Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Kailash C. Madan

34 On a Single Server Queue with Arrivals in Batches of Variable Size, Generalized Coxian-2 Service and Compulsory Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study the steady state behaviour of a batch arrival single server queue in which the first service with general service times is compulsory and the second service with general service times is optional. We term such a two phase service as generalized Coxian-2 service. Just after completion of a service the server must take a vacation of random length of time with general vacation times. We obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size as well as the steady state mean queue size at a random epoch of time in explicit and closed forms. Some particular cases of interest including some known results have been derived.

Keywords: batch arrivals, compound Poisson process, generalized Coxian-2 service, steady state

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33 On Four Models of a Three Server Queue with Optional Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study four models of a three server queueing system with Bernoulli schedule optional server vacations. Customers arriving at the system one by one in a Poisson process are provided identical exponential service by three parallel servers according to a first-come, first served queue discipline. In model A, all three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in Model B at the most two of the three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in model C at the most one server is allowed a vacation, and in model D no server is allowed a vacation. We study steady the state behavior of the four models and obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size at a random point of time for all states of the system. In model D, a known result for a three server queueing system without server vacations is derived.

Keywords: a three server queue, Bernoulli schedule server vacations, queue size distribution at a random epoch, steady state

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32 Case Study: The Analysis of Maturity of West Buru Basin and the Potential Development of Geothermal in West Buru Island

Authors: Kefi Rahmadio, Filipus Armando Ginting, Richard Nainggolan


This research shows the formation of the West Buru Basin and the potential utilization of this West Buru Basin as a geothermal potential. The research area is West Buru Island which is part of the West Buru Basin. The island is located in Maluku Province, with its capital city named Namlea. The island is divided into 10 districts, namely District Kepalamadan, Airbuaya District, Wapelau District, Namlea District, Waeapo District, Batabual District, Namrole District, Waesama District, Leksula District, and Ambalau District. The formation in this basin is Permian-Quarter. They start from the Formation Ghegan, Dalan Formation, Mefa Formation, Kuma Formation, Waeken Formation, Wakatin Formation, Ftau Formation and Leko Formation. These formations are composing this West Buru Basin. Determination of prospect area in the geothermal area with preliminary investigation stage through observation of manifestation, topographic shape and structure are found around prospect area. This is done because there is no data of earth that support the determination of prospect area more accurately. In Waepo area, electric power generated based on field observation and structural analysis, geothermal area of ​Waeapo was approximately 6 km², with reference to the SNI 'Classification of Geothermal Potential' (No.03-5012-1999), an area of ​​1 km² is assumed to be 12.5 MWe. The speculative potential of this area is (Q) = 6 x 12.5 MWe = 75 MWe. In the Bata Bual area, the geothermal prospect projected 4 km², the speculative potential of the Bata Bual area is worth (Q) = 4 x 12.5 MWe = 50 MWe. In Kepala Madan area, based on the estimation of manifestation area, there is a wide area of ​​prospect in Kepala Madan area about 4 km². The geothermal energy potential of the speculative level in Kepala Madan district is (Q) = 4 x 12.5 MWe = 50 MWe. These three areas are the largest geothermal potential on the island of West Buru. From the above research, it can be concluded that there is potential in West Buru Island. Further exploration is needed to find greater potential. Therefore, researchers want to explain the geothermal potential contained in the West Buru Basin, within the scope of West Buru Island. This potential can be utilized for the community of West Buru Island.

Keywords: West Buru basin, West Buru island, potential, Waepo, Bata Bual, Kepala Madan

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31 Cyber Aggression, Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior and Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan


In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: conflict at work, cyber bullying, dark triad of personality, toxic employee

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30 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal


Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

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29 Performance of LTE Multicast Systems in the Presence of the Colored Noise Jamming

Authors: S. Malisuwan, J. Sivaraks, N. Madan, N. Suriyakrai


The ever going evolution of advanced wireless technologies makes it financially impossible for military operations to completely manufacture their own equipment. Therefore, Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and Modified-Off-The-Shelf (MOTS) are being considered in military mission with low-cost modifications. In this paper, we focus on the LTE multicast systems for military communication systems under tactical environments with jamming condition. We examine the influence of the colored noise jamming on the performance of the LTE multicast systems in terms of the average throughput. The simulation results demonstrate the degradation of the average throughput for different dynamic ranges of the colored noise jamming versus average SNR.

