Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1813

Search results for: parents' perspectives

1813 The Comparison of of Stress Level between Students with Parents and Those without Parents

Authors: Hendeh Majdi, Zahra Arzjani

Abstract:

This research aimed at the comparison of level of stress between students had parents and those without parents by descriptive-analytical study. To do research number of 128 questionnaires (64 students with parents and 64 students without parents) were distributed among high school in Ray city, Tehran province through classified sampling. The results showed that level of stress in stud tent without parents has been effective and the most important proposal is that necessity study should be considered in decreasing level of stress in students without parent.

Keywords: stress, students with parents, without parents, Ray city

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1812 Parents’ Perspectives on After-School Educational Service from a Cross-Cultural Background: A Comparative Semi-Structured Interview Approach Based in China and Ireland

Authors: Xining Wang

Abstract:

After-school educational service has been proven that it could benefit children’s academic performance, socio-emotional skills, and physical health level. However, there is little research demonstrating parents’ perspectives on the choice of after-school educational service from a level of cross-cultural backgrounds. China and Ireland are typical representatives of collectivist countries (e.g., estimated individualism score is 20) and individualist countries (e.g., estimated individualism score is 70) according to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. Living in countries with distinguished cultural backgrounds, there is an evident discrepancy in parents’ attitudes towards domestic after-school education and parents’ motivations for choosing after-school educational services. Through conducting a semi-structured interview with 15 parents from China and 15 parents from Ireland, using thematic analysis software (ATLAS) to extract the key information, and applying a comparative approach to process data analysis; results present polarization of Chinese and Irish parents' perspectives and motivations on after-school educational service. For example, Chinese parents tend to view after-school education as a complement to school education. It is a service they purchased for their children to acquire extra knowledge and skills so that they could adapt to the highly competitive educational setting. Given the fact that children’s education is a priority for Chinese families, most parents believe that their children would succeed in the future through massive learning. This attitude reflects that Chinese parents are more likely to apply authoritarian parenting methods and having a strong expectations for their children. Conversely, Irish parents' choice of after-school educational service is a consideration that primarily based on their own situation, secondly, for their family. For instance, with the expansion of the labor market, there is a change in household structure. Irish mothers are more likely to seek working opportunities instead of looking after the family. Irish parents view that after-school educational service is an essential need for themselves and a beneficial component for their family due to the external pressure (e.g., the growing work intensity and extended working hours, increasing numbers of separated families, as well as parents’ pursuit of higher education and promotion). These factors are fundamental agents that encourage Irish parents to choose after-school educational services. To conclude, the findings could provide readers with a better understanding of parents’ disparate and contrasting perspectives on after-school educational services from a multi-culture level.

Keywords: after-school, China, family studies, Ireland, parents

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1811 Parents' Attitude toward Compulsory Pre-School Education in Slovakia

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

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Compulsory pre-school education in Slovakia will be established by the Education Act for all five-year-old children from September 2021. The implementation of this law will change pre-school education in our country from optional to compulsory, and children will be able to complete this education either in institutional form school facilities or in the form of individual education at the request of the parent. The primary purpose of this change is that all children achieve pre-school education before entering primary school, thus eliminating differences between children before entering primary school. The benefits of introducing compulsory pre-school education are obvious to the professional public. However, as this fundamental change in children's education is perceived by parents who have a prime position in the upbringing and education of their children, research pays minimal attention. The aim of the study is to interpret the findings of quantitatively oriented research, which was focused on finding out the attitudes of parents to the planned introduction of compulsory preschool education in Slovakia. The data were obtained through questionnaires primarily intended for parents of preschool children. In the distributed questionnaire, the degree of agreement or disagreement with individual items could be expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The results of the research present how perceived compulsory pre-school education is perceived by the parental public in Slovakia and what perspectives and limitations parents anticipate after its introduction.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education act, childs' learning and development, kindergarten, parents' perspectives

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1810 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi

Abstract:

The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: stakeholders, learning disability, early reading, perspectives, parents, intervention, curriculum

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1809 Training Student Teachers to Work in Partnership with Parents of Students with Special Needs

