Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 831

Search results for: frame

831 Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of Cab Frame with FEM

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty, Zefry Darmawan, Tadayuki Kyoutani, Ken Kaminishi


Cab’s frame strength is considered as an important factor in excavator’s operator safety, especially during roll-over. In this study, we use a model of cab frame with different thicknesses and perform elastoplastic numerical analysis by using Finite Element Method (FEM). Deformation mode and energy absorption's of cab’s frame part are investigated on two conditions, with wrinkle and without wrinkle. The occurrence of wrinkle when deforming cab frame can reduce energy absorption, and among 4 parts with wrinkle, the energy absorption significantly decreases in part C. Residual stress that generated upon the bending process of part C is analyzed to confirm it possibility in increasing the energy absorption.

Keywords: ROPS, FEM, hydraulic excavator, cab frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
830 Every g-Riesz Basis is a Riesz Basis

Authors: Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi, Asghar Rahimi


Sun introduced a generalization of frames and showed that this includes more other cases of generalizations of frame concept and proved that many basic properties can be derived within this more general context. Another generalization of frames is frames in Hilbert C*-module. It has been proved that every g-frame in Hilbert space H respect to Hilbert space K is a frame for B(H;K) as Hilbert C*-module. We show that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space H respect to K by add a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert B(K)-module B(H;K). Also, we investigate similar result for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases.

Keywords: frame, g-frame, Riesz basis, g-Riesz basis, Hilbert C*-module

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
829 Video Shot Detection and Key Frame Extraction Using Faber-Shauder DWT and SVD

Authors: Assma Azeroual, Karim Afdel, Mohamed El Hajji, Hassan Douzi


Key frame extraction methods select the most representative frames of a video, which can be used in different areas of video processing such as video retrieval, video summary, and video indexing. In this paper we present a novel approach for extracting key frames from video sequences. The frame is characterized uniquely by his contours which are represented by the dominant blocks. These dominant blocks are located on the contours and its near textures. When the video frames have a noticeable changement, its dominant blocks changed, then we can extracte a key frame. The dominant blocks of every frame is computed, and then feature vectors are extracted from the dominant blocks image of each frame and arranged in a feature matrix. Singular Value Decomposition is used to calculate sliding windows ranks of those matrices. Finally the computed ranks are traced and then we are able to extract key frames of a video. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is robust against a large range of digital effects used during shot transition.

Keywords: FSDWT, key frame extraction, shot detection, singular value decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
828 Experimental Study on Single Bay RC Frame Designed Using EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, M. S. Syaref, M. I. Adiyanto, M. Mohamed


A one-half scale of single-bay two-storey RC frame together with foundation beam and mass concrete block is investigated. Moment resisting RC frame was designed using EC8 by including the provision for seismic loading and detailing of its connection. The objective of the experimental work is to determine seismic behaviour RC frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading using displacement control method. A double actuator is placed at centre of the mass concrete block at top of frame to represent the seismic load. The percentage drifts are starting from ±0.01% until ±2.25% with increment of ±0.25% drift. The ultimate lateral load of 158.48 kN was recorded at +2.25% drift in pushing and -126.09 kN in pulling direction. From the experimental hysteresis loops, the parameters such as lateral strength capacity, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping can be obtained. RC frame behaves in the elastic manner followed by inelastic behaviour after reaches the yield limit. The ductility value for this type frame is 4 which lies between the limit 3 and 6. Therefore, it is recommended to build this RC frame for moderate seismic regions under Ductility Class Medium (DCM) such as in Sabah, East Malaysia.

Keywords: single bay, moment resisting RC frame, ductility class medium, inelastic behavior, seismic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
827 A New Type Safety-Door for Earthquake Disaster Prevention: Part I

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jaehyouk Choi


From the past earthquake events, many people get hurt at the exit while they are trying to go out of the buildings because of the exit doors are unable to be opened. The door is not opened because it deviates from its the original position. The aim of this research is to develop and evaluate a new type safety door that keeps the door frame in its original position or keeps its edge angles perpendicular during and post-earthquake. The proposed door is composed of three components: outer frame joined to the wall, inner frame (door frame) and circular hollow section connected to the inner and outer frame which is used as seismic energy dissipating device.