Keywords: performance, LTE, multicast, jamming, throughput

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28 Design of a Compact Microstrip Patch Antenna for LTE Applications by Applying FDSC Model

Authors: Settapong Malisuwan, Jesada Sivaraks, Peerawat Promkladpanao, Nattakit Suriyakrai, Navneet Madan


In this paper, a compact microstrip patch antenna is designed for mobile LTE applications by applying the frequency-dependent Smith-Chart (FDSC) model. The FDSC model is adopted in this research to reduce the error on the frequency-dependent characteristics. The Ansoft HFSS and various techniques is applied to meet frequency and size requirements. The proposed method within this research is suitable for use in computer-aided microstrip antenna design and RF integrated circuit (RFIC) design.

Keywords: frequency-dependent, smith-chart, microstrip, antenna, LTE, CAD

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27 Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Helianthus Annuus L. Sunflower

Authors: Patel P. Kailash, Patel M. Parimal


An investigation was conducted to study the different concentration of coal fly ash solution on morphological and biochemical parameters of Helianthus annuus L. The seeds of Helianthus annuus L. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to grow for 16 days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. Shoot length, root length and fresh weight, dry weight declined with increasing concentration of fly ash. Semidiluted and concentrated fly ash solution exhibited significant reduction in chlorophyll, protein,sugar and ascorbic acid. Concentration dependent changes were observed in most of parameters. Diluted solution of fly ash revealed the maximum increase morphological and biochemical changes of seedlings.

Keywords: Helianthus annuus L., protein, sugar, chlorophyll, coal fly ash

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26 Employing GIS to Analyze Areas Prone to Flooding: Case Study of Thailand

Authors: Sanpachai Huvanandana, Settapong Malisuwan, Soparwan Tongyuak, Prust Pannachet, Anong Phoepueak, Navneet Madan


Many regions of Thailand are prone to flooding due to tropical climate. A commonly increasing precipitation in this continent results in risk of flooding. Many efforts have been implemented such as drainage control system, multiple dams, and irrigation canals. In order to decide where the drainages, dams, and canal should be appropriately located, the flooding risk area should be determined. This paper is aimed to identify the appropriate features that can be used to classify the flooding risk area in Thailand. Several features have been analyzed and used to classify the area. Non-supervised clustering techniques have been used and the results have been compared with ten years average actual flooding area.

Keywords: flood area clustering, geographical information system, flood features

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25 Economized Sensor Data Processing with Vehicle Platooning

Authors: Henry Hexmoor, Kailash Yelasani


We present vehicular platooning as a special case of crowd-sensing framework where sharing sensory information among a crowd is used for their collective benefit. After offering an abstract policy that governs processes involving a vehicular platoon, we review several common scenarios and components surrounding vehicular platooning. We then present a simulated prototype that illustrates efficiency of road usage and vehicle travel time derived from platooning. We have argued that one of the paramount benefits of platooning that is overlooked elsewhere, is the substantial computational savings (i.e., economizing benefits) in acquisition and processing of sensory data among vehicles sharing the road. The most capable vehicle can share data gathered from its sensors with nearby vehicles grouped into a platoon.

Keywords: cloud network, collaboration, internet of things, social network

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
24 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: R. S. Malik, S. K. Madan, V. K. Sehgal


Reinforced concrete (RCC) buildings with dual system consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames or braces and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The two dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of the combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied therefore has practically no work to refer to. The combination may prove to be more effective in lateral load resistance by employing the peculiar advantages of shear walls and braces simultaneously and may also improve the architectural appearance of structures. This concept has been applied to regular RCC buildings provided with shear walls, braces, and their combinations.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, displacement, pushover analysis, dual structures, storey drift

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23 Efficient Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Fishing through Surveillance for Fishermen

Authors: T. Ahilan, V. Aswin Adityan, S. Kailash


UAV’s are small remote operated or automated aerial surveillance systems without a human pilot aboard. UAV’s generally finds its use in military and special operation application, a recent growing trend in UAV’s finds its application in several civil and non military works such as inspection of power or pipelines. The objective of this paper is the augmentation of a UAV in order to replace the existing expensive sonar (sound navigation and ranging) based equipment amongst small scale fisherman, for whom access to sonar equipment are restricted due to limited economic resources. The surveillance equipment’s present in the UAV will relay data and GPS location onto a receiver on the fishing boat using RF signals, using which the location of the schools of fishes can be found. In addition to this, an emergency beacon system is present for rescue operations and drone recovery.

Keywords: UAV, Surveillance, RF signals, fishing, sonar, GPS, video stream, school of fish

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
22 A Hybrid System of Hidden Markov Models and Recurrent Neural Networks for Learning Deterministic Finite State Automata

Authors: Pavan K. Rallabandi, Kailash C. Patidar


In this paper, we present an optimization technique or a learning algorithm using the hybrid architecture by combining the most popular sequence recognition models such as Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) and Hidden Markov models (HMMs). In order to improve the sequence or pattern recognition/ classification performance by applying a hybrid/neural symbolic approach, a gradient descent learning algorithm is developed using the Real Time Recurrent Learning of Recurrent Neural Network for processing the knowledge represented in trained Hidden Markov Models. The developed hybrid algorithm is implemented on automata theory as a sample test beds and the performance of the designed algorithm is demonstrated and evaluated on learning the deterministic finite state automata.