Authors: Alicia Greenbank, Efrat Bengio

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The aim of this research was to examine the efficacy of the first course in Israel, whose objective is to train student teachers in the special education department to work cooperatively with parents of children with special needs. Studies often highlight the importance of cooperation between teachers and parents of students with special needs. Israel’s Special Education Law defines parents as complete partners, and the Ministry of Education encourages and even requires that partnership be present. Yet this partnership is difficult to achieve many kindergarten teachers, and teachers have a lot of difficulties establishing and managing a pattern of cooperation with their students’ parents. Often we see different perspectives on the child's development and needs, distrust, lack of appreciation, and communication difficulties on both sides – parents & teachers. The course describes a method of instilling the need for cooperation at an early stage of teacher training-in the teacher training program. 22 students in the special education program for early childhood education in the fourth year of learning took part in the course. The fourth-year is the experiential training year and the first time that students have worked in a school. The course consisted of 14 sessions. Seven parents of students with different disabilities participated at 6 of the sessions. The changes in the students' attitudes towards partnership and their ability to manage this partnership were carried out by examining the reports written by the students before the meetings with the parents and the reflections they wrote after each meeting with the parents and at the end of the course. Three themes emerged from the narrative analysis, corresponding to the three preconditions for joint activities with parents — Approach, Attitude, Appropriate Atmosphere, according to the Four A’s Model. The findings showed that a course combining meetings with parents of children with special needs offers many benefits for teacher training. The course raised student awareness of the question partnership, changed students’ approaches and attitudes towards the parents, stressed the importance of partnership, and provided students with tools for working with parents through the school. Based on the findings of this study, courses in this format can be applied in order to cooperate between teachers and parents, for example, parents of gifted children with special needs.

Keywords: Partnership with parents in special education, parents of children with disabilities, parents of children with special needs, parents’ involvement in special education

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1808 Evaluation to Assess the Impact of Newcastle Infant Partnership Approach

Authors: Samantha Burns, Melissa Brown, Judith Rankin

Abstract:

Background: As a specialised intervention, NEWPIP provides a service which supports both parents and their babies from conception to two years, who are experiencing issues which may affect the quality of their relationship and development of the infant. This evaluation of the NEWPIP approach was undertaken in response to the need for rich, in-depth data to understand the lived experiences of the parents who experienced the service to improve the service. NEWPIP is currently one of 34 specialised parent–infant relationship teams across England. This evaluation contributes to increasing understanding of the impact and effectiveness of this specialised service to inform future practice. Aim: The aim of this evaluation was to explore the perspectives and experiences of parents or caregivers (service users), to assess the impact of the NEWPIP service on the parents themselves and the relationship with their baby. Methods: The exploratory nature of the aim and focus on service users’ experience and perspectives provided scope for a qualitative approach for this evaluation. This consisted of 10 semi-structured interviews with parents who had received the service within the last two years. Recruitment involved both purposive and convenience sampling. The interviews took place between February 2021 – March 2021, lasting between 30-90 minutes and were guided by open-ended questions from a topic guide. The interviews adopted a narrative approach to enable the parents to share their lived experiences. The researchers transcribed the interviews and analysed the data thematically by using a coding method which is grounded in the data. Results: The analysis and findings from the data gathered illuminated an approach which supports parents to build a better bond with their baby and provides a safe space for parents to heal through their relationships. While the parents shared their experiences, the interviews were intended to receive feedback, so questions were asked about what could be improved and what recommendations could be offered to Children North East. Guided by the voice of the parents, this evaluation provides recommendations to support the future of the NEWPIP approach. Conclusions: The NEWPIP approach appears to successfully provide early and flexible support for new parents, increasing a parent’s confidence in their ability to not only cope but thrive as a new parent.

Keywords: maternal health, mental health, parent infant relationship, therapy

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1807 Factors Affecting Access to Education: The Experiences of Parents of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Authors: Hanh Thi My Nguyen

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to examine the experiences of parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing in supporting their children to access education in Vietnam. Parents play a crucial role in supporting their children to gain full access to education. It was widely reported that parents of those children confronted a range of problems to support their children to access education. To author’s best knowledge, there has been a lack of research exploring the experiences of those parents in literature. This research examines factors affecting those parents in supporting their children to access education. To conduct the study, qualitative approach using a phenomenological research design was chosen to explore the central phenomena. Ten parents of children who were diagnosed as deaf or hard of hearing and aged 6-9 years were recruited through the support of the Association of Parents of Children with Hearing Impairment. Participants were interviewed via telephone with a mix of open and closed questions; interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The research results show that there are nine main factors that affected the parents in this study in making decisions relating to education for their children including: lack of information resources, perspectives of those parents on communication approaches, the families’ financial capacity, the psychological impact on the participants after their children’ diagnosis, the attitude of family members, attitude of school administrators, lack of local schools and qualified teachers, and current education system for the deaf in Vietnam. Apart from those factors, the lack of knowledge of the participants’ partners about deaf education and the partners’ employment are barriers to educational access and successful communication with their child.

