Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21570

Search results for: contrastive analysis

21570 Contrastive Linguistics as a Way to Improve Translation Equivalence in Interlingual Lexicography: The Case of Verbs

Authors: R. A. S. Zacarias

Abstract:

Interlingual is one of the most complex, and engaging one among the several perspectives in lexicography. This is because it involves contacts and contrasts between two or more languages. Considering the fact that translation equivalence goes beyond a mere fixed relation of correspondence, understanding the differences and similarities between linguistic categories by pairs of languages is the basis for effective translations. One of the theoretical approaches that have proved useful in finding improved solutions for enhance translation equivalents for bilingual dictionaries is contrastive linguistics. This paper presents an applied qualitative research based on exploratory and descriptive approaches. This is achieved through an error analysis of students’ errors as well as by a contrastive analysis of Portuguese and English verb systems.

Keywords: bilingual lexicography, contrastive linguistics, translation equivalent, Portuguese-English

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21569 Stop Consonants in Chinese and Slovak: Contrastive Analysis by Using Praat

Authors: Maria Istvanova

Abstract:

The acquisition of the correct pronunciation in Chinese is closely linked to the initial phase of the study. Based on the contrastive analysis, we determine the differences in the pronunciation of stop consonants in Chinese and Slovak taking into consideration the place and manner of articulation to gain a better understanding of the students' main difficulties in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of Chinese stop consonants. We employ the software Praat for the analysis of the recorded samples with an emphasis on the pronunciation of the students with a varying command of Chinese. The comparison of the VOT length for the individual consonants in the students' pronunciation and the pronunciation of the native speaker exposes the differences between the correct pronunciation and the deviant pronunciation of the students.

Keywords: Chinese, contrastive analysis, Praat, pronunciation, Slovak.

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21568 A Contrastive Analysis on Hausa and Yoruba Adjectival Phrases

Authors: Abubakar Maikudi

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Contrastive analysis is the method of analyzing the structure of any two languages with a view to determining the possible differential aspects of their systems irrespective of their genetic affinity or level of development. Contrastive analysis of two languages becomes useful when it is adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two languages, with comparative statements giving emphasis to the compatible items in the two systems. This research work uses comparative analysis theory to analyze adjective and adjectival phrases in Hausa and Yorùbá languages. The Hausa language belongs to the Chadic family of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, while the Yorùbá language belongs to the Benue-Congo family of the Niger-Congo phylum. The findings of the research clearly demonstrated that there are significant similarities in the adjectival phrase constructions of the two languages, i.e., nominal (Head) and post-nominal (Post-Head) use of the adjective, predicative function of an adjective, use of the reduplicative adjective, use of the comparative and superlative adjective, etc. However, there are dissimilarities in the adjectival phrase of the two languages in gender/number agreement and pre-nominal (Post-Head) use of adjectives.

Keywords: genetic affinity, contrastive analysis, phylum, pre-head, post-head

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21567 A Contrastive Analysis of English and Ukwuani Front Vowels

Authors: Omenogor, Happy Dumbi

Abstract:

This paper examines the areas of convergence and divergence between English and Ųkwųanį (a language in Nigeria) vowel systems with particular emphasis on the front vowels. It specifies areas of difficulty for the average Ųkwųanį users of English and Ųkwųanį L1 users of English as a second language. The paper explains the nature of contrastive analysis, the geographical locations where Ųkwųanį is spoken as mother tongue as well as English and Ųkwųanį front vowels. The principles of establishing phonemes, minimal pairs in Ųkwųanį as well as the vowel charts in both languages are among the issues highlighted in this paper.

Keywords: convergence, divergence, English, Ukwųanį

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21566 Learner's Difficulties Acquiring English: The Case of Native Speakers of Rio de La Plata Spanish Towards Justifying the Need for Corpora

Authors: Maria Zinnia Bardas Hoffmann

Abstract:

Contrastive Analysis (CA) is the systematic comparison between two languages. It stems from the notion that errors are caused by interference of the L1 system in the acquisition process of an L2. CA represents a useful tool to understand the nature of learning and acquisition. Also, this particular method promises a path to un-derstand the nature of underlying cognitive processes, even when other factors such as intrinsic motivation and teaching strategies were found to best explain student’s problems in acquisition. CA study is justified not only from the need to get a deeper understanding of the nature of SLA, but as an invaluable source to provide clues, at a cognitive level, for those general processes involved in rule formation and abstract thought. It is relevant for cross disciplinary studies and the fields of Computational Thought, Natural Language processing, Applied Linguistics, Cognitive Linguistics and Math Theory. That being said, this paper intends to address here as well its own set of constraints and limitations. Finally, this paper: (a) aims at identifying some of the difficulties students may find in their learning process due to the nature of their specific variety of L1, Rio de la Plata Spanish (RPS), (b) represents an attempt to discuss the necessity for specific models to approach CA.

