Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: phonology

29 Investigating the Effect of Juncture on Comprehension among Adult Learners of English in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Oluwasegun Omidiora, Eugenia Abiodun-Eniayekan

Abstract:

The role of phonology on reading comprehension is long established in the literature. However, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between phonology and reading or comprehension among adults involve investigating the role of intonation, stress, and segmental knowledge on understanding texts. Not much attention is paid to junctural observation and its effect on the interpretation of texts. This study, therefore, presents a preliminary case-study investigation of the effect of juncture on comprehension of texts among adult Nigerian learners of English. Eighty adult learners of English in Nigeria were presented with fifteen seemingly ambiguous sentences to interpret. The sentences were structured in a way that pausing at different points would produce different interpretations. The results reveal that wrong application of pause is capable of affecting comprehension even when other phonological factors such as stress and intonation are observed properly.

Keywords: comprehension, juncture, phonology, reading

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28 Algerian Case Study of Age Effect and Cross Linguistic Influence in Third Language Phonology Acquisition

Authors: Zouleykha Belabbes

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Learning foreign languages is sine qua non in the era of globalization, mobility, and communications, which grants access and connectedness to the world. This urgent need is highlighted in monolingual settings, however, in multilingual contexts the case is, to some extent, complicated. In effect, research on bilingualism and multilingualism lead to the issue of Cross Linguistic Influence (CLI) which seeks to explain how and under which conditions prior linguistic knowledge of first language (L1) and / or second language (L2) influences the production, comprehension and development of a third language (L3) or additional language (Ln). Moreover, the issue of age is also one of the persistent topics in the field of language acquisition. This paper aims to scrutinize the effect of age and two previously known languages: Arabic (L1) and French (L2) in acquiring English (L3) phonology in Algerian context. The study consisted of 20 participants of different age range who were presented with recorded samples of English (L3). The findings confirm the results of some previous studies on the issue of Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) and demonstrate a tendency for the L2 phonological transfer in L3 production at the initial stages of acquisition within young and later learners that for some circumstances diminished as L3 proficiency develop.

Keywords: acquisition, age effect, cross linguistic influence, L3 phonology

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27 Evidence-Based Investigation of the Phonology of Nigerian Instant Messaging

Authors: Emmanuel Uba, Lily Chimuanya, Maryam Tar

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Orthographic engineering is no longer the preserve of the Short Messaging Service (SMS), which is characterised by limited space. Such stylistic creativity or deviation is fast creeping into real-time messaging, popularly known as Instant Messaging (IM), despite the large number of characters allowed. This occurs at various linguistic levels: phonology, morphology, syntax, etc. Nigerians are not immune to this linguistic stylisation. This study investigates the phonological and meta-phonological conventions of the messages sent and received via WhatsApp by Nigerian graduates. This is ontological study of 250 instant messages collected from 98 graduates from different ethnic groups in Nigeria. The selection and analysis of the messages are based on figure and ground principle. The results reveal the use of accent stylisation, phoneme substitution, blending, consonantisation (a specialised form of deletion targeting vowels), numerophony (using a figure/number, usually 1-10, to represent a word or syllable that has the same sound) and phonetic respelling in the IMs sent by Nigerians. The study confirms the existence of linguistic creativity.

Keywords: figure and ground principle, instant messaging, linguistic stylisation, meta-phonology

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26 Term Creation in Specialized Fields: An Evaluation of Shona Phonetics and Phonology Terminology at Great Zimbabwe University

Authors: Peniah Mabaso-Shamano

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The paper evaluates Shona terms that were created to teach Phonetics and Phonology courses at Great Zimbabwe University (GZU). The phonetics and phonology terms to be discussed in this paper were created using different processes and strategies such as translation, borrowing, neologising, compounding, transliteration, circumlocution among many others. Most phonetics and phonology terms are alien to Shona and as a result, there are no suitable Shona equivalents. The lecturers and students for these courses have a mammoth task of creating terminology for the different modules offered in Shona and other Zimbabwean indigenous languages. Most linguistic reference books are written in English. As such, lecturers and students translate information from English to Shona, a measure which is proving to be too difficult for them. A term creation workshop was held at GZU to try to address the problem of lack of terminology in indigenous languages. Different indigenous language practitioners from different tertiary institutions convened for a two-day workshop at GZU. Due to the 'specialized' nature of phonetics and phonology, it was too difficult to come up with 'proper' indigenous terms. The researcher will consult tertiary institutions lecturers who teach linguistics courses and linguistics students to get their views on the created terms. The people consulted will not be the ones who took part in the term creation workshop held at GZU. The selected participants will be asked to evaluate and back-translate some of the terms. In instances where they feel the terms created are not suitable or user-friendly, they will be asked to suggest other terms. Since the researcher is also a linguistics lecturer, her observation and views will be important. From her experience in using some of the terms in teaching phonetics and phonology courses to undergraduate students, the researcher noted that most of the terms created have shortcomings since they are not user-friendly. These shortcomings include terms longer than the English terms as some terms are translated to Shona through a whole statement. Most of these terms are neologisms, compound neologisms, transliterations, circumlocutions, and blends. The paper will show that there is overuse of transliterated terms due to the lack of Shona equivalents for English terms. Most single English words were translated into compound neologisms or phrases after attempts to reduce them to one word terms failed. In other instances, circumlocution led to the problem of creating longer terms than the original and as a result, the terms are not user-friendly. The paper will discuss and evaluate the different phonetics and phonology terms created and the different strategies and processes used in creating them.