Keywords: hybrid systems, hidden markov models, recurrent neural networks, deterministic finite state automata

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21 Early Identification and Early Intervention: Pre and Post Diagnostic Tests in Mathematics Courses

Authors: Kailash Ghimire, Manoj Thapa


This study focuses on early identification of deficiencies in pre-required areas of students who are enrolled in College Algebra and Calculus I classes. The students were given pre-diagnostic tests on the first day of the class before they are provided with the syllabus. The tests consist of prerequisite, uniform and advanced content outlined by the University System of Georgia (USG). The results show that 48% of students in College Algebra are lacking prerequisite skills while 52% of Calculus I students are lacking prerequisite skills but, interestingly these students are prior exposed to uniform content and advanced content. The study is still in progress and this paper contains the outcome from Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In this paper, early intervention used in these classes: two days vs three days meeting a week and students’ self-assessment using exam wrappers and their effectiveness on students’ learning will also be discussed. A result of this study shows that there is an improvement on Drop, Fail and Withdraw (DFW) rates by 7%-10% compared to those in previous semesters.

Keywords: student at risk, diagnostic tests, identification, intervention, normalization gain, validity of tests

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20 Bayes Estimation of Parameters of Binomial Type Rayleigh Class Software Reliability Growth Model using Non-informative Priors

Authors: Rajesh Singh, Kailash Kale


In this paper, the Binomial process type occurrence of software failures is considered and failure intensity has been characterized by one parameter Rayleigh class Software Reliability Growth Model (SRGM). The proposed SRGM is mathematical function of parameters namely; total number of failures i.e. η-0 and scale parameter i.e. η-1. It is assumed that very little or no information is available about both these parameters and then considering non-informative priors for both these parameters, the Bayes estimators for the parameters η-0 and η-1 have been obtained under square error loss function. The proposed Bayes estimators are compared with their corresponding maximum likelihood estimators on the basis of risk efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulation technique. It is concluded that both the proposed Bayes estimators of total number of failures and scale parameter perform well for proper choice of execution time.

Keywords: binomial process, non-informative prior, maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), rayleigh class, software reliability growth model (SRGM)

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19 The Genotoxic Effect of Coal Fly Ash of Thermal Power Plant on Raphanus sativus L. (Radish)

Authors: Patel Kailash P, Patel Parimal M


The effect of coal fly ash treatment on the chromosomes of Raphanus sativus L. was investigated. The seeds of Raphanus sativusL. were placed in petri dishes in three replicates and allowed to germinate for five days in different concentration of coal fly ash solution. The root was treated with the diluted, semidiluted, and concentrated solution of fly ash while the control group had distilled water.The total aberration were examined. The mitotic index was calculated and the results were statically evaluated by the analysis of variance 5% significant level. The mitotic index decreased as the concentration increased. The highest mitotic index value was diluted fly ash solution while the least was concentrated fly ash treatment. The results show the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities observed included: chromatid bridge, c-mitosis, and stickiness. Concentrated fly ash solution is much more genotoxic than semidiluted fly ash solution, as it induced more aberrations having percentage abnormalities for the highest concentration tested. Increased fly ash pollution can lead to some irreversible cytogenetic effect in plants. The study is an attempt to corroborate the toxic effect of coal fly ash of thermal power plant on the chromosome of plants. These results will be useful in environmental monitoring of the cytotoxicity of coal fly ash.

Keywords: coal fly-ash, genotoxic, cytogenetic, mitotic index, Raphanus sativus L.

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18 Cloud Shield: Model to Secure User Data While Using Content Delivery Network Services

Authors: Rachna Jain, Sushila Madan, Bindu Garg


Cloud computing is the key powerhouse in numerous organizations due to shifting of their data to the cloud environment. In recent years it has been observed that cloud-based-services are being used on large scale for content storage, distribution and processing. Various issues have been observed in cloud computing environment that need to be addressed. Security and privacy are found topmost concern area. In this paper, a novel security model is proposed to secure data by utilizing CDN services like image to icon conversion. CDN Service is a content delivery service which converts an image to icon, word to pdf & Latex to pdf etc. Presented model is used to convert an image into icon by keeping image secret. Here security of image is imparted so that image should be encrypted and decrypted by data owners only. It is also discussed in the paper that how server performs multiplication and selection on encrypted data without decryption. The data can be image file, word file, audio or video file. Moreover, the proposed model is capable enough to multiply images, encrypt them and send to a server application for conversion. Eventually, the prime objective is to encrypt an image and convert the encrypted image to image Icon by utilizing homomorphic encryption.