Keywords: second language acquisition, applied linguistics, contrastive analysis, applied contrastive analysis English language department, meta-linguistic rules, cross-linguistics studies, computational thought, natural language processing

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21565 True and False Cognates of Japanese, Chinese and Philippine Languages: A Contrastive Analysis

Authors: Jose Marie E. Ocdenaria, Riceli C. Mendoza

Abstract:

Culturally, languages meet, merge, share, exchange, appropriate, donate, and divide in and to and from each other. Further, this type of recurrence manifests in East Asian cultures, where language influence diffuses across geographical proximities. Historically, China has notable impacts on Japan’s culture. For instance, Japanese borrowed words from China and their way of reading and writing. This qualitative and descriptive employing contrastive analysis study addressed the true and false cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages. It involved a rich collection of data from various sources like textual pieces of evidence or corpora to gain a deeper understanding of true and false cognates between L1 and L2. Cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages were analyzed contrastively according to orthography, phonology, and semantics. The words presented were the roots; however, derivatives, reduplications, and variants of stress were included when they shed emphases on the comparison. The basis of grouping the cognates was its phonetic-semantic resemblance. Based on the analysis, it revealed that there are words which may have several types of lexical relationship. Further, the study revealed that the Japanese language has more false cognates in the Philippine languages, particularly in Tagalog and Cebuano. On the other hand, there are more true cognates of Chinese in Tagalog. It is the hope of this study to provide a significant contribution to a diverse audience. These include the teachers and learners of foreign languages such as Japanese and Chinese, future researchers and investigators, applied linguists, curricular theorists, community, and publishers.

Keywords: Contrastive Analysis, Japanese, Chinese and Philippine languages, Qualitative and descriptive study, True and False Cognates

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21564 A Contrastive Study of Affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages: Implications for English Language Pedagogy

Authors: Tosin Samson Olagunju

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This study is a contrastive study of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the aim of looking at the implications for English pedagogy. This study, with the use of Hocket's Theory of Item and Arrangement and Word and Paradigm (as expatiated by Crystal), examines the aspect of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the help of contrastive analysis which provides a basis for contrasting the morphological patterns of two different indigenous languages. It examines four affixes: prefix, infix, interfix, and suffix with numerous examples in the languages under investigation. The study is corpus based as it depends primarily on the words available in the lexicon of the languages under examination. Data were elicited from both monolingual and bilingual native-speakers of Ipe Language and Yoruba Language in Ipe-Akoko and Oyo respectively. Ibadan 400-wordlist was utilised as a tool for collecting data from informants who are between age fifty and seventy through audio recording as it is believed that they are the custodians of culture and tradition. Consequently, the study reveals that Ipe and Yoruba morphology have affixation such as prefix, interfix, and suffix. It also finds out that 'infix' is an unproductive aspect in English, Ipe, and Yoruba; although a few examples are in English. Interfix is very productive in Ipe and Yoruba but not in English at all. Phonologically, it is discovered that Ipe language has the two dental fricative consonants just like the English language, i.e., /Ɵ/ and /ð/. This is rare among the indigenous languages in Nigeria. This research believes that in the teaching of English consonants to the people of Ipe-Akoko, such areas will be taught with ease. The study concludes that morphological processes of Nigerian indigenous languages are studied the more so that they will not face endangerment which can lead to extinction.

Keywords: affixation, contrastive study, Ipe, morphology, pedagogy, Yoruba

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21563 Large-Scale Electroencephalogram Biometrics through Contrastive Learning

Authors: Mostafa ‘Neo’ Mohsenvand, Mohammad Rasool Izadi, Pattie Maes

Abstract:

EEG-based biometrics (user identification) has been explored on small datasets of no more than 157 subjects. Here we show that the accuracy of modern supervised methods falls rapidly as the number of users increases to a few thousand. Moreover, supervised methods require a large amount of labeled data for training which limits their applications in real-world scenarios where acquiring data for training should not take more than a few minutes. We show that using contrastive learning for pre-training, it is possible to maintain high accuracy on a dataset of 2130 subjects while only using a fraction of labels. We compare 5 different self-supervised tasks for pre-training of the encoder where our proposed method achieves the accuracy of 96.4%, improving the baseline supervised models by 22.75% and the competing self-supervised model by 3.93%. We also study the effects of the length of the signal and the number of channels on the accuracy of the user-identification models. Our results reveal that signals from temporal and frontal channels contain more identifying features compared to other channels.

Keywords: brainprint, contrastive learning, electroencephalo-gram, self-supervised learning, user identification

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21562 A Corpus-Based Contrastive Analysis of Directive Speech Act Verbs in English and Chinese Legal Texts

Authors: Wujian Han

Abstract:

In the process of human interaction and communication, speech act verbs are considered to be the most active component and the main means for information transmission, and are also taken as an indication of the structure of linguistic behavior. The theoretical value and practical significance of such everyday built-in metalanguage have long been recognized. This paper, which is part of a bigger study, is aimed to provide useful insights for a more precise and systematic application to speech act verbs translation between English and Chinese, especially with regard to the degree to which generic integrity is maintained in the practice of translation of legal documents. In this study, the corpus, i.e. Chinese legal texts and their English translations, English legal texts, ordinary Chinese texts, and ordinary English texts, serve as a testing ground for examining contrastively the usage of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal genre. The scope of this paper is relatively wide and essentially covers all directive speech act verbs which are used in ordinary English and Chinese, such as order, command, request, prohibit, threat, advice, warn and permit. The researcher, by combining the corpus methodology with a contrastive perspective, explored a range of characteristics of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs including their semantic, syntactic and pragmatic features, and then contrasted them in a structured way. It has been found that there are similarities between English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal genre, such as similar semantic components between English speech act verbs and their translation equivalents in Chinese, formal and accurate usage of English and Chinese directive speech act verbs in legal contexts. But notable differences have been identified in areas of difference between their usage in the original Chinese and English legal texts such as valency patterns and frequency of occurrences. For example, the subjects of some directive speech act verbs are very frequently omitted in Chinese legal texts, but this is not the case in English legal texts. One of the practicable methods to achieve adequacy and conciseness in speech act verb translation from Chinese into English in legal genre is to repeat the subjects or the message with discrepancy, and vice versa. In addition, translation effects such as overuse and underuse of certain directive speech act verbs are also found in the translated English texts compared to the original English texts. Legal texts constitute a particularly valuable material for speech act verb study. Building up such a contrastive picture of the Chinese and English speech act verbs in legal language would yield results of value and interest to legal translators and students of language for legal purposes and have practical application to legal translation between English and Chinese.

Keywords: contrastive analysis, corpus-based, directive speech act verbs, legal texts, translation between English and Chinese

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21561 The Contribution of Corpora to the Investigation of Cross-Linguistic Equivalence in Phraseology: A Contrastive Analysis of Russian and Italian Idioms

Authors: Federica Floridi

Abstract:

The long tradition of contrastive idiom research has essentially been focusing on three domains: the comparison of structural types of idioms (e.g. verbal idioms, idioms with noun-phrase structure, etc.), the description of idioms belonging to the same thematic groups (Sachgruppen), the identification of different types of cross-linguistic equivalents (i.e. full equivalents, partial equivalents, phraseological parallels, non-equivalents). The diastratic, diachronic and diatopic aspects of the compared idioms, as well as their syntactic, pragmatic and semantic properties, have been rather ignored. Corpora (both monolingual and parallel) give the opportunity to investigate the actual use of correlating idioms in authentic texts of L1 and L2. Adopting the corpus-based approach, it is possible to draw attention to the frequency of occurrence of idioms, their syntactic embedding, their potential syntactic transformations (e.g., nominalization, passivization, relativization, etc.), their combinatorial possibilities, the variations of their lexical structure, their connotations in terms of stylistic markedness or register. This paper aims to present the results of a contrastive analysis of Russian and Italian idioms referring to the concepts of ‘beginning’ and ‘end’, that has been carried out by using the Russian National Corpus and the ‘La Repubblica’ corpus. Beyond the digital corpora, bilingual dictionaries, like Skvorcova - Majzel’, Dobrovol’skaja, Kovalev, Čerdanceva, as well as monolingual resources, have been consulted. The study has shown that many of the idioms that have been traditionally indicated as cross-linguistic equivalents on bilingual dictionaries cannot be considered correspondents. The findings demonstrate that even those idioms, that are formally identical in Russian and Italian and are presumably derived from the same source (e.g., conceptual metaphor, Bible, classical mythology, World literature), exhibit differences regarding usage. The ultimate purpose of this article is to highlight that it is necessary to review and improve the existing bilingual dictionaries considering the empirical data collected in corpora. The materials gathered in this research can contribute to this sense.

Keywords: corpora, cross-linguistic equivalence, idioms, Italian, Russian

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21560 Morphological Analysis of English L1-Persian L2 Adult Learners’ Interlanguage: From the Perspective of SLA Variation

Authors: Maassoumeh Bemani Naeini

Abstract:

Studies on interlanguage have long been engaged in describing the phenomenon of variation in SLA. Pursuing the same goal and particularly addressing the role of linguistic features, this study describes the use of Persian morphology in the interlanguage of two adult English-speaking learners of Persian L2. Taking the general approach of a combination of contrastive analysis, error analysis and interlanguage analysis, this study focuses on the identification and prediction of some possible instances of transfer from English L1 to Persian L2 across six elicitation tasks aiming to investigate whether any of contextual features may variably influence the learners’ order of morpheme accuracy in the areas of copula, possessives, articles, demonstratives, plural form, personal pronouns, and genitive cases.  Results describe the existence of task variation in the interlanguage system of Persian L2 learners.