Keywords: blending, circumlocution, term creation, translation

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25 Preliminary Study of the Phonological Development in Three and Four Year Old Bulgarian Children

Authors: Tsvetomira Boycheva, Miglena Simonska

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The article presents the results of a research of phonological processes in three and four-year-old children. For the purpose of the study, an author's test was developed and conducted among 120 children. The study included three areas of research - at the level of words (96 words), at the level of sentence repetition (10 sentences) and at the level of generating own speech from a picture (15 pictures). The test also gives us additional information about the articulation errors of the assessed children. The main purpose of the icing is to analyze all phonological processes that occur at this age in Bulgarian children and to identify which are typical and atypical for this age. The results show that the most common phonology errors that children make are: sound substitution, an elision of sound, metathesis of sound, elision of a syllable, elision of consonants clustered in a syllable. All examined children were identified with the articulatory disorder from type bilabial lambdacism. Measuring the correlation between average length of repeated speech and average length of generated speech, the analysis proves that the more words a child can repeat in part “repeated speech,” the more words they can be expected to generate in part “generating a sentence.” The results of this study show that the task of naming a word provides sufficient and representative information to assess the child's phonology.

Keywords: assessment, phonology, articulation, speech-language development

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24 The Priming Effect of Morphology, Phonology, Semantics, and Orthography in Mandarin Chinese: A Prime Paradigm Study

Authors: Bingqing Xu, Wenxing Shuai

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This study investigates the priming effects of different Chinese compound words by native Mandarin speakers. There are lots of homonym, polysemy, and synonym in Chinese. However, it is unclear which kind of words have the biggest priming effect. Native Mandarin speakers were tested in a visual-word lexical decision experiment. The stimuli, which are all two-character compound words, consisted of two parts: primes and targets. Five types of relationships were used in all stimuli: morphologically related condition, in which the prime and the target contain the same morpheme; orthographically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same form; phonologically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with the same phonology; semantically related condition, in which the target and the prime contain the different morpheme with similar meanings; totally unrelated condition. The time since participants saw the target to respond was recorded. Analyses on reaction time showed that the average reaction time of morphologically related targets was much shorter than others, suggesting the morphological priming effect is the biggest. However, the reaction time of the phonologically related conditions was the longest, even longer than unrelated conditions. According to scatter plots analyses, 86.7% of participants had priming effects in morphologically related conditions, only 20% of participants had priming effects in phonologically related conditions. These results suggested that morphologically related conditions had the biggest priming effect. The orthographically and semantically related conditions also had priming effects, whereas the phonologically related conditions had few priming effects.

Keywords: priming effect, morphology, phonology, semantics, orthography

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23 A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Etim, Victoria Enefiok, Dada, Oluseyi Akintunde, Bassey Okon

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Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.

Keywords: language disorders, phonology, phonological processes, specific language impairment

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22 Descriptive Analysis of Variations in Maguindanaon Language

Authors: Fhajema Kunso

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People who live in the same region and who seemed to speak the same language still vary in some aspects of their language. The variation may occur in terms of pronunciation, lexicon, morphology, and syntax. This qualitative study described the phonological, morphological, and lexical variations of the Maguindanaon language among the ten Maguindanao municipalities. Purposive sampling, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and sorting and classifying of words according to phonological and morphological as well as lexical structures in data analysis were employed. The variations occurred through phonemic changes and other phonological processes and morphological processes. Phonological processes consisted of vowel lengthening and deletion while morphological processes included affixation, borrowing, and coinage. In the phonological variation, it was observed that there were phonemic changes in one dialect to another. For example, there was a change of phoneme /r/ to /l/. The phoneme /r/ was most likely to occur in Kabuntalan like /biru/, /kurIt/, and /kɘmɅr/ whereas in the rest of the dialects these were /bilu/, /kuIɪt/, and /kɘmɅl/ respectively. Morphologically, the affixation was the main way to know the tenses. For example, the root sarig (expect) when inserted with im becomes simarig, i.e. s + im + arig = simarig (expected). Lexical variation also existed in the Maguindanaon language. Results revealed that the variation in phonology, morphology, and lexicon were observed to be associated primarily on geographic distribution.

