Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 211

Search results for: pulmonary

211 A Theoretical to Conceptual Paper: The Use of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors, Endothelin Receptor Antagonists and/or Prostacyclin Analogs in Acute Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Ryan M. Monti, Bijal Mehta

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In cases of massive pulmonary embolism, defined as acute pulmonary embolism presenting with systemic hypotension or right ventricular dysfunction and impending failure, there is indication that unconventional therapies, such as phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs may decrease the morbidity and mortality. Based on the premise that dilating the pulmonary artery will decrease the pulmonary vascular pressure, while simultaneously decreasing the aggregation of platelets, it can be hypothesized that increased blood flow through the pulmonary artery will decrease right heart strain and subsequent morbidity and mortality. While this theory has yet to be formally studied, the recommendations for treating massive pulmonary embolism with phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and/or prostacyclin analogs in conjunction with the current standards of care in massive pulmonary embolism should be formally studied. In particular, patients with massive PE who are unable to undergo thrombolysis/surgical intervention may be the ideal population to study the use of these treatments to determine any decrease in mortality and morbidity (short term and long term).

Keywords: acute pulmonary thromboembolism, treatment of pulmonary embolism, use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogs in PE

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210 Pulmonary Valve Papillary Fibroelastoma: A Case Report of a Fibroelastoma Presenting as a Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Matthew Yong, Peter Williams, Andrie Strobel

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Pulmonary valve papillary fibroelastoma is an exceedingly rare pathology. The experience and literature regarding them are largely anecdotal and based on sporadic, single case reports. Throughout their known history, two features remain salient that they are classically asymptomatic and found incidentally. The demographic profile of those affected is unclear, as reports regarding those affected are mixed, and there is no clear gender or age predominance, although there is some suggestion of a predisposition to affect females. Nor has there been a well-structured epidemiological study of the entity. Interestingly they are becoming more common on peri-mortum examination. Here-after we describe our experience with a symptomatic presentation of pulmonary papillary fibroelastoma masquerading as a pulmonary embolism and its subsequent assessment and management, with intraoperative photography and echocardiography for reference.

Keywords: cardiac tumor, pulmonary valve, fibroelastoma, cardiac surgery

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209 Impact of Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Respiratory Parameters in Interstitial Lung Disease Patients: A Tertiary Care Hospital Study

Authors: Vivek Ku, A. K. Janmeja, D. Aggarwal, R. Gupta

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Purpose: Pulmonary rehabilitation plays a key role in management of chronic lung diseases. However, pulmonary rehabilitation is an underused modality in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). This is because limited information is available in literature and no data is available from India on this issue so far. The study was carried out to evaluate the role of pulmonary rehabilitation on respiratory parameters in ILD patients. Methods: The present study was a prospective randomized non-blind case control study. Total of 40 ILD patients were randomized into 2 groups of 20 patients each viz ‘pulmonary rehabilitation group’ and ‘control group’. Pulmonary rehabilitation group underwent 8 weeks pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) along with medical management as per guidelines and the control group was advised only medical management. Results: Mean age in case group was 59.15 ± 10.39 years and in control group was 62.10 ± 14.54 years. The case and the control groups were matched for age and sex. Mean MRC grading at the end of 8 weeks showed significant improvement in the case group as compared to control group (p= 0.011 vs p = 0.655). Similarly, mean St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score also showed significant improvement in pulmonary rehabilitation group at the end of the study (p= 0.001 vs p= 0.492). However, FEV1 and FVC had no significant change in the case and control group. Similarly, blood gases also did not show any significant difference in the group. Conclusion: Pulmonary rehabilitation improves breathlessness and thereby improves quality of life in the patients suffering from ILD. However, the pulmonary function values and blood gases are unaffected by pulmonary rehabilitation. Clinical Implications: Further large scale multicentre study is needed to ascertain the association.

Keywords: ILD, pulmonary rehabilitation, quality of life, pulmonary functions

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208 The Role of Pulmonary Resection in Complicated Primary Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis: An Evidence-Based Case Report

Authors: Hendra Wibowo, Suprayitno Wardoyo, Dhama Shinta

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Introduction: Pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) incidence was increasing, with many undetected cases. In complicated TB, treatment should consist of returning pulmonary function, preventing further complications, and eliminating bacteria. Complicated TB management was still controversial, and surgery was one of the treatments that should be evaluated in accordance with its role in the treatment of complicated TB. Method: This study was an evidence-based case report. The database used for the literature search were Cochrane, Medline, Proquest, and ScienceDirect. Keywords for the search were ‘primary pulmonary tuberculosis’, ‘surgery’, ‘lung resection’, and ‘children’. Inclusion criteria were studies in English or Indonesian, with children under 18 years old as subject, and full-text articles available. The assessment was done according to Oxford Centre for evidence-based medicine 2011. Results: Six cohort studies were analyzed. Surgery was indicated for patients with complicated TB that were unresponsive towards treatment. It should be noted that the experiments were done before the standard WHO antituberculosis therapy was applied; thus, the result may be different from the current application. Conclusion: Currently, there was no guideline on pulmonary resection. However, surgery yielded better mortality and morbidity in children with complicated pulmonary TB.