Keywords: access to education, deaf, hard of hearing, parents experience

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1806 The Influence of Students’ Learning Factor and Parents’ Involvement in Their Learning and Suspension: The Application of Big Data Analysis of Internet of Things Technology

Authors: Chih Ming Kung

Abstract:

This study is an empirical study examining the enrollment rate and dropout rate of students from the perspectives of students’ learning, parents’ involvement and the learning process. Methods: Using the data collected from the entry website of Internet of Things (IoT), parents’ participation and the installation pattern of exit poll website, an investigation was conducted. Results: This study discovered that in the aspect of the degree of involvement, the attractiveness of courses, self-performance and departmental loyalty exerts significant influences on the four aspects: psychological benefits, physical benefits, social benefits and educational benefits of learning benefits. Parents’ participation also exerts a significant influence on the learning benefits. A suitable tool on the cloud was designed to collect the dynamic big data of students’ learning process. Conclusion: This research’s results can be valuable references for the government when making and promoting related policies, with more macro view and consideration. It is also expected to be contributory to schools for the practical study of promotion for enrollment.

Keywords: students’ learning factor, parents’ involvement, involvement, technology

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1805 Barriers and Strategies for Effective Communication between Parents and Children in the Family

Authors: Sadhana Ghnayiem

Abstract:

This article deals with the issue of effective communication between parents and children and its impact on the family in general and on the child in particular. The aim of this article is to provide information to parents, students, anyone interested in family communication between parents and children, and to provide them with tools to deal with barriers to communication in the family unit. The article presented a literature review of the importance of effective communication in the family, the definition of the concept of communication, and was a reference to factors and barriers in communication between parents and children leading to conflict destructive to the extent that barriers to effective communication in the family unit. At the end of the article, strategies were introduced to motivate children to behave appropriately, and to equip parents best to foster the healthy development of their children when they can create an atmosphere of effective communication. From the literature review, it's found that effective communication between parents and children prevents problematic behavior and helps children understand how to communicate effectively with others. Communication between parents and children is the cornerstone of a happy family life and is the basis for positive interactions between parents and children and increases self-esteem in children.

Keywords: children, communication, conflict, family

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1804 Emotional, Behavioural and Social Development: Modality of Hierarchy of Needs in Supporting Parents with Special Needs

Authors: Fadzilah Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Emotional development is developed between the parents and their child. Behavioural development is also developed between the parents and their child. Social Development is how parents can help their special needs child to adapt to society and to face challenges. In promoting a lifelong learning mindset, enhancing skill sets and readiness to face challenges, parents would be able to counter balance these challenges during their care giving process and better manage their expectations through understanding the hierarchy of needs modality towards a positive attitude, and in turn, improve their quality of life and participation in society. This paper aims to demonstrate how the hierarchy of needs can be applied in various situations of caregiving for parents with a special needs child.

Keywords: hierarchy of needs, parents, special needs, care-giving

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1803 A Study of Primary School Parents’ Interaction with Teachers’ in Malaysia

Authors: Shireen Simon

Abstract:

This study explores the interactions between primary school parents-teachers in Malaysia. Schools in the country are organized to promote participation between parents and teachers. Exchanges of dialogue are most valued between parents and teachers because teachers are in daily contact with pupils’ and the first line of communication with parents. Teachers are considered by parents as the most important connection to improve children learning and well-being. Without a good communication, interaction or involvement between parent-teacher might tarnish a pupils’ performance in school. This study tries to find out multiple emotions among primary school parents-teachers, either estranged or cordial, when they communicate in a multi-cultured society in Malaysia. Important issues related to parent-teacher interactions are discussed further. Parents’ involvement in an effort to boost better education in school is significantly more effective with parents’ involvement. Lastly, this article proposes some suggestions for parents and teachers to build a positive relationship with effective communication and establish more democratic open door policy.