Keywords: safety-door, earthquake disaster, low yield point steel, passive energy dissipating device, FE analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
826 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud


The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shaking. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
825 Design and Development of Chassis Made of Composite Material

Authors: P. Ravinder Reddy, Chaitanya Vishal Nalli, B. Tulja Lal, Anusha Kankanala


The chassis frame of an automobile with different sections have been considered for different loads. The orthotropic materials are selected to get the stability by varying fiber angle, fiber thickness, laminates, fiber properties, matrix properties and elastic ratios. The geometric model of chassis frame is carried out with parametric modelling approach. The analysis of chassis frame is carried out with ANSYS FEA software. The static and dynamic analysis of chassis frame is carried out by varying geometric parameters, orthotropic properties, materials and various sections. The static and dynamic response is discussed in detail in different sections.

Keywords: chassis frame, dynamic response, geometric model, orthotropic materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
824 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung


In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
823 Design Guidelines for URM Infills and Effect of Construction Sequence on Seismic Performance of Code Compliant RC Frame Buildings

Authors: Putul Haldar, Yogendra Singh, D. K. Paul


Un-Reinforced Masonry (URM) infilled RC framed buildings are the most common construction practice for modern multi-storey buildings in India like many other parts of the world. Although the behavior and failure pattern of the global structure changes significantly due to infill-frame interaction, the general design practice is to treat them as non-structural elements and their stiffness, strength and interaction with frame is often ignored, as it is difficult to simulate. Indian Standard, like many other major national codes, does not provide any explicit guideline for modeling of infills. This paper takes a stock of controlling design provisions in some of the major national seismic design codes (BIS 2002; CEN 2004; NZS-4230 2004; ASCE-41 2007) to ensure the desired seismic performance of infilled frame. Most of the national codes on seismic design of buildings still lack in adequate guidelines on modeling and design of URM infilled frames results in variable assumption in analysis and design. This paper, using nonlinear pushover analysis, also presents the effect of one of such assumptions of conventional ‘simultaneous’ analysis procedure of infilled frame on the seismic performance of URM infilled RC frame buildings.

Keywords: URM infills, RC frame, seismic design codes, construction sequence of infilled frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
822 Wind Fragility for Soundproof Wall with the Variation of Section Shape of Frame

Authors: Seong Do Kim, Woo Young Jung


Recently, damages due to typhoons and strong wind are on the rise. Considering this issue, we evaluated the performance of soundproofing walls based on the strong wind fragility by means of numerical analysis. Among the components of the soundproof wall, aluminum frame was the most vulnerable member, thus we have considered different section of aluminum frame in the determination of wind fragility. Wind load was randomly generated using Monte Carlo Simulation method. Moreover, limit state was based on the test standard of road construction soundproofing wall. In this study, the strong wind fragility was determined by considering the influence factors of wind exposure category, soundproof wall’s installation position, and shape of aluminum frame section. Results of this study could be used to determine the section shape of the frame that has high resistance to the wind during construction of the soundproofing wall.

Keywords: aluminum frame soundproofing wall, Monte Carlo simulation, numerical simulation, wind fragility

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
821 Influence of Behavior Models on the Response of a Reinforced Concrete Frame: Multi-Fiber Approach

Authors: A. Kahil, A. Nekmouche, N. Khelil, I. Hamadou, M. Hamizi, Ne. Hannachi


The objective of this work is to study the influence of the nonlinear behavior models of the concrete (concrete_BAEL and concrete_UNI) as well as the confinement brought by the transverse reinforcement on the seismic response of reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame). These models as well as the confinement are integrated in the Cast3m finite element calculation code. The consideration of confinement (TAC, taking into account the confinement) provided by the transverse reinforcement and the non-consideration of confinement (without consideration of containment, WCC) in the presence and absence of a vertical load is studied. The application was made on a reinforced concrete frame (RC/frame) with 3 levels and 2 spans. The results show that on the one hand, the concrete_BAEL model slightly underestimates the resistance of the RC/frame in the plastic field, whereas the concrete_uni model presents the best results compared to the simplified model "concrete_BAEL", on the other hand, for the concrete-uni model, taking into account the confinement has no influence on the behavior of the RC/frame under imposed displacement up to a vertical load of 500 KN.