Keywords: pediatric, pulmonary, surgery, therapy, tuberculosis

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207 CT-Scan Transition of Pulmonary Edema Due to Water-Soluble Paint Inhalation

Authors: Masashi Kanazawa, Takaaki Nakano, Masaaki Takemoto, Tomonori Imamura, Mamiko Sugimura, Toshitaka Ito

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Introduction: We experienced a massive disaster due to inhalation of water-soluble paint. Sixteen patients were brought to our emergency room, and pulmonary edema was revealed on the CT images of 12 cases. Purpose: Transition of chest CT-scan findings in cases with pulmonary edema was examined. Method: CT-scans were performed on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 19th days after the inhalation event. Patients whose pulmonary edema showed amelioration or exacerbation were classified into the improvement or the exacerbation group, respectively. Those with lung edema findings appearing at different sites after the second day were classified into the changing group. Results: Eight, one and three patients were in the improvement, exacerbation and changing groups, respectively. In all cases, the pulmonary edema had disappeared from CT images on the 19th day after the inhalation event. Conclusion: Inhalation of water-soluble paints is considered to be relatively safe. However, our observations in these emergency cases suggest that, even if pulmonary edema is not severe immediately after the exposure, new lesions may appear later and existing lesions may worsen. Follow-up imaging is thus necessary for about two weeks.

Keywords: CT scan, intoxication, pulmonary edema, water-soluble paint

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206 Validation Pulmonary Embolus Severity Index Score Early Mortality Rate at 1, 3, 7 Days in Patients with a Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

Authors: Nicholas Marinus Batt, Angus Radford, Khaled Saraya

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Pulmonary Embolus Severity Index (PESI) score is a well-validated decision-making score grading mortality rates (MR) in patients with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) into 5 classes. Thirty and 90 days MR in class I and II are lower allowing the treatment of these patients as outpatients. In a London District General Hospital (DGH) with mixed ethnicity and high disease burden, we looked at MR at 1, 3, and 7 days of all PESI score classes. Our pilot study of 112 patients showed MR of 0% in class I, II, and III. The current study includes positive Computed Tomographic Scans (CT scans) for PE over the following three years (total of 555). MR was calculated for all PESI score classes at 1, 3 & 7 days. Thirty days MR was additionally calculated to validate the study. Our initial results so far are in line with our pilot studies. Further subgroup analysis accounting for the local co-morbidities and disease burden and its impact on the MR will be undertaken.

Keywords: Pulmonary Embolism (PE), Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score, mortality rate (MR), CT pulmonary artery

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205 Capture-recapture to Estimate Completeness of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Two Sources

Authors: Ratchadaporn Ungcharoen, Lily Ingsrisawang

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Capture-recapture methods are popular techniques for indirect estimation the size of wildlife populations and the completeness of cases in epidemiology and social sciences. The aim of this study was to estimate the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed by two sources of hospital registrations and surveillance systems in 2013 in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. Several estimators of population size were considered: the Lincoln-Petersen estimator, the Chapman estimator, the Chao’s lower bound estimator, the Zelterman’s estimator, etc. We focus on the Chapman and Chao’s lower bound estimators for estimating the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis from two sources. The retrieved pulmonary tuberculosis data from two sources were analyzed and bootstrapped for 30 samples, with 241 observations from source 1 and 305 observations from source 2 per sample, for additional exploration of the completeness of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results from the original data show that the Chapman’s estimator gave the estimation of a total 360 (95% CI: 349-371) pulmonary tuberculosis cases, resulting in 57% estimated completeness cases. But the Chao’s lower bound estimator estimated the total of 365 (95% CI: 354-376) pulmonary tuberculosis cases and its estimated completeness cases was 55.9%. For the results from bootstrap samples, the Chapman and the Chao’s lower bound estimators gave an estimated 347 (95% CI: 309-385) and 353 (95% CI: 315-390) pulmonary tuberculosis cases, respectively. If for two sources recoding systems are available, record-linkage and capture-recapture analysis can be useful for estimating the completeness of different registration system. Both Chapman and Chao’s lower bound estimator approaches produce very close estimates.

Keywords: capture-recapture, Chao, Chapman, pulmonary tuberculosis

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204 Cadaveric Study of Lung Anatomy: A Surgical Overview