Keywords: multi-cultured society, parental involvement, parent-teacher relationships, parents’ interaction

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1802 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

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This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

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1801 A Pilot Study on the Predictors of Child-Parent Relationship

Authors: Selen Demirtas-Zorbaz

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine if there is any relation between child–parent relationships and parental self-efficacy. The participants of this study are 208 parents, and 82,5% of them are mothers. The children’s age range are differed from 4 to 13 (x̄=7,8). The results showed that there is a significant positive correlation between positive relationship with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=0.52, p < .01); and significant negative correlation between conflict with parents and parental self-efficacy (r=-0.28, p < .01). Also, findings reveal that there was no significant correlation between the time spent with the child and conflict with parents (r=-0.08, p>.05). It was also found that there was no significant correlation between the time spends with the child and positive relationship with parents (r=0.08, p > 0.5). In addition to this; regression analysis’ results indicated that parental self-efficacy is significant predictors of conflict (β=-.268, t=-4.002, p < .001) and positive relationship with parents (β =.519, t= 8.733, p < .001) whereas time spent with children is not (β =-.070, t=-1,045, p > .05 for conflict; β =.061, t=1.023, p > .05 for positive relationship with parents).

Keywords: child-parent relationship, conflict with parents, positive relationship with parents, parental efficacy

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1800 Appraisal of Parents' Views and Supervision of Their Children's Use of Information Communication Technology

Authors: Olabisi Adedigba

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It is a fundamental truth that Information Communication Technology (ICT) lies at the very heart of our today’s society and determines its development. The use of ICT has given a boost to the educational and mental development of an average pupil of this age far above their counterparts who lived centuries ago. Nevertheless, the present age children stand the risk of the scourge of this technology if proactive measures are not taken urgently to arrest the damages of its negative use on them. One of the measures that can be taken is supervision of children’s use of ICT. This research therefore investigated parents’ views and supervision of their children’s use of Information Communication Technology. Descriptive design was adopted for this study. 300 parents were randomly selected. “Parents’ Views and Supervision of Children’s Use of ICT” was used to collect data for the study. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result revealed that parents’ view of their children’s use of ICT is negative while supervision of their children’s use of ICT is low. Recommendations were thus offered that schools and other stakeholders should educate parents on children’s proper utilization of ICT and parents are urged to maintain adequate supervision on their children use of ICT.

Keywords: appraisal of parents’ views and supervision, children’s use, information communication technology, t-test

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1799 Parental Perceptions and Practices toward Childhood Asthma

Authors: Amani K. Abu-Shaheen, Abdullah Nofal, Humariya Heena

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Introduction: Parental perceptions and practices are important for improving the asthma outcomes in children; indeed, evidence shows that parents of asthmatic children harbor considerable misperceptions of the disease. Objective: To identify the prevalence of asthma and to investigate the perceptions and practices of parents toward asthma and its management in Saudi children. Methods: A two-stage cross-sectional survey of 2000 parents of children aged 3–15 years from schools located in all five districts of Riyadh province located in central Saudi Arabia, was conducted. Data collection was accomplished using a self-administered questionnaire based on information obtained from the literature. Results: Of 1450 children whose parents participated in the study, 600 had asthma, dyspnea, or chest allergy. The overall number of children with parental reports of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was 478 (32.9%). The majority of parents (321, 53.5%) believed that asthma was a hereditary disease. Of these parents, 361 (60.3%) were concerned about side effects of inhaled steroids, and 192 (32%) about development of dependency on asthma medications. Three hundred sixty seven (61.2%) parents reported that they could treat the asthma attack at home and almost 76% of parents went to pediatric emergency department during asthma attack. Conclusions: In this study, the overall prevalence of children whose parents reported that they were diagnosed with asthma was high (32.9%). Furthermore, parents of children with asthma had misperceptions regarding asthma and exhibited ineffective practices in its management. To improve asthma care and compliance, adequate education should be provided to parents.

Keywords: asthma, management, parents, quality of life

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1798 Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce

Authors: Paivi Hietanen

Abstract:

At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.