Keywords: English L1, Interlanguage Analysis, Persian L2, SLA variation

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21559 Aspects of Semantics of Standard British English and Nigerian English: A Contrastive Study

Authors: Chris Adetuyi, Adeola Adeniran

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The concept of meaning is a complex one in language study when cultural features are added. This is mandatory because language cannot be completely separated from the culture in which case language and culture complement each other. When there are two varieties of a language in a society, i.e. two varieties functioning side by side in a speech community, there is a tendency to view one of the varieties with each other. There is, therefore, the need to make a linguistic comparative study of varieties of such languages. In this paper, a semantic contrastive study is made between Standard British English (SBE) and Nigerian English (NB). The semantic study is limited to aspects of semantics: semantic extension (Kinship terms, metaphors), semantic shift (lexical items considered are ‘drop’ ‘befriend’ ‘dowry’ and escort) acronyms (NEPA, JAMB, NTA) linguistic borrowing or loan words (Seriki, Agbada, Eba, Dodo, Iroko) coinages (long leg, bush meat; bottom power and juju). In the study of these aspects of semantics of SBE and NE lexical terms, conservative statements are made, problems areas and hierarchy of difficulties are highlighted with a view to bringing out areas of differences are highlighted in this paper are concerned. The study will also serve as a guide in further contrastive studies in some other area of languages.

Keywords: aspect, British, English, Nigeria, semantics

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21558 A Culture-Contrastive Analysis Of The Communication Between Discourse Participants In European Editorials

Authors: Melanie Kerschner

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Language is our main means of social interaction. News journalism, especially opinion discourse, holds a powerful position in this context. Editorials can be regarded as encounters of different, partially contradictory relationships between discourse participants constructed through the editorial voice. Their primary goal is to shape public opinion by commenting on events already addressed by other journalistic genres in the given newspaper. In doing so, the author tries to establish a consensus over the negotiated matter (i.e. the news event) with the reader. At the same time, he/she claims authority over the “correct” description and evaluation of an event. Yet, how can the relationship and the interaction between the discourse participants, i.e. the journalist, the reader and the news actors represented in the editorial, be best visualized and studied from a cross-cultural perspective? The present research project attempts to give insights into the role of (media) culture in British, Italian and German editorials. For this purpose the presenter will propose a basic framework: the so called “pyramid of discourse participants”, comprising the author, the reader, two types of news actors and the semantic macro-structure (as meta-level of analysis). Based on this framework, the following questions will be addressed: • Which strategies does the author employ to persuade the reader and to prompt him to give his opinion (in the comment section)? • In which ways (and with which linguistic tools) is editorial opinion expressed? • Does the author use adjectives, adverbials and modal verbs to evaluate news actors, their actions and the current state of affairs or does he/she prefer nominal labels? • Which influence do language choice and the related media culture have on the representation of news events in editorials? • In how far does the social context of a given media culture influence the amount of criticism and the way it is mediated so that it is still culturally-acceptable? The following culture-contrastive study shall examine 45 editorials (i.e. 15 per media culture) from six national quality papers that are similar in distribution, importance and the kind of envisaged readership to make valuable conclusions about culturally-motivated similarities and differences in the coverage and assessment of news events. The thematic orientation of the editorials will be the NSA scandal and the reactions of various countries, as this topic was and still is relevant to each of the three media cultures. Starting out from the “pyramid of discourse participants” as underlying framework, eight different criteria will be assigned to the individual discourse participants in the micro-analysis of the editorials. For the purpose of illustration, a single criterion, referring to the salience of authorial opinion, will be selected to demonstrate how the pyramid of discourse participants can be applied as a basis for empirical analysis. Extracts from the corpus shall furthermore enhance the understanding.

Keywords: Micro-analysis of editorials, culture-contrastive research, media culture, interaction between discourse participants, evaluation

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21557 Intertextuality as a Dialogue Between Postmodern Writer J. Fowles and Mid-English Writer J. Donne

Authors: Isahakyan Heghine

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Intertextuality, being in the centre of attention of both linguists and literary critics, is vividly expressed in the outstanding British novelist and philosopher J. Fowles' works. 'The Magus’ is a deep psychological and philosophical novel with vivid intertextual links with the Greek mythology and authors from different epochs. The aim of the paper is to show how intertextuality might serve as a dialogue between two authors (J. Fowles and J. Donne) disguised in the dialogue of two protagonists of the novel : Conchis and Nicholas. Contrastive viewpoints concerning man's isolation, loneliness are stated in the dialogue. Due to the conceptual analysis of the text it becomes possible both to decode the conceptual information of the text and find out its intertextual links.

Keywords: dialogue, conceptual analysis, isolation, intertextuality

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21556 Ideological Manipulations and Cultural-Norm Constraints

Authors: Masoud Hassanzade Novin, Bahloul Salmani

Abstract:

Translation cannot be considered as a simple linguistic act. Through the rise of descriptive approach in the late 1970s and 1980s, translation process managed to meet the requirements of social aspects as well as linguistic approaches. To have the translation considered as the cross-cultural communication through which various cultures communicate in ideological and cultural constraints, the contrastive analysis was conducted in this paper to reveal the distortions imposed in the translated texts. The corpus of the study involved the novel 1984 written by George Orwell and its Persian translated texts which were analyzed through the qualitative type of the research based on critical discourse analysis (CDA) and Toury's norms as well as Lefever's concepts of ideology. Results of the study revealed the point that ideology and the cultural constraints were considered as an important stimulus which can control the process of the translation.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, ideology, norms, translated texts