Authors: Arthi Ganapathy, Rati Tandon, Saroj Kaler

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Introduction: A thorough knowledge of variations in lung anatomy is of prime significance during surgical procedures like lobectomy, pneumonectomy, and segmentectomy of lungs. The arrangement of structures in the lung hilum act as a guide in performing such procedures. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures in the right lung is eparterial bronchus, pulmonary artery, hyparterial bronchus and pulmonary veins from above downwards. In the left lung, it is pulmonary artery, principal bronchus and pulmonary vein from above downwards. The arrangement of hilar structures from anterior to posterior in both the lungs is pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and principal bronchus. The bronchial arteries are very small and usually the posterior most structures in the hilum of lungs. Aim: The present study aims at reporting the variations in hilar anatomy (arrangement and number) of lungs. Methodology: 75 adult formalin fixed cadaveric lungs from the department of Anatomy AIIMS New Delhi were observed for variations in the lobar anatomy. Arrangement of pulmonary hilar structures was meticulously observed, and any deviation in the pattern of presentation was recorded. Results: Among the 75 adult lung specimens observed 36 specimens were of right lung and the rest of left lung. Seven right lung specimens showed only 2 lobes with an oblique fissure dividing them and one left lung showed 3 lobes. The normal pattern of arrangement of hilar structures was seen in 22 right lungs and 23 left lungs. Rest of the lung specimens (14 right and 16 left) showed a varied pattern of arrangement of hilar structures. Some of them showed alterations in the sequence of arrangement of pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins, bronchus, and others in the number of these structures. Conclusion: Alterations in the pattern of arrangement of structures in the lung hilum are quite frequent. A compromise in knowledge of such variations will result in inadvertent complications like intraoperative bleeding during surgical procedures.

Keywords: fissures, hilum, lobes, pulmonary

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203 NO2 Exposure Effect on the Occurrence of Pulmonary Dysfunction the Police Traffic in Jakarta

Authors: Bambang Wispriyono, Satria Pratama, Haryoto Kusnoputranto, Faisal Yunus, Meliana Sari

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Introduction/objective: The impact of the development of motor vehicles is increasing the number of pollutants in the air. One of the substances that cause serious health problems is NO2. The health impacts arising from exposure to NO2 include pulmonary function impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of NO2 exposure on the incidence of pulmonary function impairment. Methods: We are using a cross-sectional study design with 110 traffic police who were divided into two groups: exposed (police officers working on the highway) and the unexposed group (police officers working in the office). Election subject convenient sampling carried out in each group to the minimum number of samples met. Results: The results showed that the average NO2 in the exposed group was 18.72 ppb and unexposed group is 4.14 ppb. Pulmonary dysfunction on exposed and unexposed groups showed that FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) value are 88.68 and 90.27. And FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in One) value are 94.9 and 95.16. Some variables like waist circumference, Body Mass Index, Visceral Fat, and Fat has associated with the incidence of Pulmonary Dysfunction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Health monitoring is needed to decreasing health risk in Policeman.

Keywords: NO2, pulmonary dysfunction, police traffic, Jakarta

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202 Strategies For Management Of Massive Intraoperative Airway Haemorrhage Complicating Surgical Pulmonary Embolectomy

Authors: Nicholas Bayfield, Liam Bibo, Kaushelandra Rathore, Lucas Sanders, Mark Newman

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INTRODUCTION: Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is an established therapy for acute pulmonary embolism causing right heart dysfunction and haemodynamic instability. Massive intraoperative airway haemorrhage is a rare complication of pulmonary embolectomy. We present our institutional experience with massive airway haemorrhage complicating pulmonary embolectomy and discuss optimal therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A retrospective review of emergent surgical pulmonary embolectomy patients was undertaken. Cases complicated by massive intra-operative airway haemorrhage were identified. Intra- and peri-operative management strategies were analysed and discussed. RESULTS: Of 76 patients undergoing emergent or salvage pulmonary embolectomy, three cases (3.9%) of massive intraoperative airway haemorrhage were identified. Haemorrhage always began on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Successful management strategies involved intraoperative isolation of the side of bleeding, occluding the affected airway with an endobronchial blocker, institution of veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and reversal of anticoagulation. Running the ECMO without heparinisation allows coagulation to occur. Airway haemorrhage was controlled within 24 hours of operation in all patients, allowing re-institution of dual lung ventilation and decannulation from ECMO. One case in which positive end-expiratory airway pressure was trialled initially was complicated by air embolism. Although airway haemorrhage was controlled successfully in all cases, all patients died in-hospital for reasons unrelated to the airway haemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Massive intraoperative airway haemorrhage during pulmonary embolectomy is a rare complication with potentially catastrophic outcomes. Re-perfusion alveolar and capillary injury is the likely aetiology. With a systematic approach to management, airway haemorrhage can be well controlled intra-operatively and often resolves within 24 hours. Stopping blood flow to the pulmonary arteries and support of oxygenation by the institution of VA ECMO is important. This management has been successful in our 3 cases.

Keywords: pulmonary embolectomy, cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac surgery, pulmonary embolism

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201 Design and Development of a Bi-Leaflet Pulmonary Valve

Authors: Munirah Ismail, Joon Hock Yeo

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Paediatric patients who require ventricular outflow tract reconstruction usually need valve construction to prevent valvular regurgitation. They would face problems like lack of suitable, affordable conduits and the need to undergo several operations in their lifetime due to the short lifespan of existing valves. Their natural growth and development are also of concern, even if they manage to receive suitable conduits. Current prosthesis including homografts, bioprosthetic valves, mechanical valves, and bovine jugular veins either do not have the long-term durability or the ability to adapt to the growth of such patients. We have developed a new design of bi-leaflet valve. This new technique accommodates patients’ annular size growth while maintaining valvular patency. A mock circulatory system was set up to assess the hemodynamic performance of the bi-leaflet pulmonary valve. It was found that the percentage regurgitation was acceptable and thus, validates this novel concept.