Keywords: applied linguistics, language, lexicon, Maguindanao, morphology, Philippines, phonology, processes, qualitative, variation

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21 The Impact of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis and the Self-Teaching Hypothesis on Reading Ability

Authors: Anastasios Ntousas

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The purpose of the following paper is to analyze the relationship between the lexical quality and the self-teaching hypothesis and their impact on the reading ability. The following questions emerged, is there a correlation between the effective reading experience that the lexical quality hypothesis proposes and the self-teaching hypothesis, would the ability to read by analogy facilitate and create stable, synchronized four-word representational, and would word morphological knowledge be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis. The lexical quality hypothesis speculates that words include four representational attributes, phonology, orthography, morpho-syntax, and meaning. Those four-word representations work together to make word reading an effective task. A possible lack of knowledge in one of the representations might disrupt reading comprehension. The degree that the four-word features connect together makes high and low lexical word quality representations. When the four-word representational attributes connect together effectively, readers have a high lexical quality of words; however, when they hardly have a strong connection with each other, readers have a low lexical quality of words. Furthermore, the self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding enables printed word learning. Phonological knowledge and reading experience facilitate the acquisition and consolidation of specific-word orthographies. The reading experience is related to strong reading comprehension. The more readers have contact with texts, the better readers they become. Therefore, their phonological knowledge, as the self-teaching hypothesis suggests, might have a facilitative impact on the consolidation of the orthographical, morphological-syntax and meaning representations of unknown words. The phonology of known words might activate effectively the rest of the representational features of words. Readers use their existing phonological knowledge of similarly spelt words to pronounce unknown words; a possible transference of this ability to read by analogy will appear with readers’ morphological knowledge. Morphemes might facilitate readers’ ability to pronounce and spell new unknown words in which they do not have lexical access. Readers will encounter unknown words with similarly phonemes and morphemes but with different meanings. Knowledge of phonology and morphology might support and increase reading comprehension. There was a careful selection, discussion of theoretical material and comparison of the two existing theories. Evidence shows that morphological knowledge improves reading ability and comprehension, so morphological knowledge might be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis, the fundamental skill to read by analogy can be implemented to the consolidation of word – specific orthographies via readers’ morphological knowledge, and there is a positive correlation between effective reading experience and self-teaching hypothesis.

Keywords: morphology, orthography, reading ability, reading comprehension

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20 Phonology and Syntax of Article Incorporation in Mauritian Creole: Evidence from Bantou Languages

Authors: Emmanuel Nikiema

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This paper examines article incorporation in Mauritian Creole, a French Lexifier Creole which exhibits three forms of article incorporation as illustrated in (1-3). While various analyses of article incorporation have been proposed in the literature, fewer studies have explored the motivation of this widespread phenomenon in Mauritian Creole (MC) as opposed to other French Lexifier Creoles spoken in the Caribbean. For example, Mauritian Creole exhibits 4 times more CV incorporation than Haitian Creole, and 40 times more than Reunion Creole. (1) Consonantal type (C): loraz ‘thunder storm’, lete ‘summer’, zwazo ‘bird’, nide ‘idea’. (2) Syllabic type (CV): lapo ‘skin’, liku ‘neck’, ledo ‘back’, leker ‘heart’, diber ‘butter’. (3) Bi-consonantal (CVC): delo ‘water’, dizef ‘egg’, lizye ‘eye’, dilwil ‘oil’. The goal of this study is twofold: 1) uncover the rules governing the three types of article incorporation in MC, and 2) account for its remarkable occurrence in MC as opposed to its quasi-absence in Reunion Creole. We have collected a corpus of over 700 cases and organized it into three categories (C; CV and CVC). For example, there are 471 examples of CV incorporation in MC against 112 in Haitian Creole and only 12 in Reunion Creole. Two questions can be raised: 1) what is the motivation and distribution of the three types of incorporation in MC, and 2) how can one account for the high volume of incorporation in MC as opposed to its quasi-absence in Reunion Creole? We suggest that article incorporation in MC is related to the structure of nouns in Bantou languages. While previous authors have largely used population settlement data in the colonies during the Creole formation period to justify their analyses, we propose an account based on the syntactic structure of Bantou nouns. This analysis will shed light on the contribution of African languages to the formation of MC, and on to why MC has exhibited more article incorporation cases than any other French Lexifier Creole.

Keywords: article incorporation, creole languages, description, phonology

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19 A Syntactic Approach to Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic Language in Modern Communications

Authors: Adeyemo Abduljeeel Taiwo

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This research is an attempt that creates a conducive atmosphere of a phonological and morphological compendium of Arabic language in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) for modern day communications. The research is carried out with the chief aim of grammatical analysis of the two broad fields of Arabic linguistics namely: Applied and Socio-Linguistics. It draws a pictorial record of Applied and Socio-Linguistics in Arabic phonology and morphology. Thematically, it postulates and contemplates to a large degree, the theory of concord in contemporary modern Arabic language acquisition. It utilizes an analytical method while it portrays Arabic as a Semitic language that promotes linguistics and syntax among the scholars of the fields.

Keywords: Arabic language, applied linguistics, socio-linguistics, modern communications

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18 Factors of English Language Learning and Acquisition at Bisha College of Technology

Authors: Khlaid Albishi

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This paper participates in giving new vision and explains the learning and acquisition processes of English language by analyzing a certain context. Five important factors in English language acquisition and learning are discussed and suitable solutions are provided. The factors are compared with the learners' linguistic background at Bisha College of Technology BCT attempting to link the issues faced by students and the research done on similar situations. These factors are phonology, age of acquisition, motivation, psychology and courses of English. These factors are very important; because they interfere and affect specific learning processes at BCT context and general English learning situations.