Keywords: cloud computing, user data security, homomorphic encryption, image multiplication, CDN service

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
17 Identification, Isolation and Characterization of Unknown Degradation Products of Cefprozil Monohydrate by HPTLC

Authors: Vandana T. Gawande, Kailash G. Bothara, Chandani O. Satija


The present research work was aimed to determine stability of cefprozil monohydrate (CEFZ) as per various stress degradation conditions recommended by International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q1A (R2). Forced degradation studies were carried out for hydrolytic, oxidative, photolytic and thermal stress conditions. The drug was found susceptible for degradation under all stress conditions. Separation was carried out by using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic System (HPTLC). Aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 were used as the stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of ethyl acetate: acetone: methanol: water: glacial acetic acid (7.5:2.5:2.5:1.5:0.5v/v). Densitometric analysis was carried out at 280 nm. The system was found to give compact spot for cefprozil monohydrate (0.45 Rf). The linear regression analysis data showed good linear relationship in the concentration range 200-5.000 ng/band for cefprozil monohydrate. Percent recovery for the drug was found to be in the range of 98.78-101.24. Method was found to be reproducible with % relative standard deviation (%RSD) for intra- and inter-day precision to be < 1.5% over the said concentration range. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. The method has been successfully applied in the analysis of drug in tablet dosage form. Three unknown degradation products formed under various stress conditions were isolated by preparative HPTLC and characterized by mass spectroscopic studies.

Keywords: cefprozil monohydrate, degradation products, HPTLC, stress study, stability indicating method

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16 Performance Based Design of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Near-Field Earthquakes Using Energy Methods

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi


Performance based design (PBD) is an iterative exercise in which a preliminary trial design of the building structure is selected and if the selected trial design of the building structure does not conform to the desired performance objective, the trial design is revised. In this context, development of a fundamental approach for performance based seismic design of masonry infilled frames with minimum number of trials is an important objective. The paper presents a plastic design procedure based on the energy balance concept for PBD of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames subjected to near-field earthquakes. The proposed energy based plastic design procedure was implemented for trial performance based seismic design of representative masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames with various practically relevant distributions of masonry infill panels over the frame elevation. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the trial PBD of masonry infilled R/C frames was performed under the action of near-field earthquake ground motions. The results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the proposed energy method is effective for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames under near-field as well as far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: masonry infilled frame, energy methods, near-fault ground motions, pushover analysis, nonlinear dynamic analysis, seismic demand

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15 Power Angle Control Strategy of Virtual Synchronous Machine: A Novel Approach to Control Virtual Synchronous Machine

Authors: Shishir Lamichhane, Saurav Dulal, Bibek Gautam, Madan Thapa Magar, Indraman Tamrakar


Renewable energies such as wind turbines and solar photovoltaic have gained significance as a result of global environmental pollution and energy crises. These sources of energy are converted into electrical energy and delivered to end-users through the utility system. As a result of the widespread use of power electronics-based grid-interfacing technologies to accommodate renewable sources of energy, the prevalence of converters has expanded as well. As a result, the power system's rotating inertia is decreasing, endangering the utility grid's stability. The use of Virtual Synchronous Machine (VSM) technology has been proposed to overcome the grid stability problem due to low rotating inertia. The grid-connected inverter used in VSM can be controlled to emulate inertia, which replicates the external features of a synchronous generator. As a result, the rotating inertia is increased to support the power system's stability. A power angle control strategy is proposed in this paper and its model is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to study the effects of parameter disturbances on the active power and frequency for a VSM. The system consists of a synchronous generator, which is modeled in such a way that the frequency drops to an unacceptable region during transient conditions due to a lack of inertia when VSM is not used. Then, the suggested model incorporating VSM emulates rotating inertia, injecting a controllable amount of energy into the grid during frequency transients to enhance transient stability.

Keywords: damping constant, inertia–constant, ROCOF, transient stability, distributed sources

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14 Eli-Twist Spun Yarn: An Alternative to Conventional Sewing Thread