Keywords: bi-leaflet pulmonary valve, pulmonary heart valve, tetralogy of fallot, mock circulatory system

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200 Algorithm for Quantification of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Chest X-Ray Exams

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Guilherme Giacomini, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Ana Luiza Menegatti Pavan, Maria Eugenia Dela Rosa, Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Diana Rodrigues de Pina

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It is estimated that each year one death every 10 seconds (about 2 million deaths) in the world is attributed to tuberculosis (TB). Even after effective treatment, TB leaves sequelae such as, for example, pulmonary fibrosis, compromising the quality of life of patients. Evaluations of the aforementioned sequel are usually performed subjectively by radiology specialists. Subjective evaluation may indicate variations inter and intra observers. The examination of x-rays is the diagnostic imaging method most accomplished in the monitoring of patients diagnosed with TB and of least cost to the institution. The application of computational algorithms is of utmost importance to make a more objective quantification of pulmonary impairment in individuals with tuberculosis. The purpose of this research is the use of computer algorithms to quantify the pulmonary impairment pre and post-treatment of patients with pulmonary TB. The x-ray images of 10 patients with TB diagnosis confirmed by examination of sputum smears were studied. Initially the segmentation of the total lung area was performed (posteroanterior and lateral views) then targeted to the compromised region by pulmonary sequel. Through morphological operators and the application of signal noise tool, it was possible to determine the compromised lung volume. The largest difference found pre- and post-treatment was 85.85% and the smallest was 54.08%.

Keywords: algorithm, radiology, tuberculosis, x-rays exam

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199 Bronchoscopy and Genexpert in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the Indian Private Health Sector: A Short Case Series

Authors: J. J. Mathew

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Pulmonary tuberculosis is highly prevalent in the Indian subcontinent. Most cases of pulmonary tuberculosis are diagnosed with sputum examinations and the vast majority of these are undertaken by the government run establishments. However, mycobacterial cultures are not routinely done, unless drug resistance is detected based on clinical response. Modern diagnostic tests like bronchoscopy and Genexpert are not routinely employed in the government institutions for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, but have been accepted widely by good private institutions. The utility of these investigations in the private sector is not yet well recognized. This retrospective study aims to assess the usefulness of bronchoscopy and Genexpert in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in quaternary care private hospital in India. 30 patients with respiratory symptoms raising the possibility of tuberculosis based on clinical and radiological features, but without any significant sputum production, were subject to bronchoscopy and BAL samples taken for microbiological studies, including Genexpert. 6 out of the 30 patients were found to be Genexpert positive and none of them showed Rifampicin resistance. All the 6 cases had upper zone predominant disease. One of the 6 cases of tuberculosis had another co-existent bacterial infection according to the routine culture studies. 6 other cases were proven to be due to other bacterial infections alone, 2 had a malignant diagnosis and the remaining cases were thought to be non-infective pathologies. The Genexpert results were made available within 48 hours in the 6 positive cases. All of them were commenced on standard anti-tuberculous regimen with excellent clinical response. The other infective cases were also managed successfully based on the drug susceptibilities. The study has shown the usefulness of these investigations as early intervention enabled diagnosis facilitating treatment and prevention of any clinical deterioration. The study lends support to early bronchoscopy and Genexpert testing in suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis without significant sputum production, in a high prevalence country which normally relies on sputum examination for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: pulmonary, tuberculosis, bronchoscopy, genexpert

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198 Adequacy of Second-Generation Laryngeal Mask Airway during Prolonged Abdominal Surgery

Authors: Sukhee Park, Gaab Soo Kim

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Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of second-generation laryngeal mask airway use during prolonged abdominal surgery in respect of ventilation, oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC), and postoperative non-pulmonary complications on living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) surgery. Methods: In total, 257 recipients who underwent LDKT using either laryngeal mask airway-ProSeal (LMA-P) or endotracheal tube (ETT) were retrospectively analyzed. Arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PFR) during surgery were compared between two groups. In addition, PPC including pulmonary aspiration and postoperative non-pulmonary complications including nausea, vomiting, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy, delirium, and atrial fibrillation were also compared. Results: PaCO2 and PFR during surgery were not significantly different between the two groups. PPC was also not significantly different between the two groups. Interestingly, the incidence of delirium was significantly lower in the LMA-P group than the ETT group (3.0% vs. 10.3%, P = 0.029). Conclusions: During prolonged abdominal surgery such as LDKT, second-generation laryngeal mask airway offers adequate ventilation and oxygenation and can be considered a suitable alternative to ETT.