Keywords: language acquisition, language learning, factors, Bisha college

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17 A New Spell-Out Mechanism

Authors: Yusra Yahya

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In this paper, a new spell-out mechanism is developed and defended. This mechanism builds on the role of phase heads as both the loci of spell-out features and the transfer triggers via either Phase Impenetrability Condition 1 (PIC1) and/or Phase Impenetrability Condition 2 (PIC2). The assumption here is that phase heads, mainly v*, can regulate the spell-out process by deciding both the type of spell-out applying and the timing of spell-out relevant. This paper also proposes a new form of the constraint Wrap call it Wrap-XP’ and it is assumed to apply to IP as a functional maximal projection. This extension is shown to fall as a natural result once we assume the new theory of phases and multiple spell-out. Moreover, it is proposed in this work that some forms of XP movement are not motivated by an EPP feature of a strong phase head mainly v*, but they are rather motivated by a last resort strategy to accomplish the spell-out instruction of this phase head.

Keywords: linguistics, syntax, phonology, phase theory, optimality theory

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16 The Acoustic Features of Ulu Terengganu Malay Monophthongs

Authors: Siti Nadiah Nuwawi, Roshidah Hassan

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Dialect is one of the language variants emerge due to certain factors. One of the distinctive dialects spoken by people in Malaysia is the one spoken by those who reside in the inland area of the East Peninsular Malaysia; Hulu Terengganu, which is known as Ulu Terengganu Malay dialect. This dialect is unique since it possesses ancient elements in its phonology elements, which makes it is hard to be understood by people who come from other states. There is dearth of acoustic studies of the dialect in which this paper aims to attain by describing the quality of the monophthongs found in the dialect instrumentally based on their first and second formant values. The hertz values are observed and recorded from the waveforms and spectrograms depicted in PRAAT version 6.0.43 software. The findings show that Ulu Terengganu Malay speakers produced ten monophthongs namely /ɛ/, /e/, /a/, /ɐ/, /ɞ/, /ɔ/, /i/, /o/, /ɵ/ and /ɘ/ which applauds a few monophthongs suggested by past researchers which were based on auditory impression namely /ɛ/, /e/, /a/, ɔ/, and /i/. It also discovers the other five monophthongs of the dialect which are unknown before namely /ɐ/, /ɞ/, /o/, /ɵ/ and /ɘ/.

Keywords: acoustic analysis, dialect, formant values, monophthongs, Ulu Terengganu Malay

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15 Dialect as a Means of Identification among Hausa Speakers

Authors: Hassan Sabo

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Language is a system of conventionally spoken, manual and written symbols by human beings that members of a certain social group and participants in its culture express themselves. Communication, expression of identity and imaginative expression are among the functions of language. Dialect is a form of language, or a regional variety of language that is spoken in a particular geographical setting by a particular group of people. Hausa is one of the major languages in Africa, in terms of large number of people for whom it is the first language. Hausa is one of the western Chadic groups of languages. It constitutes one of the five or six branches of Afro-Asiatic family. The predominant Hausa speakers are in Nigeria and they live in different geographical locations which resulted to variety of dialects within the Hausa language apart of the standard Hausa language, the Hausa language has a variety of dialect that distinguish from one another by such features as phonology, grammar and vocabulary. This study intends to examine such features that serve as means of identification among Hausa speakers who are set off from others, geographically or socially.

Keywords: dialect, features, geographical location, Hausa language

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14 Absence of Developmental Change in Epenthetic Vowel Duration in Japanese Speakers’ English

Authors: Takayuki Konishi, Kakeru Yazawa, Mariko Kondo

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This study examines developmental change in the production of epenthetic vowels by Japanese learners of English in relation to acquisition of L2 English speech rhythm. Seventy-two Japanese learners of English in the J-AESOP corpus were divided into lower- and higher-level learners according to their proficiency score and the frequency of vowel epenthesis. Three learners were excluded because no vowel epenthesis was observed in their utterances. The analysis of their read English speech data showed no statistical difference between lower- and higher-level learners, implying the absence of any developmental change in durations of epenthetic vowels. This result, together with the findings of previous studies, will be discussed in relation to the transfer of L1 phonology and manifestation of L2 English rhythm.

Keywords: vowel epenthesis, Japanese learners of English, L2 speech corpus, speech rhythm

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13 English Loanwords in the Egyptian Variety of Arabic: Morphological and Phonological Changes

Authors: Mohamed Yacoub

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This paper investigates the English loanwords in the Egyptian variety of Arabic and reaches three findings. Data, in the first finding, were collected from Egyptian movies and soap operas; over two hundred words have been borrowed from English, code-switching was not included. These words then have been put into eleven different categories according to their use and part of speech. Finding two addresses the morphological and phonological change that occurred to these words. Regarding the phonological change, eight categories were found in both consonant and vowel variation, five for consonants and three for vowels. Examples were given for each. Regarding the morphological change, five categories were found including the masculine, feminine, dual, broken, and non-pluralize-able nouns. The last finding is the answers to a four-question survey that addresses forty eight native speakers of Egyptian Arabic and found that most participants did not recognize English borrowed words and thought they were originally Arabic and could not give Arabic equivalents for the loanwords that they could recognize.