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21555 Error Analysis: Examining Written Errors of English as a Second Language (ESL) Spanish Speaking Learners

Authors: Maria Torres

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After the acknowledgment of contrastive analysis, Pit Coder’s establishment of error analysis revolutionized the way instructors analyze and examine students’ writing errors. One question that relates to error analysis with speakers of a first language, in this case, Spanish, who are learning a second language (English), is the type of errors that these learners make along with the causes of these errors. Many studies have looked at the way the native tongue influences second language acquisition, but this method does not take into account other possible sources of students’ errors. This paper examines writing samples from an advanced ESL class whose first language is Spanish at non-profit organization, Learning Quest Stanislaus Literacy Center. Through error analysis, errors in the students’ writing were identified, described, and classified. The purpose of this paper was to discover the type and origin of their errors which generated appropriate treatments. The results in this paper show that the most frequent errors in the advanced ESL students’ writing pertain to interlanguage and a small percentage from an intralanguage source. Lastly, the least type of errors were ones that originate from negative transfer. The results further solidify the idea that there are other errors and sources of errors to account for rather than solely focusing on the difference between the students’ mother and target language. This presentation will bring to light some strategies and techniques that address the issues found in this research. Taking into account the amount of error pertaining to interlanguage, an ESL teacher should provide metalinguistic awareness of the students’ errors.

Keywords: error analysis, ESL, interlanguage, intralangauge

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21554 The Markers -mm and dämmo in Amharic: Developmental Approach

Authors: Hayat Omar

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Languages provide speakers with a wide range of linguistic units to organize and deliver information. There are several ways to verbally express the mental representations of events. According to the linguistic tools they have acquired, speakers select the one that brings out the most communicative effect to convey their message. Our study focuses on two markers, -mm and dämmo, in Amharic (Ethiopian Semitic language). Our aim is to examine, from a developmental perspective, how they are used by speakers. We seek to distinguish the communicative and pragmatic functions indicated by means of these markers. To do so, we created a corpus of sixty narrative productions of children from 5-6, 7-8 to 10-12 years old and adult Amharic speakers. The experimental material we used to collect our data is a series of pictures without text 'Frog, Where are you?'. Although -mm and dämmo are each used in specific contexts, they are sometimes analyzed as being interchangeable. The suffix -mm is complex and multifunctional. It marks the end of the negative verbal structure, it is found in the relative structure of the imperfect, it creates new words such as adverbials or pronouns, it also serves to coordinate words, sentences and to mark the link between macro-propositions within a larger textual unit. -mm was analyzed as marker of insistence, topic shift marker, element of concatenation, contrastive focus marker, 'bisyndetic' coordinator. On the other hand, dämmo has limited function and did not attract the attention of many authors. The only approach we could find analyzes it in terms of 'monosyndetic' coordinator. The paralleling of these two elements made it possible to understand their distinctive functions and refine their description. When it comes to marking a referent, the choice of -mm or dämmo is not neutral, depending on whether the tagged argument is newly introduced, maintained, promoted or reintroduced. The presence of these morphemes explains the inter-phrastic link. The information is seized by anaphora or presupposition: -mm goes upstream while dämmo arrows downstream, the latter requires new information. The speaker uses -mm or dämmo according to what he assumes to be known to his interlocutors. The results show that -mm and dämmo, although all the speakers use them both, do not always have the same scope according to the speaker and vary according to the age. dämmo is mainly used to mark a contrastive topic to signal the concomitance of events. It is more commonly used in young children’s narratives (F(3,56) = 3,82, p < .01). Some values of -mm (additive) are acquired very early while others are rather late and increase with age (F(3,56) = 3,2, p < .03). The difficulty is due not only because of its synthetic structure but primarily because it is multi-purpose and requires a memory work. It highlights the constituent on which it operates to clarify how the message should be interpreted.

Keywords: acquisition, cohesion, connection, contrastive topic, contrastive focus, discourse marker, pragmatics

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21553 Examining the Dubbing Strategies Used in the Egyptian Dubbed Version of Mulan (1998)

Authors: Shaza Melies, Saadeya Salem, Seham Kareh

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Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience. Cartoon films are multisemiotic as various modes integrate in the production of meaning. This study aims to examine the cultural and linguistic specific references in the Egyptian dubbed cartoon film Mulan. The study examines the translation strategies implemented in the Egyptian dubbed version of Mulan to meet the cultural preferences of the audience. The study reached the following findings: Using the traditional translation strategies does not deliver the intended meaning of the source text and causes loss in the intended humor. As a result, the findings showed that in the dubbed version, translators tend to omit, change, or add information to the target text to be accepted by the audience. The contrastive analysis of the Mulan (English and dubbed versions) proves the connotations that the dubbing has taken to be accepted by the target audience.