Keywords: laryngeal mask airway, prolonged abdominal surgery, kidney transplantation, postoperative pulmonary complication

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197 Developing HRCT Criterion to Predict the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Vandna Raghuvanshi, Vikrant Thakur, Anupam Jhobta

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Objective: To design HRCT criterion to forecast the threat of pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and methods: This was a prospective study of 69 patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied their medical characteristics, numerous separate HRCT-results, and a combination of HRCT findings to foresee the danger for PTB by utilizing univariate and multivariate investigation. Temporary HRCT diagnostic criteria were planned in view of these outcomes to find out the risk of PTB and tested these criteria on our patients. Results: The results of HRCT chest were analyzed, and Rank was given from 1 to 4 according to the HRCT chest findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Rank 1: Highly suspected PTB. Rank 2: Probable PTB Rank 3: Nonspecific or difficult to differentiate from other diseases Rank 4: Other suspected diseases • Rank 1 (Highly suspected TB) was present in 22 (31.9%) patients, all of them finally diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative likelihood ratio for RANK 1 on HRCT chest was 53.6%, 100%, and 0.43, respectively. • Rank 2 (Probable TB) was present in 13 patients, out of which 12 were tubercular, and 1 was non-tubercular. • The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of the combination of Rank 1 and Rank 2 was 82.9%, 96.4%, 23.22, and 0.18, respectively. • Rank 3 (Non-specific TB) was present in 25 patients, and out of these, 7 were tubercular, and 18 were non-tubercular. • When all these 3 ranks were considered together, the sensitivity approached 100% however, the specificity reduced to 35.7%. The positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 1.56 and 0, respectively. • Rank 4 (Other specific findings) was given to 9 patients, and all of these were non-tubercular. Conclusion: HRCT is useful in selecting individuals with greater chances of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: pulmonary, tuberculosis, multivariate, HRCT

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196 Changes in Pulmonary Functions in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Authors: N. Anand, P. S. Nayyer, V. Rana, S. Verma

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications. Among the lesser known complications is the involvement of respiratory system. Changes in pulmonary volume, diffusion and elastic properties of lungs as well as the performance of the respiratory muscles lead to a restrictive pattern in lung functions. The present study was aimed to determine the changes in various parameters of pulmonary function tests amongst patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and also try to study the effect of duration of Diabetes Mellitus on pulmonary function tests. Methods: It was a cross sectional study performed at Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Hospital and Medical College in, Delhi, A Tertiary care referral centre which included 200 patients divided into 2 groups. The first group included diagnosed patients with diabetes and the second group included controls. Cases and controls symptomatic for any acute or chronic Respiratory or Cardiovascular illness or a history of smoking were excluded. Both the groups were subjected to spirometry to evaluate for the pulmonary function tests. Result: The mean Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased ((P < 0.001) as compared to controls while the mean ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity was not significantly decreased( p>0.005). There was no correlation seen with duration of the disease. Conclusion: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) were found to be significantly decreased in patients of Diabetes mellitus while ratio of Forced Expiratory Volume in First second to Forced Vital Capacity (FEV1/FVC) was not significantly decreased. The duration of Diabetes mellitus was not found to have any statistically significant effect on Pulmonary function tests (p > 0.005).

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, pulmonary function tests, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in first second

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195 Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS) for TB Control Program: A Ten Years Experience

Authors: Solomon Sisay, Belete Mengistu, Woldargay Erku, Desalegne Woldeyohannes

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Background: Tuberculosis is still the leading cause of illness in the world which accounted for 2.5% of the global burden of disease, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of study was to assess impact of DOTS strategy on tuberculosis case finding and treatment outcome in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia from 2003 up to 2012 and from 2002 up to 2011, respectively. Methods: Health facility-based retrospective study was conducted. Data were collected and reported in quarterly basis using WHO reporting format for TB case finding and treatment outcome from all DOTS implementing health facilities in all zones of the region to Federal Ministry of Health. Results: A total of 10024 all form of TB cases had been registered between the periods from 2003 up to 2012. Of them, 4100 (40.9%) were smear-positive pulmonary TB, 3164 (31.6%) were smear-negative pulmonary TB and 2760 (27.5%) had extra-pulmonary TB. Case detection rate of smear-positive pulmonary TB had increased from 31.7% to 46.5% from the total TB cases and treatment success rate increased from 13% to 92% with average mean value of being 40.9% (SD= 0.1) and 55.7% (SD=0.28), respectively for the specified year periods. Moreover, the average values of treatment defaulter and treatment failure rates were 4.2% and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion: It is possible to achieve the recommended WHO target which is 70% of CDR for smear-positive pulmonary TB, and 85% of TSR as it was already been fulfilled the targets for treatments more than 85% from 2009 up to 2011 in the region. However, it requires strong efforts to enhance case detection rate of 40.9% for smear-positive pulmonary TB through implementing alternative case finding strategies.