Keywords: sociolinguistics, loanwords, borrowing, morphology, phonology, variation, Egyptian dialect

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12 Reading in Multiple Arabic's: Effects of Diglossia and Orthography

Authors: Aula Khatteb Abu-Liel

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The study investigated the effects of diglossia and orthography on reading in Arabic, manipulating reading in Spoken Arabic (SA), using Arabizi, in which it is written using Latin letters on computers/phones, and the two forms of the conventional written form Modern Standard Arabic (MSA): vowelled (shallow) and unvowelled (deep). 77 skilled readers in 8th grade performed oral reading of single words and narrative and expository texts, and silent reading comprehension of both genres of text. Oral reading and comprehension revealed different patterns. Single words and texts were read faster and more accurately in unvoweled MSA, slowest and least accurately in vowelled MSA, and in-between in Arabizi. Comprehension was highest for vowelled MSA. Narrative texts were better than expository texts in Arabizi with the opposite pattern in MSA. The results suggest that frequency of the type of texts and the way in which phonology is encoded affect skilled reading.

Keywords: Arabic, Arabize, computer mediated communication, diglossia, modern standard Arabic

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11 Effectiveness of Using Phonemic Awareness Based Activities in Improving Decoding Skills of Third Grade Students Referred for Reading Disabilities in Oman

Authors: Mahmoud Mohamed Emam

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In Oman the number of students referred for reading disabilities is on the rise. Schools serve these students by placement in the so-called learning disabilities unit. Recently the author led a strategic project to train teachers on the use of curriculum based measurement to identify students with reading disabilities in Oman. Additional the project involved training teachers to use phonemic awareness based activities to improve reading skills of those students. Phonemic awareness refers to the ability to notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in words. We know that a student's skill in phonemic awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty. Using multiple baseline design across four participants the current studies investigated the effectiveness of using phonemic awareness based activities to improve decoding skills of third grade students referred for reading disabilities in Oman. During treatment students received phonemic awareness based activities that were designed to fulfill the idiosyncratic characteristics of Arabic language phonology as well as orthography. Results indicated that the phonemic awareness based activities were effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly decoded word for all four participants. Maintenance of strategy effects was evident for the weeks following the termination of intervention for the four students. In addition, the effects of intervention generalized to decoding novel words for all four participants.

Keywords: learning disabilities, phonemic awareness, third graders, Oman

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10 Phonological Characteristics of Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children

Authors: Akbar Darouie, Mamak Joulaie

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In regard of phonological skills development importance and its influence on other aspects of language, this study has been performed. Determination of some phonological indexes in children with hearing impairment and comparison with hearing children was the objective. A sample of convenience was selected from a rehabilitation center and a kindergarten in Karaj, Iran. Participants consisted of 12 hearing impaired and 12 hearing children (age range: 5 years and 6 months to 6 years and 6 months old). Hearing impaired children suffered from severe to profound hearing loss while three of them were cochlear implanted and the others were wearing hearing aids. Conversational speech of these children was recorded and 50 first utterances were selected to analyze. Percentage of consonant correct (PCC) and vowel correct (PVC), initial and final consonant omission error, cluster consonant omission error and syllabic structure variety were compared in two groups. Data were analyzed with t test (version 16th SPSS). Comparison between PCC and PVC averages in two groups showed a significant difference (P< 0/01). There was a significant difference about final consonant emission error (P<0/001) and initial consonant emission error (P<0/01) too. Also, the differences between two groups on cluster consonant omission were significant (P<0/001). Therefore, some changes were seen in syllabic structures in children with hearing impairment compared to typical group. This study demonstrates some phonological differences in Farsi language between two groups of children. Therefore, it seems, in clinical practices we must notice this issue.

Keywords: hearing impairment, phonology, vowel, consonant

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9 The Phonology and Phonetics of Second Language Intonation in Case of “Downstep”

Authors: Tayebeh Norouzi

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This study aims to investigate the acquisition process of intonation. It examines the intonation structure of Tokyo Japanese and its realization by Iranian learners of Japanese. Seven Iranian learners of Japanese, differing in fluency, and two Japanese speakers participated in the experiment. Two sentences were used to test the phonological and phonetic characteristics of lexical pitch-accent as well as the intonation patterns produced by the speakers. Both sentences consisted of similar words with the same number of syllables and lexical pitch-accents but different syntactic structure. Speakers were asked to read each sentence three times at normal speed, and the data were analyzed by Praat. The results show that lexical pitch-accent, Accentual Phrase (AP) and AP boundary tone realization vary depending on sentence type. For sentences of type XdeYwo, the lexical pitch-accent is realized properly. However, there is a rise in AP boundary tone regardless of speakers’ level of fluency. In contrast, in sentences of type XnoYwo, the lexical pitch-accent and AP boundary tone vary depending on the speakers’ fluency level. Advanced speakers are better at grouping words into phrases and produce more native-like intonation patterns, though they are not able to realize downstep properly. The non-native speakers tried to realize proper intonation patterns by making changes in lexical accent and boundary tone.

Keywords: intonation, Iranian learners, Japanese prosody, lexical accent, second language acquisition.