Keywords: child's right, co-parenting, parenthood after the divorce, peer support

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1797 The Use of YouTube and Its Relation to Changing the Kuwaiti Children’s Social Values from Parents’ Perspectives: Field Study

Authors: Laila Alkhayat

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In this study, the researcher explored the positive and negative effects of children watching YouTube on changing social values from the perspective of parents in Kuwait. This study also explored whether any correlation exists between changed values from watching YouTube and the following variables: relationship with a child, social situation, school level, gender, and age. The researcher collected data from 286 questionnaires distributed randomly to parents in Kuwait. The results of the study show that parents face many disadvantages when dealing with children watching YouTube, such as children spending too much time in front of screens, inability to organize bedtime, and children’s social isolation. However, the researcher found some positives come from watching YouTube, such as learning new information, enabling children to search for new information, and introducing children to the culture of their society and other cultures around them. Moreover, this study found that boys are more likely to have negative viewing habits than girls. Given the results, this study shows that the biggest impact on social values from children watching YouTube is that they are preoccupied with watching YouTube and they waste time, which makes them feel disturbed, and this affects the value of time management and delays children’s sleeping times. This study concludes that watching YouTube simultaneously has negative and positive effects on changing social values, but it plays a negative role in changing social values of children from the parents’ perspective.

Keywords: YouTube, children, social value, social media effects

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1796 Social Workers' Perspectives on Muslim Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Ayelet Gur

Abstract:

Background: Parents with intellectual disability are of great interest to social service professionals. Article 23 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities aims to ensure that persons with disabilities can create a family by providing adequate supports. The aim of the current investigation was to portray families with parents with intellectual disabilities within Muslim- Arab society in Israel. Method: Qualitative method using semi-structured interviews with nine-teen Muslim Israeli social workers was employed. Thematic analysis was used to identify major themes. Results: Families with parents with intellectual disability are not a rare phenomenon in the Arab society. The common type is of marriage between a man with intellectual disability and a woman without disability. Findings indicated two main motives for the arranged marriage of a man with intellectual disability: the extended family's concerns about his future and their desire for the family continuity. The non-disabled wives' motives for marrying men with intellectual disabilities revolved around their lack of other opportunities to create a family and their desire to leave their parents' household and live independently. Those women were described as partly or fully aware of their husbands' disability prior to the marriage. The family life of those families were described in relation to the fathers' involvement in family life and relation to the wives' high burden and in many cases, acceptance of their life situation. Conclusions: Findings are discussed with respect to religious values on disability, arranged marriage and the status of Muslim women. Services and supports for parents with intellectual disabilities should be developed with respect to the cultural values and norms.

Keywords: Arab society in Israel, intellectual and developmental disability, parents with intellectual disability, social work

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1795 Romanian Teachers' Perspectives of Different Leadership Styles

Authors: Ralpian Randolian

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Eighty-five Romanian teachers and principals participated on this study to examine their perspectives of different leadership styles. Demographic variables such as the source of degree (Romania, Europe institutes, USA institutes, etc.), gender, region, level taught, years of experience, and specialty were identified. The researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 4 leadership styles. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify which of the variables best predict the leadership styles. Results indicated that the democracy style was the most preferred leadership style by Jordanian parents, while the authoritarian styles ranked second. The results also found statistically significant differences were found related to the study variables. This study ends by putting forward a number of suggestions and recommendation.

Keywords: teachers’ perspectives, leadership styles, gender, structural equation modeling

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1794 Impact of Forgiveness Therapy on Quality of Life of Parents of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Prajakta Bhadgaonkar

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Forgiveness is taught since birth in Indian tradition. However, delivering a disabled child is a trauma for the parents. They keep on blaming themselves for the fault, which they are not responsible. Hence, due to lack of forgiving oneself the quality of life of both parent and child gets affected. In forgiveness, person tries to relieve oneself from the feeling of hatred towards oneself or other person. Forgiveness helps move ahead in the life. Hence, one can handle problem more efficiently resulting into better quality of life. In this study, the 30 parents of children with intellectual disability were contacted to find out quality of life. They were administered standardized measure of quality of life (QOL). The children were between 6 to 8 years of age. Out of these 30 parents, 12 parents (7 females and 5 males) were given forgiveness therapy for three months span. After every one month, the QOL scale was administered. At the end of three months, the significant difference was observed in quality of life of parents of children with intellectual disability. Genderwise there was no significant difference between male and female on quality of life.