Keywords: Gambella Region, case detection rate, directly observed treatment short-course, treatment success rate, tuberculosis

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194 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale

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Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, India

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193 Pulmonary Embolism Indicative of Myxoma of the Right Atrium

Authors: A. Kherraf, M. Bouziane, A. Drighil, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal

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Objective: Myxomas are rare heart tumors most commonly found in the left atrium. The purpose of this observation is to report a rare case of myxoma of the right atrium revealed by pulmonary embolism. Observation: A 34-year-old patient with no history presented to the emergency room with sudden onset dyspnea. Clinical examination showed arterial pressure at 110/70mmHg, tachycardia at 110bpm, and 90% oxygen saturation. The ECG enrolled in incomplete right bundle branch block. The radio-thorax was normal. Echocardiography revealed the presence of a large homogeneous intra-OD mass, contiguous to the inter-atrial septum, prolapsing through the tricuspid valve, and causing mild tricuspid insufficiency, with dilation of the right ventricle and retained systolic function with PAPs estimated at 45mmHg. A chest scan was performed, revealing the presence of right segmental pulmonary embolism. The patient was put under anticoagulant and underwent surgical resection of the mass; its pathological examination concluded to a myxoma. The post-operative consequences were simple, without recurrence of the mass after one year follow-up. Discussion: Myxomas represent 50% of heart tumors. Most often, they originate in the left atrium, and more rarely in the right atrium or the ventricles. Myxoma of the right atrium can be responsible for life-threatening pulmonary embolism. The most predictive factor for embolization remains the morphology of the myxomas; papillary or villous myxomas are the most friable. Surgery is the standard treatment, with regular postoperative follow-up to detect recurrence. Conclusion: Myxomas of the right atrium are a rare location for these tumors. Pulmonary embolism is the main complication and should routinely involve careful study of the right chambers on echocardiography.

Keywords: pulmonary embolism, myxoma, right atrium, heart tumors

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192 Environmental Parameters Influence on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients’ Quality of Life

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Nai K. K. Fong

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fifth leading cause of death in Hong Kong. Investigators are eager to explore the environmental risk factors for COPD such as air pollution and occupational exposure. Through a cross-sectional survey, this study investigates the impact of air quality to the quality of life of patients with the COPD in terms of the scores of the (Chinese) chronic respiratory questionnaire (CCRQ) and the measurements of indoor air quality (IAQ) and Moser’s activities of daily living (ADL). Strong relationships between a number of indoor/outdoor environmental parameters were found and CRQ sub-scores for patients of COPD and thus indoor air pollutants must be monitored for future studies related to QOL for patients with COPD.

Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), indoor air pollutants, quality of life, chronic respiratory questionnaire (CRQ)

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191 Effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation towards Length of Stay and IL-6 Level on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Patients

Authors: Santony Santony, Teguh Rahayu Sartono, Iin Noor Chozin

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Introduction: Pneumonia is acute inflammation on lung parenchyma which is caused by bacteria, virus, fungi, or parasite. In Indonesia, Pneumonia is among the ten inpatient cases. Length of stay is related to the increased morbidity rate, nosocomial infection, and costs. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on the difference in length of stay and the level of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) as an inflammation biomarker for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in non-intensive rooms. Therefore, pulmonary rehabilitation as adjunctive therapy can be routinely exercised in order to shorten the length of stay, along with the decrease in IL-6 level. Methods: This study was conducted from May to October 2019 at Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Malang. 40 community-acquired pneumonia patients in non-intensive rooms were divided into two groups. 20 patients in the treatment group and 20 patients in the control group, all of them were selected through both inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study used simple consecutive random sampling. In the treatment group, pulmonary rehabilitation performed was composed of breathing exercise, effective coughing technique, clapping (percussion), postural drainage, as well as respiratory muscle training using incentive spirometry device. Pulmonary rehabilitation was conducted twice over five days with a minimum duration of 15 minutes. Blood samples were taken both on the first and the fifth day of the treatment to measure IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker. Result: For the treatment group, the length of stay was 5.35 days whereas the control group 7.6 days. It can be seen that the treatment group had a shorter length of stay by 2.25 days (P<0,001). The IL-6 level on the first day for the treatment group was 36.27 pg/ml, whereas on the fifth day was 34.36 pg/ml. There was a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day of treatment even though it was not statistically significant (P=0.628). IL-6 level on the control group for the first day was 67.76 pg/ml, and after the fifth day, the level decreased to 54.43 pg/ml. There seemed to be a decrease in the IL-6, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.502). On the fifth day, the treatment group showed an average IL-6 level of 34.36 pg/ml. This value was lower than that of the control group which did not receive pulmonary rehabilitation having an IL-6 level of 54.43 pg/ml, even though it was not statistically significant (p=0.221). Conclusion: This study concluded that pulmonary rehabilitation as an adjunctive therapy shortened length of stay by 2.25 days for community-acquired pneumonia patients in a non-intensive room. Both groups experienced a decrease in IL-6 level on the fifth day in comparison with the first day even though it was not statistically significant P>0,05. IL-6 level as an inflammation biomarker decreased on the fifth day of treatment which was in accordance with improvement on pneumonia patients.

Keywords: community-acquired pneumonia, interleukin-6, length of stay, pulmonary rehabilitation

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190 Successful Treatment of Multifocal XDR Tuberculosis Osteomyelitis

Authors: Abeer N. Alshukairi, Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi, Abdulfattah W. Alamri, Adel F. Alothman

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We described the nosocomial transmission of a pre-XDR or an MDR case of pulmonary tuberculosis in a HIV negative health care worker in an area endemic for MDR & XDR tuberculosis. With inadequate therapy and non-compliance, his strain developed acquired resistance and he presented with extra-pulmonary XDR tuberculosis in the form of multi-focal osteomyelitis and encysted pleural effusion. He was cured after 2 years of therapy with various anti-tuberculous drugs in addition to interferon gamma.