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sinha, Madan Lal Regar


Sewing thread plays an important role in the transformation of a two-dimensional fabric into a three-dimensional garment. The interaction of the sewing thread with the fabric at the seam not only influences the appearance of a garment but also its performance. Careful selection of sewing thread and associated parameters can only help in improvement. Over the years, ring spinning has been dominating the yarn market. In the pursuit of improvement to challenge its dominance alternative technology has also been developed. But no real challenge has been posed by the any of the developed spinning systems. Eli-Twist spinning system can be a new method of yarn manufacture to provide a product with improved mechanical and physical properties with respect to the conventional ring spun yarn. The system, patented by Suessen has gained considerable attention in the recent times. The process of produces a two-ply compact yarn with improved fiber utilization. It produces a novel structure combining all advantages of condensing and doubling. In the present study, sewing threads of three different counts each from cotton, polyester and polyester/cotton (50/50) blend were produced on a ring and Eli-Twist systems. A twist multiplier of 4.2 was used to produce all the yarns. A comparison of hairiness, tensile strength and coefficient of friction with conventional ring yarn was made. Eli-Twist yarn has shown better frictional characteristics, better tensile strength and less hairiness. The performance of the Eli-Twist sewing thread has also been found to be better than the conventional 2-ply sewing thread. The performance was estimated through seam strength, seam elongation and seam efficiency of sewn fabric. Eli-Twist sewing thread has shown less friction, less hairiness, and higher tensile strength. Eli-Twist sewing thread resulted in better seam characteristics in comparison to conventional 2-ply sewing thread.

Keywords: ring spun yarn, Eli-Twist yarn, sewing thread, seam strength, seam elongation, seam efficiency

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13 King versus God: An Introduction to Dhanujatra of Odisha

Authors: Kailash Pattanaik, Giribala Mohanty


Dhanujatra is a folk performance of ODISHA, India, that transports the participants, on lookers and all alike into a mythical atmosphere for eleven days and nights as well. In this performance the whole town becomes stage. The uniqueness of the festival lies in the fact that all the episodes of this Jatra enacted in different parts of the town making it the largest open air theatre in the world. The paper would emphasize on the uniqueness and the impact of this performance.Different episodes are enacted at different places in the regime. So, Dhanujatra does not confine itself to a fixed static or dead stage, as in case of other Jatra’s; it rather becomes the stage for the world at large. For that, it is said that, Worlds biggest open air theatre held in the tiny town called Bargarh in the western part of Orissa. The play moves sequentially day after day and the audience moves from locale to locale. Here it is analogues to the Ramleela of Ramnagar of Benars. Parallal enactment is a significant feature of this Jatra. From the second day, parallal performances take place in both Bargarh town and Ambapalli epitomising ‘Mathura’ and ‘Gokul’ respectively. Krishna is born in the prison on the second day of the jatra. Basudeb exchanges the child with the Nanda’s newborn baby in Gokul. In this way, parallal performances go on both in Mathura and Gokul. The ordinary persons who act as the mythological characters, or become historical heroes or the legendary Saints or Bhaktas in a Jatra in the evening, lead the lives of ordinary persons during day time. The dramatic personas of those individuals are shed with the end of the Jatra. On the contrary, the persons who act as the main characters of Dhanujatra are exceptions in this regard. They are identified as the characters they enact for the whole period of performance, both in the evenings and during daytime. It is worth mentioning that generally in the folk performances there is an ample scope to touch upon or interpret or comment or satirize the issues of contemporary relevance with the sole purpose to convey some specific message. Dhanujatra is no exception to that.

Keywords: folk performance, Jatra, parallel enactment, open-air stage, Odisha

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12 Performance Based Seismic Retrofit of Masonry Infiled Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Passive Energy Dissipation Devices

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi


The paper presents a plastic analysis procedure based on the energy balance concept for performance based seismic retrofit of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames with a ‘soft’ ground story using passive energy dissipation (PED) devices with the objective of achieving a target performance level of the retrofitted R/C frame for a given seismic hazard level at the building site. The proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure was employed for developing performance based design (PBD) formulations for PED devices for a simulated application in seismic retrofit of existing frame structures designed in compliance with the prevalent standard codes of practice. The PBD formulations developed for PED devices were implemented for simulated seismic retrofit of a representative code-compliant masonry infilled R/C frame with a ‘soft’ ground story using friction dampers as the PED device. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the retrofitted masonry infilled R/C frames is performed to investigate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure in achieving the target performance level under design level earthquakes. Results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the maximum inter-story drifts in the masonry infilled R/C frames with a ‘soft’ ground story that is retrofitted with the friction dampers designed using the proposed PBD formulations are controlled within the target drifts under near-field as well far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: energy methods, masonry infilled frame, near-field earthquakes, seismic protection, supplemental damping devices

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11 Cataloguing Beetle Fauna (Insecta: Coleoptera) of India: Estimating Diversity, Distribution, and Taxonomic Challenges