Keywords: domestication, dubbing, Mulan, translation theories

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21552 'Caucasian Mountaineer / Scottish Highlander': Correlation between Semantics and Culture

Authors: Natalia M. Nepomniashchikh

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The research focuses on Russian and English linguoculturemes Caucasian mountaineer and Scottish Highlander, the effort of comparative-contrastive analysis was made. In order to reach the aim, the analysis of the vocabulary definitions of the concepts under consideration was taken, which made it possible to build the lexical-semantic fields of both lexical items in Russian and English. This stage of research helped to turn to the linguistic-cultural fields construction. To build these fields, literary pieces containing the concepts under consideration and the items directly related to them were taken from the works about the Caucasus mountains and mountaineers living there by M. Yu. Lermontov and the ones by W. Scott devoted to the Scottish Highlands and their inhabitants. All collected data was systematized in schemes and tables reflecting the differences and intercrossing areas.

Keywords: lexemes, lexical items, lexical-semantic field, linguistic-cultural field, linguoculturemes

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21551 Contrastive Learning for Unsupervised Object Segmentation in Sequential Images

Authors: Tian Zhang

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Unsupervised object segmentation aims at segmenting objects in sequential images and obtaining the mask of each object without any manual intervention. Unsupervised segmentation remains a challenging task due to the lack of prior knowledge about these objects. Previous methods often require manually specifying the action of each object, which is often difficult to obtain. Instead, this paper does not need action information of objects and automatically learns the actions and relations among objects from the structured environment. To obtain the object segmentation of sequential images, the relationships between objects and images are extracted to infer the action and interaction of objects based on the multi-head attention mechanism. Three types of objects’ relationships in the object segmentation task are proposed: the relationship between objects in the same frame, the relationship between objects in two frames, and the relationship between objects and historical information. Based on these relationships, the proposed model (1) is effective in multiple objects segmentation tasks, (2) just needs images as input, and (3) produces better segmentation results as more relationships are considered. The experimental results on multiple datasets show that this paper’s method achieves state-of-art performance. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the result are conducted. The proposed method could be easily extended to other similar applications.

Keywords: unsupervised object segmentation, attention mechanism, contrastive learning, structured environment

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21550 Problems of Learning English Vowels Pronunciation in Nigeria

Authors: Wasila Lawan Gadanya

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This paper examines the problems of learning English vowel pronunciation. The objective is to identify some of the factors that affect the learning of English vowel sounds and their proper realization in words. The theoretical framework adopted is based on both error analysis and contrastive analysis. The data collection instruments used in the study are questionnaire and word list for the respondents (students) and observation of some of their lecturers. All the data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The findings show that it is not a single factor that affects the learning of English vowel pronunciation rather many factors concurrently do so. Among the factors examined, it has been found that lack of correlation between English orthography and its pronunciation, not mother-tongue (which most people consider as a factor affecting learning of the pronunciation of a second language), has the greatest influence on students’ learning and realization of English vowel sounds since the respondents in this study are from different ethnic groups of Nigeria and thus speak different languages but having the same or almost the same problem when pronouncing the English vowel sounds.

Keywords: English vowels, learning, Nigeria, pronunciation

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21549 Patronage Network and Ideological Manipulations in Translation of Literary Texts: A Case Study of George Orwell's “1984” in Persian Translation in the Period 1980 to 2015

Authors: Masoud Hassanzade Novin, Bahloul Salmani

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The process of the translation is not merely the linguistic aspects. It is also considered in the cultural framework of both the source and target text cultures. The translation process and translated texts are confronted the new aspect in 20th century which is considered mostly in the patronage framework and ideological grillwork of the target language. To have these factors scrutinized in the process of the translation both micro-element factors and macro-element factors can be taken into consideration. For the purpose of this study through a qualitative type of research based on critical discourse analysis approach, the case study of the novel “1984” written by George Orwell was chosen as the corpus of the study to have the contrastive analysis by its Persian translated texts. Results of the study revealed some distortions embedded in the target texts which were overshadowed by ideological aspect and patronage network. The outcomes of the manipulated terms were different in various categories which revealed the manipulation aspects in the texts translated.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, ideology, patronage network, translated texts

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21548 Effects of Exposure to a Language on Perception of Non-Native Phonologically Contrastive Duration

Authors: Chuyu Huang, Itsuki Minemi, Kuanlin Chen, Yuki Hirose

Abstract:

It remains unclear how language speakers are able to perceive phonological contrasts that do not exist on their own. This experiment uses the vowel-length distinction in Japanese, which is phonologically contrastive and co-occurs with tonal change in some cases. For speakers whose first language does not distinguish vowel length, contrastive duration is usually misperceived, e.g., Mandarin speakers. Two alternative hypotheses for how Mandarin speakers would perceive a phonological contrast that does not exist in their language make different predictions. The stress parameter model does not have a clear prediction about the impact of tonal type. Mandarin speakers will likely be not able to perceive vowel length as well as Japanese native speakers do, but the performance might not correlate to tonal type because the prosody of their language is distinctive, which requires users to encode lexical prosody and notice subtle differences in word prosody. By contrast, cue-based phonetic models predict that Mandarin speakers may rely on pitch differences, a secondary cue, to perceive vowel length. Two groups of Mandarin speakers, including naive non-Japanese speakers and beginner learners, were recruited to participate in an AX discrimination task involving two Japanese sound stimuli that contain a phonologically contrastive environment. Participants were asked to indicate whether the two stimuli containing a vowel-length contrast (e.g., maapero vs. mapero) sound the same. The experiment was bifactorial. The first factor contrasted three syllabic positions (syllable position; initial/medial/final), as it would be likely to affect the perceptual difficulty, as seen in previous studies, and the second factor contrasted two pitch types (accent type): one with accentual change that could be distinguished with the lexical tones in Mandarin (the different condition), with the other group having no tonal distinction but only differing in vowel length (the same condition). The overall results showed that a significant main effect of accent type by applying a linear mixed-effects model (β = 1.48, SE = 0.35, p < 0.05), which implies that Mandarin speakers tend to more successfully recognize vowel-length differences when the long vowel counterpart takes on a tone that exists in Mandarin. The interaction between the accent type and the syllabic position is also significant (β = 2.30, SE = 0.91, p < 0.05), showing that vowel lengths in the different conditions are more difficult to recognize in the word-final case relative to the initial condition. The second statistical model, which compares naive speakers to beginners, was conducted with logistic regression to test the effects of the participant group. A significant difference was found between the two groups (β = 1.06, 95% CI = [0.36, 2.03], p < 0.05). This study shows that: (1) Mandarin speakers are likely to use pitch cues to perceive vowel length in a non-native language, which is consistent with the cue-based approaches; (2) an exposure effect was observed: the beginner group achieved a higher accuracy for long vowel perception, which implied the exposure effect despite the short period of language learning experience.

Keywords: cue-based perception, exposure effect, prosodic perception, vowel duration

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21547 Particular Features of the First Romanian Multilingual Dictionaries

Authors: Mihaela Mocanu

Abstract:

The Romanian multilingual dictionaries – also named polyglot, plurilingual or polylingual dictionaries, have known a slow yet constant development starting with the end of the 17th century, when the first such work is attested, to the present time, when we witness a considerable increase of the number of polyglot dictionaries, especially the terminological ones. This paper aims at analyzing the context in which the first Romanian multilingual dictionaries were issued, as well as and the organization and structure particularities of the first lexicographic works of this type. The irretrievable loss of some of these works as well as the partial conservation of others renders the attempt to retrace the beginnings of Romanian lexicography extremely difficult. The research methodology is part of a descriptive and analytical approach based on two types of sources, subject to contrastive analysis: the notes made by the initiators of lexicographic projects and the testimonies of their contemporaries, respectively, along with the specialized studies regarding the history of the old Romanian lexicography. The analysis of the contents has indicated that these dictionaries lacked a scientific apparatus in the true sense of the phrase, failed to obey unitary organizational criteria, being limited, most of the times, to mere inventories of words, where the Romanian term was assigned its correspondent in other languages. Motivated by practical reasons, the first multilingual dictionaries were aimed at the clerics their purpose being to ensure the translators’ fidelity towards the original religious texts, regarded as sacred.

Keywords: Romanian lexicography, multilingual dictionary, terminology, language

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21546 Application of Mobile Aluminium Light Structure Housing System in Sustainable Building Process

Authors: Wang Haining, Zhang Hong

Abstract:

In China, rapid urbanization needs more and more buildings constructed for the growing population in cities. With the help of the methodology which contains investigation, contrastive analysis, design based on component with BIM and experiment before real construction, this research based on mobile light structure system, trying to the sustainable problems partly in present China by systematic study. The system cannot replace the permanent heavy structure completely. So the goal is the improvement of the whole building system by the addition of light structure. This house system uses modularized envelopes and standardized connections, which are pre-fabricated and assembled in factories and transported like containers. Aluminum is used as the structural material in this system, and inorganic thermal insulation material used in the envelope, which have high fireproof properties. The relationship between manufactory and construction of the system is progressive hierarchy. They exist as First Industrial, Second Industrial, Third Industrial and Site Assembly Stage. It could maximize the land usage capacity by fully exploit the area where normal permanent architecture can't take advantage of. Not only the building system itself especially the thermal isolated materials used and active solar photovoltaic system equipped can save energy, but also the way of product development is sustainable.

Keywords: aluminum house, light Structure, rapid assembly, repeat construction

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21545 Analysis of Underground Logistics Transportation Technology and Planning Research: Based on Xiong'an New Area, China

Authors: Xia Luo, Cheng Zeng

Abstract:

Under the promotion of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council in 2017, Xiong'an New Area is the third crucial new area in China established after Shenzhen and Shanghai. Its constructions' significance lies in mitigating Beijing's non-capital functions and exploring a new mode of optimizing development in densely populated and economically intensive areas. For this purpose, developing underground logistics can assume the role of goods distribution in the capital, relieve the road transport pressure in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, adjust and optimize the urban layout and spatial structure of it. Firstly, the construction planning of Xiong'an New Area and underground logistics development are summarized, especially the development status abroad, the development trend, and bottlenecks of underground logistics in China. This paper explores the technicality, feasibility, and necessity of four modes of transportation. There are pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) technology, the CargoCap technology, cable hauled mule, and automatic guided vehicle (AGV). The above technical parameters and characteristics are introduced to relevant experts or scholars. Through establishing an indicator system, carrying out a questionnaire survey with the Delphi method, the final suggestion is obtained: China should develop logistics vehicles similar to CargoCap, adopting rail mode and driverless mode. Based on China's temporal and spatial logistics demand and the geographical pattern of Xiong'an New Area, the construction scale, technical parameters, node location, and other vital parameters of underground logistics are planned. In this way, we hope to speed up the new area's construction and the logistics industry's innovation.