Keywords: osteomyelitis, treatment, XDR tuberculosis, successful treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
189 Clinical and Epidemiological Profile of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Medical Institution from the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Camilo Andres Agudelo-Velez, Lina María Martinez-Sanchez, Natalia Perilla-Hernandez, Maria De Los Angeles Rodriguez-Gazquez, Felipe Hernandez-Restrepo, Dayana Andrea Quintero-Moreno, Camilo Ruiz-Mejia, Isabel Cristina Ortiz-Trujillo, Monica Maria Zuluaga-Quintero

Abstract:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is common condition, characterized by a persistent blockage of airflow, partially reversible and progressive, that represents 5% of total deaths around the world, and it is expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030. Objective: To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a medical institution from the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with a sample of 50 patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a private institution in Medellin, during 2015. The software SPSS vr. 20 was used for the statistical analysis. For the quantitative variables, averages, standard deviations, and maximun and minimun values were calculated, while for ordinal and nominal qualitative variables, proportions were estimated. Results: The average age was 73.5±9.3 years, 52% of the patients were women, 50% of them had retired, 46% ere married and 80% lived in the city of Medellín. The mean time of diagnosis was 7.8±1.3 years and 100% of the patients were treated at the internal medicine service. The most common clinical features were: 36% were classified as class D for the disease, 34% had a FEV1 <30%, 88% had a history of smoking and 52% had oxygen therapy at home. Conclusion: It was found that class D was the most common, and the majority of the patients had a history of smoking, indicating the need to strengthen promotion and prevention strategies in this regard.

Keywords: pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary medicine, oxygen inhalation therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
188 Antepartum and Postpartum Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review

Authors: Ghadeer M Alkusayer, Adelicia Yu, Pamela Orr

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Study objective: To report a case of postpartum pulmonary cryptococcal infection (CCI) in an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman. Additionally, the cases of pulmonary cryptococcal infections either in the antepartum or the postpartum period with pregnancy outcomes, were systematically reviwed. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was conducted for peer-reviewed studies without date restrictions, published in English and relating to CCI during pregnancy or postpartum period. Conference press, editorials, opinion pieces and letters were excluded. Two authors independently screened citations and full-text articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. Given the heterogeneity of study designs, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The search identified 128 references, of which 22 case reports and series met the inclusion criteria. This is a total of 29 women (including the current case) . The mean age of the women was 28.3 ± 12.3 years. Nine (31.03%) presented and were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Two (6.90%) of the patients were reported as immunocompromised with HIV. Four maternal deaths (13.79%) were found in this case series with one (4.3%) patient with severe neurological deficits. Four (17.4%) infant deaths were reported. Women primary presentation varied with chest pain 13 (44.82%), headache 10 (35.70%), dyspnea 19 (65.51%), or fever 12 (41.38%). Three studies reported placental pathology positive for C. neoformans. Conclusion: This case of pulmonary cryptococcal infection in the postpartum period is an important addition to the literature of this rare infection in pregnancy. The patient is not immunocompromised. The patient was successfully treated with 4 months of Fluconazole 400 mg and continued to breastfeed the healthy baby.

Keywords: pulmonary cryptococcus, pregnancy, cryptococci , postpartum

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187 Histopathological and Biochemical Evaluation of Hydroxyurea-Induced Hepato-Pulmonary Toxicity and Lymphoid Necrosis in Rats

Authors: Samah Oda, Asmaa Khafaga, Mohammed Hashim, Asmaa Khamis

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Toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU), a treatment for certain tumors, polycythemia, and thrombocytosis, was evaluated in rats in one-month toxicity study. Sixty male albino rats were equally classified into four groups. Rats received daily oral gavage of HU in 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.wt. Chemical and histopathological assessment of liver, lung, spleen, and bone marrow was performed at 10, 20, and 30 days of the experiment. No significant change was reported in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), globulin, and albumin/ globulin ratio during the experiment. Significant decreases in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total albumin were reported in rats received 500 and 750 mg/kg b.wt of HU. In addition, total cholesterol level increased significantly after 10 days; however, it significantly decreased after 20 and 30 days of the experiment. Moreover, hepatocytic vacuolation and necrosis with portal inflammatory infiltrates were reported along experimental periods. Pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, interstitial mononuclear infiltration, peribronchitis, and bronchial epithelial necrosis were also reported. Severe lymphocytic necrosis in spleen and severe loss of hematopoietic cells and replacement with corresponding adipose tissue in bone marrow tissues was demonstrated. In conclusion, HU could be able to induce severe dose and time-dependent hepato-pulmonary toxicity and lymphoid depression in rats.