Authors: Devanshu Gupta, Kailash Chandra, Priyanka Das, Joyjit Ghosh


Beetles, in the insect order Coleoptera are the most species-rich group on this planet today. They represent about 40% of the total insect diversity of the world. With a considerable range of landform types including significant mountain ranges, deserts, fertile irrigational plains, and hilly forested areas, India is one of the mega-diverse countries and includes more than 0.1 million faunal species. Despite having rich biodiversity, the efforts to catalogue the beetle diversity of the extant species/taxa reported from India have been less. Therefore, in this paper, the information on the beetle fauna of India is provided based on the data available with the museum collections of Zoological Survey of India and taxa extracted from zoological records and published literature. The species were listed with their valid names, synonyms, type localities, type depositories, and their distribution in states and biogeographic zones of India. The catalogue also incorporates the bibliography on Indian Coleoptera. The exhaustive species inventory, prepared by us include distributional records from Himalaya, Trans Himalaya, Desert, Semi-Arid, Western Ghats, Deccan Peninsula, Gangetic Plains, Northeast, Islands, and Coastal areas of the country. Our study concludes that many of the species are still known from their type localities only, so there is need to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the taxonomic evaluation of those species. There are species which exhibit single locality records, and taxa-specific biodiversity assessments are required to be undertaken to understand the distributional range of such species. The primary challenge is taxonomic identifications of the species which were described before independence, and the type materials are present in overseas museums. For such species, taxonomic revisions of the different group of beetles are required to solve the problems of identification and classification.

Keywords: checklist, taxonomy, museum collections, biogeographic zones

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10 Evaluation of Associated Risk Factors and Determinants of near Miss Obstetric Cases at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan

Authors: Madan Khadka, Dhruba Uprety, Rubina Rai


Background and objective: In 2011, around 273,465 women died worldwide during pregnancy, childbirth or within 42 days after childbirth. Near-miss is recognized as the predictor of the level of care and maternal death. The objective of the study was to evaluate the associated risk factors of near-miss obstetric cases and maternal death. Material and Methods A Prospective Observational Study was done from August 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at BPKIHS hospital, tertiary care hospital in Eastern Nepal, Dharan. Case eligible by the 5-factor scoring system and WHO near miss criteria were evaluated. Risk factors included severe hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and a complication of abortion, ruptured uterus, medical/surgical condition and sepsis. Results: A total of 9,727 delivery were attended during the study period from August 2014 to June 2014. There were 6307 (71.5%) vaginal delivery and 2777(28.5%) caesarean section and 181 perinatal death with a total of 9,546 live birth. A total of 162 near miss was identified, and 16 maternal death occurred during the study. Maternal near miss rate of 16.6 per 1000 live birth, Women with life-threatening conditions (WLTC) of 172, Severe maternal outcome ratio of 18.64 per 1000 live birth, Maternal near-miss mortality ratio (MNM: 1 MD) 10.1:1, Mortality index (MI) of 8.98%. Risk factors were obstetric hemorrhage 27.8%, abortion/ectopic 27.2%, eclampsia 16%, medical/surgical condition 14.8%, sepsis 13.6%, severe preeclamsia 11.1%, ruptured uterus 3.1%, and molar pregnancy 1.9%. 19.75% were prim gravidae, with mean age 25.66 yrs, and cardiovascular and coagulation dysfunction as a major life threatening condition and sepsis (25%) was the major cause of mortality. Conclusion: Hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders are the leading causes of near miss event and sepsis as a leading cause of mortality. As near miss analysis indicates the quality of health care, it is worth presenting in national indices.

Keywords: abortion, eclampsia, hemorrhage, maternal mortility, near miss

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9 Estimation of Noise Barriers for Arterial Roads of Delhi

Authors: Sourabh Jain, Parul Madan


Traffic noise pollution has become a challenging problem for all metro cities of India due to rapid urbanization, growing population and rising number of vehicles and transport development. In Delhi the prime source of noise pollution is vehicular traffic. In Delhi it is found that the ambient noise level (Leq) is exceeding the standard permissible value at all the locations. Noise barriers or enclosures are definitely useful in obtaining effective deduction of traffic noise disturbances in urbanized areas. US’s Federal Highway Administration Model (FHWA) and Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CORTN) of UK are used to develop spread sheets for noise prediction. Spread sheets are also developed for evaluating effectiveness of existing boundary walls abutting houses in mitigating noise, redesigning them as noise barriers. Study was also carried out to examine the changes in noise level due to designed noise barrier by using both models FHWA and CORTN respectively. During the collection of various data it is found that receivers are located far away from road at Rithala and Moolchand sites and hence extra barrier height needed to meet prescribed limits was less as seen from calculations and most of the noise diminishes by propagation effect.On the basis of overall study and data analysis, it is concluded that FHWA and CORTN models under estimate noise levels. FHWA model predicted noise levels with an average percentage error of -7.33 and CORTN predicted with an average percentage error of -8.5. It was observed that at all sites noise levels at receivers were exceeding the standard limit of 55 dB. It was seen from calculations that existing walls are reducing noise levels. Average noise reduction due to walls at Rithala was 7.41 dB and at Panchsheel was 7.20 dB and lower amount of noise reduction was observed at Friend colony which was only 5.88. It was observed from analysis that Friends colony sites need much greater height of barrier. This was because of residential buildings abutting the road. At friends colony great amount of traffic was observed since it is national highway. At this site diminishing of noise due to propagation effect was very less.As FHWA and CORTN models were developed in excel programme, it eliminates laborious calculations of noise. There was no reflection correction in FHWA models as like in CORTN model.