Keywords: children with intellectual disability, forgiveness, parents, quality of life

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1793 Perspectives of Saudi Students on Reasons for Seeking Private Tutors in English

Authors: Ghazi Alotaibi

Abstract:

The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on their reasons for seeking private tutors in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents’ follow-up of student school performance, social pressure, variability in student comprehension levels at school, weak English foundation in previous school years, repeated student absence from school, large classes, as well as English teachers’ heavy teaching loads. The study started with a description of the EFL educational system in Saudi Arabia and concluded with recommendations for the improvement of the school learning environment.

Keywords: english, learning difficulty, private tutoring, Saudi, teaching practices, learning environment

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1792 Adolescents' Perspectives on Parental Responses to Teen Dating Violence

Authors: Beverly Black

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Teen dating violence (TDV) is a significant public health problem with severe negative impact on youths’ mental and physical health and well-being. Exacerbating the negative impact of TDV victimization is the fact that teens rarely report the violence. They are fearful to tell friends or family, especially parents. The family context is the first place where children learn about interpersonal relationships, and therefore, parental response of teens’ life experiences influences teens’ actions and development. This study examined youths’ perspectives on parental responses to TDV. Effective parental responses to TDV may increase the likelihood that youth will leave abusive relationships. Method. Eleven gender-separate focus groups were conducted with 27 females and 28 males, ages 12 to 17, to discuss parental responses to teen dating violence. Youth were recruited from a metropolitan community in the southwestern part of the United States. Focus groups questions asked the middle and high school youth how they would want their parents to respond to them if they approached them about various incidents of dating violence. All focus groups were transcribed. Using QSR-N10, two researchers’ analyzed data first using open and axial coding techniques to find overarching themes. Researchers triangulated the coded data to ensure accurate interpretations of the participants’ messages and used the scenario questions to structure the coded results. Results. Most youths suggested that parents should simply talk with them; they recognized the importance of communication. Teens wanted parents to ask questions, educate them about healthy relationships, share their personal experiences, and give teens advice (tell them to break up, limit contact with perpetrator, go to police). Younger youth expressed more willingness to listen to parental advice. Older youth wanted their parents to give them the opportunity to make their decisions. Many of the teens’ comments focused on the importance of parents protecting the teen, providing support and empathy for the teen, and especially refraining from overreacting (not yelling, not getting angry and staying calm). Implications. Parents need to know how to effectively respond to youth needing to leave unhealthy relationships. Demanding that their children end a relationship may not be a realistic approach to TDV. A parent’s ineffective response, when approached by an adolescent for assistance in TDV, may influence a youth to dismiss parents and other adults as viable options for seeking assistance. Parents and prevention educators can learn from hearing youths’ voices about effective responses to TDV.

Keywords: adolescents dating abuse, adolescent and parent communication, parental responses to teen dating violence, teen dating violence

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1791 Ethnography of the Social and Cultural Perspectives of Childhood Neuro-Developmental Disorders: Implications for Health Seeking

Authors: Denis Nono, Catherine Abbo, Thomas Wenzel

Abstract:

Introduction: The study explored socio-cultural perspectives of childhood disorders and its implications for health seeking. Emphasis was on exploring local understanding and perceptions and how these ideas affect health seeking. Study aim: To explore the socio-cultural perspectives of neuro-developmental disorders and its implications on health seeking behaviour. Methods: The methods used in this study included key informant interviews conducted with health professionals. Parents of the children aged (6-15 years) with neuro-developmental disorders were recruited from the hospital to participate in focus group discussion, participant observation and individual in-depth interviews. Results: The study found out that stigma extended from children to parents and caregivers who were also shunned by community members. Participants described their children as “a gift from God” others described them as “a test from God”. The communities perceive the disorders as a spiritual infliction and always insisted that the children be taken for Acholi cultural and traditional rituals to cleanse children and they believed that mental illness has spiritual linkages. Conclusion: This study gives unique insights into the perceptions of neuro-developmental disorders and health seeking behavior in Gulu District and neighboring communities. The results showed that communities linked disorders to spiritual affliction, misunderstandings between families, bewitching, and other supernatural forces. Some of the participants highly recommended biomedical approaches to prevention, management and control of the disorders.