Keywords: hydroxyurea, hepato-pulmonary toxicity, lymphoid depression, histopathology

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186 Bronchospasm Analysis Following the Implementation of a Program of Maximum Aerobic Exercise in Active Men

Authors: Sajjad Shojaeidoust, Mohsen Ghanbarzadeh, Abdolhamid Habibi

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Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a transitory condition of airflow obstruction that is associated with physical activities. It is noted that high ventilation can lead to an increase in the heat and reduce in the moisture in airways resistance of trachea. Also causes of pathophysiological mechanism are EIB. Accordingly, studying some parameters of pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1) among active people seems quintessential. The aim of this study was to analyze bronchospasm following the implementation of a program of maximum aerobic exercise in active men at Chamran University of Ahwaz. Method: In this quasi-experimental study, the population consisted of all students at Chamran University. Among from 55 participants, of which, 15 were randomly selected as the experimental group. In this study, the size of the maximum oxygen consumption was initially measured, and then, based on the maximum oxygen consumed, the active individuals were identified. After five minutes’ warm-up, Strand treadmill exercise test was taken (one session) and pulmonary parameters were measured at both pre- and post-tests (spirometer). After data normalization using KS and non-normality of the data, the Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the data. The significance level for all statistical surveys was considered p≤0/05. Results: The results showed that the ventilation factors and bronchospasm (FVC, FEV1) in the pre-test and post-test resulted in no significant difference among the active people (p≥0/05). Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results observed in this study, it appears that pulmonary indices in active individuals increased after aerobic test. The increase in this indicator in active people is due to increased volume and elasticity of the lungs as well. In other words, pulmonary index is affected by rib muscles. It is considered that progress over respiratory muscle strength and endurance has raised FEV1 in the active cases.

Keywords: aerobic active maximum, bronchospasm, pulmonary function, spirometer

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185 Early Versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV‐positive People with Tuberculosis

Authors: Mohhamed El Habib Labdouni

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Introduction: Co-infection with VIH and tuberculosis poses one of the major ongoing challenges for global TB and AIDS prevention and control. The objective of this study is to raise the issue of the resurgence of TB, in People living with VIH supported in a referent center in western Algeria. Its epidemiological, clinical, biological and radiological new trends, and to compare the mortality rate between early and delayed ART. Methods: It was a prospective study, during 36 months from the 01st/01/2012 to 31st/12/2014, by identifying and analyzing cases of TB-VIH co-infection. Our population was devised in two groups/ early ART and delayed ART. The primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test the period of follow up, which was fixed at 300 weeks. Results: Sixty cases of co-infection TB -VIH were enrolled in our study: 78.3% had pulmonary tuberculosis associated with extra-pulmonary, 13.3% had only pulmonary tuberculosis and 08.3% presented strictly extra-pulmonary TB. The clinical particularity of this co-infection is the frequency of serious localization such us: pleural 23.3%, peritoneal 31.7%, and meningeal suffusion 13.3%.y-.biologicaly we notice the predominance both of pancytopenia and leucoanemia, hyponatremia in 38,6% and hypokalemia in 19,3%. By analyzing Kaplan-Meier survival curves, we notice that early ART initiation is associated with a significant reduction of all-cause mortality (p = 0,000), and we have identified several prognostic factors such as hypokalemia hyponatremia, leukocytosis thrombopenemia leucothrombopenia (p = 0,005). Conclusion: Our study confirms most of the results reported in the literature. Early ART initiation reduces the rate of all-cause mortality, despite the probability of the occurrence of TB-IRIS.

Keywords: TB-HIV co-infection, early ART, hyponatremia, extrapulmonary tuberculosis

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184 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

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The modeling lung respiratory system which has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the lung pulmonary system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically-relevant three dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue which produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue visco-elasticity and tidal breathing period.

Keywords: lung deformation and mechanics; Tissue mechanics; Viscoelasticity; Fluid-structure interactions; ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
183 Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi

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This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.

Keywords: sleep, apnea patient, operating model, hospital

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182 Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Diaphragmatic Strength Following Coronary Revascularization

Authors: Abeer Ahmed Abdelhamed

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Introduction: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) are the most common complications observed and managed after abdominal or cardiothoracic surgery. Hypoxemia, atelectasis, pleural effusion, or diaphragmatic dysfunction, are often a source of morbidity in cardiac surgery patients, and are more common in patients receiving unilateral or bilateral internal mammary artery (IMT) grafts than patients receiving saphenous vein (SV) grafts alone. Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of Threshold load inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary gas exchange and maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) in patient undergoing coronary revascularization. Subject: Thirty three male patients eligible for coronary revascularization were selected to participate in the study. Method: They were divided into two groups(17 patients in the intervention group and 16 patients in the control group), the interventional group received inspiratory muscle training at 30% of their maximum inspiratory pressure throughout the hospitalization period in addition to routine post operative care. Result: The results of this study showed a significant improvement on maximum inspiratory pressure(MIP), Arterial-alveolar pressure gradient (A-a gradient) and oxygen saturation in the intervention group. Conclusion: Inspiratory muscle training using threshold mode significantly improves maximum inspiratory pressure, pulmonary gas exchange tested by alveolar-arterial gradient and oxygen saturation in Patients undergoing coronary revascularization.

Keywords: coronary revascularization, inspiratory muscle training, maximum inspiratory pressure, pulmonary gas exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 231