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8 The Greek Root Word ‘Kos’ and the Trade of Ancient Greek with Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: D. Pugazhendhi

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The ancient Greeks were forerunners in many fields than other societies. So, the Greeks were well connected with all the countries which were well developed during that time through trade route. In this connection, trading of goods from the ancient Greece to Tamil Nadu which is presently in India, though they are geographically far away, played an important role. In that way, the word and the goods related with kos and kare got exchanged between these two societies. So, it is necessary to compare the phonology and the morphological occurrences of these words that are found common both in the ancient Greek and Tamil literatures of the contemporary period. The results show that there were many words derived from the root kos with the basic meaning of ‘arrange’ in the ancient Greek language, but this is not the case in the usage of the word kare. In the ancient Tamil literature, the word ‘kos’ does not have any root and also had rare occurrences. But it was just the opposite in the case of the word ‘kare’. One of all the meanings of the word, which was derived from the root ‘kos’ in ancient Greek literature, is related with costly ornaments. This meaning seems to have close resemblance with the usage of word ‘kos’ in ancient Tamil literature. Also, the meaning of the word ‘kare’ in ancient Tamil literature is related with spices whereas, in the ancient Greek literature, its meaning is related to that of the cooking of meat using spices. Hence, the similarity seen in the meanings of these words ‘kos’ and ‘kare’ in both these languages provides lead for further study. More than that, the ancient literary resources which are available in both these languages ensure the export and import of gold and spices from the ancient Greek land to Tamil land.

Keywords: arrange, kare, Kos, ornament, Tamil

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7 True and False Cognates of Japanese, Chinese and Philippine Languages: A Contrastive Analysis

Authors: Jose Marie E. Ocdenaria, Riceli C. Mendoza

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Culturally, languages meet, merge, share, exchange, appropriate, donate, and divide in and to and from each other. Further, this type of recurrence manifests in East Asian cultures, where language influence diffuses across geographical proximities. Historically, China has notable impacts on Japan’s culture. For instance, Japanese borrowed words from China and their way of reading and writing. This qualitative and descriptive employing contrastive analysis study addressed the true and false cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages. It involved a rich collection of data from various sources like textual pieces of evidence or corpora to gain a deeper understanding of true and false cognates between L1 and L2. Cognates of Japanese-Philippine languages and Chinese-Philippine languages were analyzed contrastively according to orthography, phonology, and semantics. The words presented were the roots; however, derivatives, reduplications, and variants of stress were included when they shed emphases on the comparison. The basis of grouping the cognates was its phonetic-semantic resemblance. Based on the analysis, it revealed that there are words which may have several types of lexical relationship. Further, the study revealed that the Japanese language has more false cognates in the Philippine languages, particularly in Tagalog and Cebuano. On the other hand, there are more true cognates of Chinese in Tagalog. It is the hope of this study to provide a significant contribution to a diverse audience. These include the teachers and learners of foreign languages such as Japanese and Chinese, future researchers and investigators, applied linguists, curricular theorists, community, and publishers.

Keywords: Contrastive Analysis, Japanese, Chinese and Philippine languages, Qualitative and descriptive study, True and False Cognates

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6 Computerized Analysis of Phonological Structure of 10,400 Brazilian Sign Language Signs

Authors: Wanessa G. Oliveira, Fernando C. Capovilla

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Capovilla and Raphael’s Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 4,200 Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) signs. Duduchi and Capovilla’s software SignTracking permits users to retrieve signs even when ignoring the gloss corresponding to it and to discover the meaning of all 4,200 signs sign simply by clicking on graphic menus of the sign characteristics (phonemes). Duduchi and Capovilla have discovered that the ease with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the average popularity of its component phonemes. Thus, signs composed of rare (distinct) phonemes are easier to retrieve than are those composed of common phonemes. SignTracking offers a means of computing the average popularity of the phonemes that make up each one of 4,200 signs. It provides a precise measure of the degree of ease with which signs can be retrieved, and sign meanings can be discovered. Duduchi and Capovilla’s logarithmic model proved valid: The degree with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the popularity of each component phoneme. Capovilla, Raphael and Mauricio’s New Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 10,400 Libras signs. The present analysis revealed Libras DNA structure by mapping the incidence of 501 sign phonemes resulting from the layered distribution of five parameters: 163 handshape phonemes (CherEmes-ManusIculi); 34 finger shape phonemes (DactilEmes-DigitumIculi); 55 hand placement phonemes (ArtrotoToposEmes-ArticulatiLocusIculi); 173 movement dimension phonemes (CinesEmes-MotusIculi) pertaining to direction, frequency, and type; and 76 Facial Expression phonemes (MascarEmes-PersonalIculi).

Keywords: Brazilian sign language, lexical retrieval, libras sign, sign phonology

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5 Efficacy of Phonological Awareness Intervention for People with Language Impairment

Authors: I. Wardana Ketut, I. Suparwa Nyoman

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This study investigated the form and characteristic of speech sound produced by three Balinese subjects who have recovered from aphasia as well as intervened their language impairment on side of linguistic and neuronal aspects of views. The failure of judging the speech sound was caused by impairment of motor cortex that indicated there were lesions in left hemispheric language zone. Sound articulation phenomena were in the forms of phonemes deletion, replacement or assimilation in individual words and meaning building for anomic aphasia. Therefore, the Balinese sound patterns were stimulated by showing pictures to the subjects and recorded to recognize what individual consonants or vowels they unclearly produced and to find out how the sound disorder occurred. The physiology of sound production by subject’s speech organs could not only show the accuracy of articulation but also any level of severity the lesion they suffered from. The subjects’ speech sounds were investigated, classified and analyzed to know how poor the lingual units were and observed to clarify weaknesses of sound characters occurred either for place or manner of articulation. Many fricative and stopped consonants were replaced by glottal or palatal sounds because the cranial nerve, such as facial, trigeminal, and hypoglossal underwent impairment after the stroke. The phonological intervention was applied through a technique called phonemic articulation drill and the examination was conducted to know any change has been obtained. The finding informed that some weak articulation turned into clearer sound and simple meaning of language has been conveyed. The hierarchy of functional parts of brain played important role of language formulation and processing. From this finding, it can be clearly emphasized that this study supports the role of right hemisphere in recovery from aphasia is associated with functional brain reorganization.