Keywords: reinforced concrete, nonlinear calculation, behavior laws, fiber model confinement, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
820 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
819 Finite Element Modeling and Nonlinear Analysis for Seismic Assessment of Off-Diagonal Steel Braced RC Frame

Authors: Keyvan Ramin


The geometric nonlinearity of Off-Diagonal Bracing System (ODBS) could be a complementary system to covering and extending the nonlinearity of reinforced concrete material. Finite element modeling is performed for flexural frame, x-braced frame and the ODBS braced frame system at the initial phase. Then the different models are investigated along various analyses. According to the experimental results of flexural and x-braced frame, the verification is done. Analytical assessments are performed in according to three-dimensional finite element modeling. Non-linear static analysis is considered to obtain performance level and seismic behavior, and then the response modification factors calculated from each model’s pushover curve. In the next phase, the evaluation of cracks observed in the finite element models, especially for RC members of all three systems is performed. The finite element assessment is performed on engendered cracks in ODBS braced frame for various time steps. The nonlinear dynamic time history analysis accomplished in different stories models for three records of Elcentro, Naghan, and Tabas earthquake accelerograms. Dynamic analysis is performed after scaling accelerogram on each type of flexural frame, x-braced frame and ODBS braced frame one by one. The base-point on RC frame is considered to investigate proportional displacement under each record. Hysteresis curves are assessed along continuing this study. The equivalent viscous damping for ODBS system is estimated in according to references. Results in each section show the ODBS system has an acceptable seismic behavior and their conclusions have been converged when the ODBS system is utilized in reinforced concrete frame.

Keywords: FEM, seismic behaviour, pushover analysis, geometric nonlinearity, time history analysis, equivalent viscous damping, passive control, crack investigation, hysteresis curve

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818 An Investigation into the Interaction of Concrete Frames and Infilled Masonry Walls with Emphasis on the Connections

Authors: Hamid Fazlollahi, Behzad Rafezy, Hassan Afshin


There masonry infill increases the stiffness of reinforced concrete frames, thus increasing the force of the earthquake also the interaction between the frame and infill, which can have devastating effects on structures. In contrast presence of infill to increase the structural strength and stability. What is seen in the construction and design of structures has largely ignored the effects of infill and regardless infill structure and its positive and negative effects analyzes and designs, that it is not economically justified and the positive effects of positive infill to be increased and almost all of the useful capacity of moment frames used for infill. In this paper, by using ABAQUS software, reinforced concrete frame with masonry infill will be modeled, then add a mechanical rubber element to modify the interaction between the frame and infill and thus reduce the losses caused by the presence of infill explains. Finally, by comparing the analytical curves, benefits of this approach we will study and to present the results of the interaction between the frame and infill masonry needs modification and methods it will provide.

Keywords: masonry infill, mechanical rubber, reinforced concrete frame, interaction, ductility

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
817 Free Vibration Analysis of Gabled Frame Considering Elastic Supports and Semi-Rigid Connections

Authors: A. Shooshtari, A. R. Masoodi, S. Heyrani Moghaddam


Free vibration analysis of a gabled frame with elastic support and semi-rigid connections is performed by using a program in OpenSees software. Natural frequencies and mode shape details of frame are obtained for two states, which are semi-rigid connections and elastic supports, separately. The members of this structure are analyzed as a prismatic nonlinear beam-column element in software. The mass of structure is considered as two equal lumped masses at the head of two columns in horizontal and vertical directions. Note that the degree of freedom, allocated to all nodes, is equal to three. Furthermore, the mode shapes of frame are achieved. Conclusively, the effects of connections and supports flexibility on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of structure are investigated.

Keywords: natural frequency, mode shape, gabled frame, semi-rigid connection, elastic support, OpenSees software

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
816 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, M. Sasajima, C. Yuan, S. Maruyama, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita


This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: dynamic response, nonlinear impact response, finite element analysis, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
815 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen


Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

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814 Thermal and Mechanical Finite Element Analysis of a Mineral Casting Machine Frame

Authors: H. Zou, B. Wang


Thermal distortion of the machine tool plays a critical role in its machining accuracy. This study investigates the thermal performance of a high-precision machine frame with future-oriented mineral casting components. A thermo-mechanical finite element model (FEM) was established to evaluate the thermal behavior of the frame under environmental thermal fluctuations. The validity of the presented FEM model was confirmed experimentally by a series of laser interferometer tests. Good agreement between numerical and experimental results demonstrates that the proposed model can accurately predict the thermal deformation of the frame with thermo-mechanical coupling effect. The results also show that keeping the workshop in thermally stable conditions is crucial for improving the machine accuracy of the system with large scale components. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of innovative mineral casting material applied in high-precision drilling machine and to provide a strategy for machine tool industry seeking a perfect substitute for classic frame materials such as cast iron and granite.