Keywords: ethnography, health seeking, neuro-developmental disorders, socio-cultural

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1790 Contextual Variables Affecting Frustration Level in Reading: An Integral Inquiry

Authors: Mae C. Pavilario

Abstract:

This study employs a sequential explanatory mixed method. Quantitatively it investigated the profile of grade VII students. Qualitatively, the prevailing contextual variables that affect their frustration-level were sought based on their perspective and that of their parents and teachers. These students were categorized as frustration-level in reading based on the data on word list of the Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI). The researcher-made reading factor instrument translated to local dialect (Hiligaynon) was subjected to cross-cultural translation to address content, semantic, technical, criterion, or conceptual equivalence, the open-ended questions, and one unstructured interview was utilized. In the profile of the 26 participants, the 12 males are categorized as grade II and grade III frustration-levels. The prevailing contextual variables are personal-“having no interest in reading”, “being ashamed and fear of having to read in front of others” for extremely high frustration level; social environmental-“having no regular reading schedule at home” for very high frustration level and personal- “having no interest in reading” for high frustration level. Kendall Tau inferential statistical tool was used to test the significant relationship in the prevailing contextual variables that affect frustration-level readers when grouped according to perspective. Result showed that significant relationship exists between students-parents perspectives; however, there is no significant relationship between students’ and teachers’, and parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. The themes in the narratives of the participants on frustration-level readers are existence of speech defects, undesirable attitude, insufficient amount of reading materials, lack of close supervision from parents, and losing time and focus on task. Intervention was designed.

Keywords: contextual variables, frustration-level readers, perspective, inquiry

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1789 The Effect of Parents and Coaches on Preschool Children's Self-Control in Preschool Centers in District 5 of Tehran

Authors: Alieh Arasteh

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of parents and educators on the self-control of children in pre-primary schools in District 5 of Tehran. The method of this survey was a survey and post-correlation type. The statistical population of this study included all teachers and parents of children in preschool centers in the region. The 5th city of Tehran in 1397 was the number of kindergartens in 117 centers and the number of parents was 1872, the sample size of the parents was 320 and the sample size of the trainers was 76. The method of sampling in this study was randomized and clustered. The data gathering tool was Rosenbaum and Ronen (1992) self-control skills, a five-factor questionnaire NEO personality Costa and McCrae (1985) and a questionnaire on demographic characteristics, reliability using Cronbach's alpha, the data analysis was performed using the software spss24. The results of the research showed that the personality characteristics of parents, parents' socioeconomic status and personality traits of educators affect the self-control dimensions of pre-primary school children (P <0.05).

Keywords: self-control, pre-primary school, the effect of parents, couches

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1788 The Importance of Compulsory Pre-School Education from the Parents’ Perspective in the Czech Republic

Authors: Beata Horníckova, Sona Lorencova

Abstract:

The study deals with the presentation of the results of quantitatively oriented research. The research was conducted as part of a questionnaire survey with the aim to find out what are the attitudes of parents to compulsory preschool education in the Czech Republic. This research presents results from the area of importance of compulsory pre-school education from the parents’ perspective. The research method was a questionnaire, which was distributed to respondents through an online platform. The research involved 107 parents, who answered a total of 36 questions that found out their attitudes to last year’s compulsory preschool attendance. The results show that compulsory pre-school attendance has increased the importance of pre-school education. However, the results also show that the compulsory last year of pre-school education is not more important according to parents than in previous years. Most participants consider compulsory pre-school attendance to be important and are happy that their child attends it. The results reveal the fact that the introduction of compulsory pre-school attendance has contributed to the importance of parents’ perceptions of pre-primary education.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, education of pre-school children, kindergarten, parents

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1787 The Effect of Education given to Parents of Children with Sickle Cell Anemia in Turkey and Chad to Reduce Children's Pain

Authors: Fatima El Zahra Amin, Emine Efe

Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the education program for parents of children with Sickle Cell Anemia, on the knowledge level of parents and the reduction of pain relief by non-pharmacological methods used by parents at home. In Turkey, 54 parents and 109 from Chad agreed to participate in the survey. The data were collected by the researcher using a face-to-face interview method. Non-pharmacological treatment information form for parents, face expressions rating scale, and parent education program for non-pharmacological methods used in children with sickle cell anemia were used. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the educational status, occupation, disease status, place of residence, family structure and age of parents of Chad and Turkey. According to the ratings of facial expressions scale, it was concluded that there was no significant difference between the children’s average degree of pain before and after administration of non-pharmacological methods by the groups of Chad and Turkey. It was determined that the educational programs prepared for parents of children with sickle cell anemia in both Turkey and Chad were effective in increasing the knowledge level of parents and also in reducing pain crisis with non-pharmacological methods parents used at home.