Keywords: aphasia, intervention, phonology, stroke

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4 Recursion, Merge and Event Sequence: A Bio-Mathematical Perspective

Authors: Noury Bakrim

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Formalization is indeed a foundational Mathematical Linguistics as demonstrated by the pioneering works. While dialoguing with this frame, we nonetheless propone, in our approach of language as a real object, a mathematical linguistics/biosemiotics defined as a dialectical synthesis between induction and computational deduction. Therefore, relying on the parametric interaction of cycles, rules, and features giving way to a sub-hypothetic biological point of view, we first hypothesize a factorial equation as an explanatory principle within Category Mathematics of the Ergobrain: our computation proposal of Universal Grammar rules per cycle or a scalar determination (multiplying right/left columns of the determinant matrix and right/left columns of the logarithmic matrix) of the transformable matrix for rule addition/deletion and cycles within representational mapping/cycle heredity basing on the factorial example, being the logarithmic exponent or power of rule deletion/addition. It enables us to propone an extension of minimalist merge/label notions to a Language Merge (as a computing principle) within cycle recursion relying on combinatorial mapping of rules hierarchies on external Entax of the Event Sequence. Therefore, to define combinatorial maps as language merge of features and combinatorial hierarchical restrictions (governing, commanding, and other rules), we secondly hypothesize from our results feature/hierarchy exponentiation on graph representation deriving from Gromov's Symbolic Dynamics where combinatorial vertices from Fe are set to combinatorial vertices of Hie and edges from Fe to Hie such as for all combinatorial group, there are restriction maps representing different derivational levels that are subgraphs: the intersection on I defines pullbacks and deletion rules (under restriction maps) then under disjunction edges H such that for the combinatorial map P belonging to Hie exponentiation by intersection there are pullbacks and projections that are equal to restriction maps RM₁ and RM₂. The model will draw on experimental biomathematics as well as structural frames with focus on Amazigh and English (cases from phonology/micro-semantics, Syntax) shift from Structure to event (especially Amazigh formant principle resolving its morphological heterogeneity).

Keywords: rule/cycle addition/deletion, bio-mathematical methodology, general merge calculation, feature exponentiation, combinatorial maps, event sequence

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3 A Linguistic Analysis of the Inconsistencies in the Meaning of Some -er Suffix Morphemes

Authors: Amina Abubakar

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English like any other language is rich by means of arbitrary, conventional, symbols which lend it to lot of inconsistencies in spelling, phonology, syntax, and morphology. The research examines the irregularities prevalent in the structure and meaning of some ‘er’ lexical items in English and its implication to vocabulary acquisition. It centers its investigation on the derivational suffix ‘er’, which changes the grammatical category of word. English language poses many challenges to Second Language Learners because of its irregularities, exceptions, and rules. One of the meaning of –er derivational suffix is someone or somebody who does something. This rule often confuses the learners when they meet with the exceptions in normal discourse. The need to investigate instances of such inconsistencies in the formation of –er words and the meanings given to such words by the students motivated this study. For this purpose, some senior secondary two (SS2) students in six randomly selected schools in the metropolis were provided a large number of alphabetically selected ‘er’ suffix ending words, The researcher opts for a test technique, which requires them to provide the meaning of the selected words with- er. The marking of the test was scored on the scale of 1-0, where correct formation of –er word and meaning is scored one while wrong formation and meaning is scored zero. The number of wrong and correct formations of –er words meaning were calculated using percentage. The result of this research shows that a large number of students made wrong generalization of the meaning of the selected -er ending words. This shows how enormous the inconsistencies are in English language and how are affect the learning of English. Findings from the study revealed that though students mastered the basic morphological rules but the errors are generally committed on those vocabulary items that are not frequently in use. The study arrives at this conclusion from the survey of their textbook and their spoken activities. Therefore, the researcher recommends that there should be effective reappraisal of language teaching through implementation of the designed curriculum to reflect on modern strategies of teaching language, identification, and incorporation of the exceptions in rigorous communicative activities in language teaching, language course books and tutorials, training and retraining of teachers on the strategies that conform to the new pedagogy.

