed and developing countries led to the collapse of many partnerships. Establishment of a neutral body influenced by developed countries intellectuality and developing countries personality may offer a better understanding and reasonable solutions, suggestions, advice that may assist in narrowing gaps and promote-strengthening relationship between developed and developing countries. The key issues, goals, and potential concepts associated with initiating Swiss scientific society for developing countries as a model to facilitate integration of highly skilled scientists are discussed.

Keywords: cultural diversity, developing countries, integration, Switzerland

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3590 Employee Aggression, Labeling and Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Martin Popescu D. Dana Maria

Abstract:

The aims of this research are to broaden the study on the relationship between emotional intelligence and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). The study sample consisted in 441 Romanian employees from companies all over the country. Data has been collected through web surveys and processed with SPSS. The results indicated an average correlation between the two constructs and their sub variables, employees with a high level of emotional intelligence tend to be less aggressive. In addition, labeling was considered an individual difference which has the power to influence the level of employee aggression. A regression model was used to underline the importance of emotional intelligence together with labeling as predictors of CWB. Results have shown that this regression model enforces the assumption that labeling and emotional intelligence, taken together, predict CWB. Employees, who label themselves as victims and have a low degree of emotional intelligence, have a higher level of CWB.

Keywords: aggression, CWB, emotional intelligence, labeling

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3589 Cultural Heritage Management and Tourism in Kosovo

Authors: Valon Shkodra

Abstract:

In our paper, we will give an overview of the cultural heritage and tourism in Kosovo. Kosovo has a history, culture, tradition and architecture that are different from those of other countries in the region, and each country has its own characteristics and peculiarities. In this paper, we will mainly present the situation of cultural heritage and its interpretation. The research is based on fieldwork and the aim of the research is to live the situation of cultural heritage and tourism. The reason why we chose this topic is that cultural heritage and tourism are now the most important industry developing many countries in the world. Besides the benefits that tourism brings, it also has an impact on the preservation, protection and promotion of culture in general. Kosovo, with its cultural diversity and very good geographical location, is also very well suited to develop these two areas as a bridge to each other. The cultural heritage holds traces from the earliest eras and shows a diversity of different civilizations that have just begun to be explored and presented.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economy, tourism, development, institutions, protection

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3588 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

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3587 Event-Led Strategy for Cultural Tourism Development: The Case of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

Abstract:

Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets and the cultures are increasingly being used to promote cities and to increase their competitiveness and attractiveness. One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe, which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on the experience of the 2008 ECOC Liverpool, UK, the study’s findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realising experience economy, enhancing city image, facilitating urban regeneration, promoting cultural production and consumption, as well as establishing partnerships. This study is concluded by drawing some critical factors that event and tourism organisers should consider.

Keywords: cultural tourism, event tourism, cultural event, European capital of culture, Liverpool

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3586 Cultural Snapshot: A Reflection on Project-Based Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Kunto Nurcahyoko

Abstract:

The fundamental perception used in this study is that teaching and learning activities in Indonesian classroom have potentially generated individual’s sensitivity on cross-cultural understanding. This study aims at investigating Indonesian university students’ perception on cross-cultural understanding after doing Cultural Snapshot Project. The data was critically analyzed through multicultural ideology and diversity theories. The subjects were 30 EFL college students in one of colleges in Indonesia. Each student was assigned to capture a photo which depicted the existence of any cultural manifestation in their surrounding such as discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Students were then requested asked to reflect on the picture by writing a short description on the picture and make an exhibition using their pictures. In the end of the project, students were instructed to fill in questionnaires to show their perception before and after the project. The result reveals that Cultural Snapshot Project has given the opportunity for the students to better realize cross-cultural understanding in their environment. In conclusion, the study shows that Cultural Snapshot Project has specifically enhanced students’ perception of multiculturalism in three major areas: cultural sensitivity and empathy, social tolerance, and understanding of diversity.

Keywords: cultural snapshot, cross-cultural understanding, students’ perception, multiculturalism

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3585 Capturing Public Voices: The Role of Social Media in Heritage Management

Authors: Mahda Foroughi, Bruno de Anderade, Ana Pereira Roders

Abstract:

Social media platforms have been increasingly used by locals and tourists to express their opinions about buildings, cities, and built heritage in particular. Most recently, scholars have been using social media to conduct innovative research on built heritage and heritage management. Still, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) methods to analyze social media data for heritage management is seldom explored. This paper investigates the potential of short texts (sentences and hashtags) shared through social media as a data source and artificial intelligence methods for data analysis for revealing the cultural significance (values and attributes) of built heritage. The city of Yazd, Iran, was taken as a case study, with a particular focus on windcatchers, key attributes conveying outstanding universal values, as inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. This paper has three subsequent phases: 1) state of the art on the intersection of public participation in heritage management and social media research; 2) methodology of data collection and data analysis related to coding people's voices from Instagram and Twitter into values of windcatchers over the last ten-years; 3) preliminary findings on the comparison between opinions of locals and tourists, sentiment analysis, and its association with the values and attributes of windcatchers. Results indicate that the age value is recognized as the most important value by all interest groups, while the political value is the least acknowledged. Besides, the negative sentiments are scarcely reflected (e.g., critiques) in social media. Results confirm the potential of social media for heritage management in terms of (de)coding and measuring the cultural significance of built heritage for windcatchers in Yazd. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other attributes in Yazd and also to other case studies.

Keywords: social media, artificial intelligence, public participation, cultural significance, heritage, sentiment analysis

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