Keywords: IFHWA, CORTN, Noise Sources, Noise Barriers

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8 Pushover Analysis of Masonry Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames for Performance Based Design for near Field Earthquakes

Authors: Alok Madan, Ashok Gupta, Arshad K. Hashmi


Non-linear dynamic time history analysis is considered as the most advanced and comprehensive analytical method for evaluating the seismic response and performance of multi-degree-of-freedom building structures under the influence of earthquake ground motions. However, effective and accurate application of the method requires the implementation of advanced hysteretic constitutive models of the various structural components including masonry infill panels. Sophisticated computational research tools that incorporate realistic hysteresis models for non-linear dynamic time-history analysis are not popular among the professional engineers as they are not only difficult to access but also complex and time-consuming to use. And, commercial computer programs for structural analysis and design that are acceptable to practicing engineers do not generally integrate advanced hysteretic models which can accurately simulate the hysteresis behavior of structural elements with a realistic representation of strength degradation, stiffness deterioration, energy dissipation and ‘pinching’ under cyclic load reversals in the inelastic range of behavior. In this scenario, push-over or non-linear static analysis methods have gained significant popularity, as they can be employed to assess the seismic performance of building structures while avoiding the complexities and difficulties associated with non-linear dynamic time-history analysis. “Push-over” or non-linear static analysis offers a practical and efficient alternative to non-linear dynamic time-history analysis for rationally evaluating the seismic demands. The present paper is based on the analytical investigation of the effect of distribution of masonry infill panels over the elevation of planar masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames on the seismic demands using the capacity spectrum procedures implementing nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) in conjunction with the response spectrum concept. An important objective of the present study is to numerically evaluate the adequacy of the capacity spectrum method using pushover analysis for performance based design of masonry infilled R/C frames for near-field earthquake ground motions.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, capacity spectrum method, response spectrum, seismic demand, near-field earthquakes

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7 Enumerating Insect Biodiversity in the Himalayan Mountains of India in Context to Species Richness, Biogeographic Distribution, and Possible Gap Areas in Taxonomic Research

Authors: Kailash Chandra, Devanshu Gupta


The Himalayan Mountains of India fall under two biogeographic zones Trans Himalaya (TH) and Himalaya and seven biotic provinces (TH-Ladakh Mountains, TH-Tibetan Plateau, TH-Sikkim, North-West Himalaya, West Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and East Himalaya). Because of the extreme environment and altitudinal variations, unique physiography, varied ecological conditions, and different vegetations, the Himalaya exhibit a rich assemblage of life, both flora, and fauna, further subjected to the impacts of climate change. To the authors’ best knowledge, there is no comprehensive account except for sporadic faunal investigations, to assess or interpret the insect diversity and their biogeographic distribution in Indian Himalaya (IH), one of the biodiversity hotspots. Therefore, in this paper, a compelling review of the extensive knowledge of insect diversity of IH is presented for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The inventory of the known insect species of IH was compiled from the exploration cum faunal-study data ready with the zoological survey of India, Kolkata as well as from the information published in the scientific literature till date. The species were listed with their valid names with their distribution in seven biotic provinces of IH. The insect fauna of IH represents about 38% of the identified insect diversity of India. The interpretation of data provided significant information in detecting possible gap areas in the taxonomic representation of different insect orders. Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Ephemeroptera, Phasmida, Embioptera, Psocoptera, Phthiraptera, Strepsiptera, Megaloptera, Raphidioptera, Siphonaptera, and Mecoptera need revisions, and it is required to collect more samples from remote areas of the region. Scope for finding new taxa even in the most diverse orders, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera cannot be overlooked. Exploration of cold deserts of Trans Himalaya and East Himalaya (Arunachal Pradesh) may result in a good number of new species from these regions. The most notable data was that many of the species recorded from Himalaya are still known from their type localities only, so there is an urgency to revisit and resurvey those collection localities for the evaluation of the status of those species. It is also required to assess and monitor the impact of climate change on the diversity of insects inhabiting in the fragile Himalayan ecosystem. DNA barcoding especially pests and biological control agents to solve the problems of identification in species complexes is also the need of the hour. In a nutshell, it can be concluded that the inventory of insects of this region is extensive but is far from final as every year hundreds of new species are described.