Keywords: Chad, child, non-pharmacological treatment methods, nurse, sickle cell anemia, Turkey

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1786 An Explorative Study: Awareness and Understanding of Dyspraxia amongst Parents of Preschool Children Presenting with Dyspraxia

Authors: A. Pedro, T. Goldschmidt

Abstract:

Dyspraxia affects approximately 5-6% of school aged children. Utilising an ecological framework, this study aimed to (1) explore the awareness and understanding of dyspraxia or similar disorders among preschool parents and (2) to explore what skills are required or sought after by parents of children presenting with dyspraxia. A qualitative methodological approach with an exploratory design was employed in this study. A total of 15 parents were purposively selected from urban mainstream preschools in the Cape Town metropole region. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews and analysed thematically according to Braun and Clarke (2006). Participants were knowledgeable of their rights throughout the research process. The findings reveal that parents understanding of dyspraxia hinges on observable characteristics of their children’s abilities in comparison to typically developing children. Although parents are aware of ways to explore various avenues to better assist their child, they desire more social support and skills in terms of resources to inform them about their child’s difficulties as well as different techniques to better manage their child’s condition. Findings indicate that regular contact between preschool teachers and parents of children presenting with dyspraxia is an important factor in children’s academic success. The implications of the findings are related to the awareness of dyspraxia and similar learning disorders among both parents and teachers.

Keywords: awareness and understanding, dyspraxia, parents, preschool

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1785 Parents of Kids with Type 1 Diabetes Sleep with Open Eyes

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora

Abstract:

Aim: To qualitatively investigate diabetes burnout in parents of children with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) who shared their experiences through YouTube videos in order to inform future interventions and improve diabetes practice. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to explore YouTube videos. Of the 568 videos that were identified, only 9 videos met the inclusion criteria of the study. Results: After the videos were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis, it was revealed that parents shared common concerns and experiences and they translated into three main themes: I do not ever get a break, I am exhausted, I can’t burn out, and I just need a break Conclusion: All in all, the literature revealed that there are negative psychosocial outcomes associated with caring for a child with T1D, but there is a lack of information on diabetes burnout and how parents’ well-being are affected. Reports of self-neglect and sleep deprivation only confirm the need for intervention for parents of children with T1D. The hope with this study is that burnout can be recognized early on and appropriate interventions put in place to help parents cope with the stressors of caring for a child with a chronic disease.

Keywords: Diabetes burnout, type 1 diabetes, qualitative research, parents

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1784 Migration and Provision of Support to Left-Behind Parents in Rural Cambodia

Authors: Benjamas Penboon, Zachary Zimmer, Aree Jampaklay

Abstract:

Cambodia is a country where labor migration has been consistently high. Coupled with advancing labor opportunities in urban areas, a function partly of globalization, this is resulting in massive migration out of rural areas. This is particularly true in Cambodia where there are high migration and a very large proportion of adult children living some distant from their parents. This paper explores characteristics associated with migrant providing support to parents in rural Cambodia. With reference to perspectives of family altruism and solidarity, this analysis particularly focusses on how a series of variables representing family integration and residential location associates with intergenerational monetary and instrumental support from migrants. The study hypothesizes that migrants are more likely to provide support when parents are in need, and there are no alternative means of support. Data come from The Rural Household Survey (N=3,713), part of the 2011 Cambodian Rural Urban Migration Project (CRUMP). Multilevel multinomial models indicate international migrants are likely to give money, while internal migrants are likely to provide both money and instrumental support, especially when migrants have no sibling and their parent in poor health status. In addition, employed migrants are two times providing monetary compared to those unemployed. Findings elucidate the decision to which and why support occurs more often when no other source of support exists and also depends on the ability to provide of migrants themselves.

Keywords: migration, left-behind parent, intergenerational relations, support, rural, Cambodia

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