Keywords: ESL(English as a second language), derivational morpheme, inflectional morpheme, suffixes

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2 A (Morpho) Phonological Typology of Demonstratives: A Case Study in Sound Symbolism

Authors: Seppo Kittilä, Sonja Dahlgren

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In this paper, a (morpho)phonological typology of proximal and distal demonstratives is proposed. Only the most basic proximal (‘this’) and distal (‘that’) forms have been considered, potential more fine-grained distinctions based on proximity are not relevant to our discussion, nor are the other functions the discussed demonstratives may have. The sample comprises 82 languages that represent the linguistic diversity of the world’s languages, although the study is not based on a systematic sample. Four different major types are distinguished; (1) Vowel type: front vs. back; high vs. low vowel (2) Consonant type: front-back consonants (3) Additional element –type (4) Varia. The proposed types can further be subdivided according to whether the attested difference concern only, e.g., vowels, or whether there are also other changes. For example, the first type comprises both languages such as Betta Kurumba, where only the vowel changes (i ‘this’, a ‘that’) and languages like Alyawarra (nhinha vs. nhaka), where there are also other changes. In the second type, demonstratives are distinguished based on whether the consonants are front or back; typically front consonants (e.g., labial and dental) appear on proximal demonstratives and back consonants on distal demonstratives (such as velar or uvular consonants). An example is provided by Bunaq, where bari marks ‘this’ and baqi ‘that’. In the third type, distal demonstratives typically have an additional element, making it longer in form than the proximal one (e.g., Òko òne ‘this’, ònébé ‘that’), but the type also comprises languages where the distal demonstrative is simply phonologically longer (e.g., Ngalakan nu-gaʔye vs. nu-gunʔbiri). Finally, the last type comprises cases that do not fit into the three other types, but a number of strategies are used by the languages of this group. The two first types can be explained by iconicity; front or high phonemes appear on the proximal demonstratives, while back/low phonemes are related to distal demonstratives. This means that proximal demonstratives are pronounced at the front and/or high part of the oral cavity, while distal demonstratives are pronounced lower and more back, which reflects the proximal/distal nature of their referents in the physical world. The first type is clearly the most common in our data (40/82 languages), which suggests a clear association with iconicity. Our findings support earlier findings that proximal and distal demonstratives have an iconic phonemic manifestation. For example, it has been argued that /i/ is related to smallness (small distance). Consonants, however, have not been considered before, or no systematic correspondences have been discovered. The third type, in turn, can be explained by markedness; the distal element is more marked than the proximal demonstrative. Moreover, iconicity is relevant also here: some languages clearly use less linguistic substance for referring to entities close to the speaker, which is manifested in the longer (morpho)phonological form of the distal demonstratives. The fourth type contains different kinds of cases, and systematic generalizations are hard to make.

Keywords: demonstratives, iconicity, language typology, phonology

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1 Investigating the Influences of Long-Term, as Compared to Short-Term, Phonological Memory on the Word Recognition Abilities of Arabic Readers vs. Arabic Native Speakers: A Word-Recognition Study

Authors: Insiya Bhalloo

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It is quite common in the Muslim faith for non-Arabic speakers to be able to convert written Arabic, especially Quranic Arabic, into a phonological code without significant semantic or syntactic knowledge. This is due to prior experience learning to read the Quran (a religious text written in Classical Arabic), from a very young age such as via enrolment in Quranic Arabic classes. As compared to native speakers of Arabic, these Arabic readers do not have a comprehensive morpho-syntactic knowledge of the Arabic language, nor can understand, or engage in Arabic conversation. The study seeks to investigate whether mere phonological experience (as indicated by the Arabic readers’ experience with Arabic phonology and the sound-system) is sufficient to cause phonological-interference during word recognition of previously-heard words, despite the participants’ non-native status. Both native speakers of Arabic and non-native speakers of Arabic, i.e., those individuals that learned to read the Quran from a young age, will be recruited. Each experimental session will include two phases: An exposure phase and a test phase. During the exposure phase, participants will be presented with Arabic words (n=40) on a computer screen. Half of these words will be common words found in the Quran while the other half will be words commonly found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) but either non-existent or prevalent at a significantly lower frequency within the Quran. During the test phase, participants will then be presented with both familiar (n = 20; i.e., those words presented during the exposure phase) and novel Arabic words (n = 20; i.e., words not presented during the exposure phase. ½ of these presented words will be common Quranic Arabic words and the other ½ will be common MSA words but not Quranic words. Moreover, ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA words presented will be comprised of nouns, while ½ the Quranic Arabic and MSA will be comprised of verbs, thereby eliminating word-processing issues affected by lexical category. Participants will then determine if they had seen that word during the exposure phase. This study seeks to investigate whether long-term phonological memory, such as via childhood exposure to Quranic Arabic orthography, has a differential effect on the word-recognition capacities of native Arabic speakers and Arabic readers; we seek to compare the effects of long-term phonological memory in comparison to short-term phonological exposure (as indicated by the presentation of familiar words from the exposure phase). The researcher’s hypothesis is that, despite the lack of lexical knowledge, early experience with converting written Quranic Arabic text into a phonological code will help participants recall the familiar Quranic words that appeared during the exposure phase more accurately than those that were not presented during the exposure phase. Moreover, it is anticipated that the non-native Arabic readers will also report more false alarms to the unfamiliar Quranic words, due to early childhood phonological exposure to Quranic Arabic script - thereby causing false phonological facilitatory effects.

Keywords: modern standard arabic, phonological facilitation, phonological memory, Quranic arabic, word recognition

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