Keywords: the Xiong'an new area, underground logistics, contrastive analysis, CargoCap, logistics planning

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21544 A Contrastive Rhetoric Study: The Use of Textual and Interpersonal Metadiscoursal Markers in Persian and English Newspaper Editorials

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Moslem Fatollahi

Abstract:

This study tries to contrast the use of metadiscoursal markers in English and Persian Newspaper Editorials as persuasive text types. These markers are linguistic elements in the text which do not add to the propositional content of it, rather they serve to realize the Halliday’s (1985) textual and interpersonal functions of language. At first, some of the most common markers from five subcategories of Text Connectives, Illocution Markers, Hedges, Emphatics, and Attitude Markers were identified in both English and Persian newspapers. Then, the frequency of occurrence of these markers in both English and Persian corpus consisting of 44 randomly selected editorials (18,000 words in each) from several English and Persian newspapers was recorded. After that, using a two-way chi square analysis, the overall x2 obs was found to be highly significant. So, the null hypothesis of no difference was confidently rejected. Finally, in order to determine the contribution of each subcategory to the overall x 2 value, one-way chi square analyses were applied to the individual subcategories. The results indicated that only two of the five subcategories of markers were statistically significant. This difference is then attributed to the differing spirits prevailing in the linguistic communities involved. Regarding the minor research question it was found that, in contrast to English writers, Persian writers are more writer-oriented in their writings.

Keywords: metadiscoursal markers, textual meta-function, interpersonal meta-function, persuasive texts, English and Persian newspaper editorials

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21543 Corpus Stylistics and Multidimensional Analysis for English for Specific Purposes Teaching and Assessment

Authors: Svetlana Strinyuk, Viacheslav Lanin

Abstract:

Academic English has become lingua franca for international scientific community which stimulates universities to introduce English for Specific Purposes (EAP) courses into curriculum. Teaching L2 EAP students might be fulfilled with corpus technologies and digital stylistics. A special software developed to reach the manifold task of teaching, assessing and researching academic writing of L2 students on basis of digital stylistics and multidimensional analysis was created. A set of annotations (style markers) – grammar, lexical and syntactic features most significant of academic writing was built. Contrastive comparison of two corpora “model corpus”, subject domain limited papers published by competent writers in leading academic journals, and “students’ corpus”, subject domain limited papers written by last year students allows to receive data about the features of academic writing underused or overused by L2 EAP student. Both corpora are tagged with a special software created in GATE Developer. Style markers within the framework of research might be replaced depending on the relevance and validity of the result which is achieved from research corpora. Thus, selecting relevant (high frequency) style markers and excluding less relevant, i.e. less frequent annotations, high validity of the model is achieved. Software allows to compare the data received from processing model corpus to students’ corpus and get reports which can be used in teaching and assessment. The less deviation from the model corpus students demonstrates in their writing the higher is academic writing skill acquisition. The research showed that several style markers (hedging devices) were underused by L2 EAP students whereas lexical linking devices were used excessively. A special software implemented into teaching of EAP courses serves as a successful visual aid, makes assessment more valid; it is indicative of the degree of writing skill acquisition, and provides data for further research.

Keywords: corpus technologies in EAP teaching, multidimensional analysis, GATE Developer, corpus stylistics

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21542 Expression of Stance in Lower- and Upper- Level Students’ Writing in Business Administration at English-Medium University in Burundi

Authors: Clement Ndoricimpa

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The expression of stance is highly expected in writing at tertiary level. Through a selection of linguistic and rhetorical elements, writers express commitment, critical distance and build a critically discerning reader in texts. Despite many studies on patterns of stance in students’ academic writing, little may not be known about how English as a Foreign Language students learns to build a critically discerning reader in their texts. Therefore, this study examines patterns of stance in essays written by students majoring in business administration at English-medium University in Burundi as part of classroom assignments. It draws on systemic functional linguistics to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the data. The quantitative analysis is used to identify the differences in frequency of stance patterns in the essays. The results show a significant difference in the use of boosters by lower- and upper-level students. Lower-level students’ writing contains more boosters and many idiosyncratic sentence structures than do upper-level students’ writing, and upper-level students’ essays contain more hedging and few grammatical mistakes than do lower-level students’ essays. No significant difference in the use of attitude markers and concessive and contrastive expressions. Students in lower- and upper-level do not use attitude markers and disclaimer markers appropriately and accurately. These findings suggest that students should be taught the use of stance patterns in academic writing.

Keywords: academic writing, metadiscourse, stance, student corpora

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21541 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku

Abstract:

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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