Keywords: catalog, climate change, diversity, DNA barcoding

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6 Molecular Characterization of Arginine Sensing Response in Unravelling Host-Pathogen Interactions in Leishmania

Authors: Evanka Madan, Madhu Puri, Dan Zilberstein, Rohini Muthuswami, Rentala Madhubala


The extensive interaction between the host and pathogen metabolic networks decidedly shapes the outcome of infection. Utilization of arginine by the host and pathogen is critical for determining the outcome of pathogenic infection. Infections with L. donovani, an intracellular parasite, will lead to an extensive competition of arginine between the host and the parasite donovani infection. One of the major amino acid (AA) sensing signaling pathways in mammalian cells are the mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) pathway. mTORC1, as a sensor of nutrient, controls numerous metabolic pathways. Arginine is critical for mTORC1 activation. SLC38A9 is the arginine sensor for the mTORC1, being activated during arginine sufficiency. L. donovani transport arginine via a high-affinity transporter (LdAAP3) that is rapidly up-regulated by arginine deficiency response (ADR) in intracellular amastigotes. This study, to author’s best knowledge, investigates the interaction between two arginine sensing systems that act in the same compartment, the lysosome. One is important for macrophage defense, and the other is essential for pathogen virulence. We hypothesize that the latter modulates lysosome arginine to prevent host defense response. The work presented here identifies an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in regulating the expression of SLC38A9-mTORC1 pathway, and consequently, their function in L. donovani infected THP-1 cells cultured in 0.1 mM and 1.5 mM arginine. It was found that in physiological levels of arginine (0.1 mM), infecting THP-1 with Leishmania leads to increased levels of SLC38A9 and mTORC1 via an increase in the expression of RagA. However, the reversal was observed with LdAAP3 mutants, reflecting the positive regulatory role of LdAAP3 on the host SLC38A9. At the molecular level, upon infection, mTORC1 and RagA were found to be activated at the surface of phagolysosomes which was found to form a complex with phagolysosomal localized SLC38A9. To reveal the relevance of SLC38A9 under physiological levels of arginine, endogenous SLC38A9 was depleted and a substantial reduction in the expression of host mTORC1, its downstream active substrate, p-P70S6K1 and parasite LdAAP3, was observed, thereby showing that silencing SLC38A9 suppresses ADR. In brief, to author’s best knowledge, these results reveal an upstream regulatory role of LdAAP3 in manipulating SLC38A9 arginine sensing in host macrophages. Our study indicates that intra-macrophage survival of L. donovani depends on the availability and transport of extracellular arginine. An understanding of the sensing pathway of both parasite and host will open a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of host-parasite interaction and consequently, as a treatment for Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: arginine sensing, LdAAP3, L. donovani, mTORC1, SLC38A9, THP-1

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5 Preparedness Level of Disaster Management Institutions in Context of Floods in Delhi

Authors: Aditi Madan, Jayant Kumar Routray


Purpose: Over the years flood related risks have compounded due to increasing vulnerability caused by rapid urbanisation and growing population. This increase is an indication of the need for enhancing the preparedness of institutions to respond to floods. The study describes disaster management structure and its linkages with institutions involved in managing disasters. It addresses issues and challenges associated with readiness of disaster management institutions to respond to floods. It suggests policy options for enhancing the current state of readiness of institutions to respond by considering factors like institutional, manpower, financial, technical, leadership & networking, training and awareness programs, monitoring and evaluation. Methodology: The study is based on qualitative data with statements and outputs from primary and secondary sources to understand the institutional framework for disaster management in India. Primary data included field visits, interviews with officials from institutions managing disasters and the affected community to identify the challenges faced in engaging national, state, district and local level institutions in managing disasters. For focus group discussions, meetings were held with district project officers and coordinators, local officials, community based organisation, civil defence volunteers and community heads. These discussions were held to identify the challenges associated with preparedness to respond of institutions to floods. Findings: Results show that disasters are handled by district authority and the role of local institutions is limited to a reactive role during disaster. Data also indicates that although the existing institutional setup is well coordinated at the district level but needs improvement at the local level. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. Additionally, their roles and responsibilities need to be clearly defined with adequate budget and dedicated permanent staff for managing disasters. Institutions need to utilise the existing manpower through proper delegation of work. Originality: The study suggests that disaster risk reduction needs to focus more towards inclusivity of the local urban bodies. Wide variations exist in awareness and perception among the officials engaged in managing disasters. In order to ensure community participation, it is important to address their social and economic problems since such issues can overshadow attempts made for reducing risks. Thus, this paper suggests development of direct linkages among institutions and community for enhancing preparedness to respond to floods.

Keywords: preparedness, response, disaster, flood, community, institution

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