Keywords: thermo-mechanical model, finite element method, laser interferometer, mineral casting frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
813 The Muhammad Cartoon Controversy in New Zealand Newspapers

Authors: Shah Nister Kabir


This study examines the construction of the controversy surrounding the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, as it appeared in three New Zealand newspapers; the Otago Daily Times (ODT), the New Zealand Herald (NZH) and the Press. It discursively argues that these mainstream newspapers promote the Orientalist perception of a clash of civilizations between Islam and the West in their news frame, but, in most cases, the perceived clash was not apparent in editorials. This study also argues that the uniformity in news frame conflicts with editorials’ construction of the issue. Furthermore, while the construction of the issue in news frame and editorials in the Press remained similar, the other two newspapers—the ODT and NZH—both contradict their own news frame in their editorials and contradict the editorials appearing in the Press.

Keywords: clash of culture, discourse, Islam, media agenda, New Zealand, orientalism, the West

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
812 Texture-Based Image Forensics from Video Frame

Authors: Li Zhou, Yanmei Fang


With current technology, images and videos can be obtained more easily than ever. It is so easy to manipulate these digital multimedia information when obtained, and that the content or source of the image and video could be easily tampered. In this paper, we propose to identify the image and video frame by the texture-based approach, e.g. Markov Transition Probability (MTP), which is in space domain, DCT domain and DWT domain, respectively. In the experiment, image and video frame database is constructed, and is used to train and test the classifier Support Vector Machine (SVM). Experiment results show that the texture-based approach has good performance. In order to verify the experiment result, and testify the universality and robustness of algorithm, we build a random testing dataset, the random testing result is in keeping with above experiment.

Keywords: multimedia forensics, video frame, LBP, MTP, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
811 Construction of Finite Woven Frames through Bounded Linear Operators

Authors: A. Bhandari, S. Mukherjee


Two frames in a Hilbert space are called woven or weaving if all possible merge combinations between them generate frames of the Hilbert space with uniform frame bounds. Weaving frames are powerful tools in wireless sensor networks which require distributed data processing. Considering the practical applications, this article deals with finite woven frames. We provide methods of constructing finite woven frames, in particular, bounded linear operators are used to construct woven frames from a given frame. Several examples are discussed. We also introduce the notion of woven frame sequences and characterize them through the concepts of gaps and angles between spaces.

Keywords: frames, woven frames, gap, angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
810 Seismic Performance Assessment of Pre-70 RC Frame Buildings with FEMA P-58

Authors: D. Cardone


Past earthquakes have shown that seismic events may incur large economic losses in buildings. FEMA P-58 provides engineers a practical tool for the performance seismic assessment of buildings. In this study, FEMA P-58 is applied to two typical Italian pre-1970 reinforced concrete frame buildings, characterized by plain rebars as steel reinforcement and masonry infills and partitions. Given that suitable tools for these buildings are missing in FEMA P- 58, specific fragility curves and loss functions are first developed. Next, building performance is evaluated following a time-based assessment approach. Finally, expected annual losses for the selected buildings are derived and compared with past applications to old RC frame buildings representative of the US building stock. 

Keywords: FEMA P-58, RC frame buildings, plain rebars, Masonry infills, fragility functions, loss functions, expected annual loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
809 Comparative Study of Free Vibrational Analysis and Modes Shapes of FSAE Car Frame Using Different FEM Modules

Authors: Rajat Jain, Himanshu Pandey, Somesh Mehta, Pravin P. Patil


Formula SAE cars are the student designed and fabricated formula prototype cars, designed according to SAE INTERNATIONAL design rules which compete in the various national and international events. This paper shows a FEM based comparative study of free vibration analysis of different mode shapes of a formula prototype car chassis frame. Tubing sections of different diameters as per the design rules are designed in such a manner that the desired strength can be achieved. Natural frequency of first five mode was determined using finite element analysis method. SOLIDWORKS is used for designing the frame structure and SOLIDWORKS SIMULATION and ANSYS WORKBENCH 16.2 are used for the modal analysis. Mode shape results of ANSYS and SOLIDWORKS were compared. Fixed –fixed boundary conditions are used for fixing the A-arm wishbones. The simulation results were compared for the validation of the study. First five modes were compared and results were found within the permissible limits. The AISI4130 (CROMOLY- chromium molybdenum steel) material is used and the chassis frame is discretized with fine quality QUAD mesh followed by Fixed-fixed boundary conditions. The natural frequency of the chassis frame is 53.92-125.5 Hz as per the results of ANSYS which is found within the permissible limits. The study is concluded with the light weight and compact chassis frame without compensation with strength. This design allows to fabricate an extremely safe driver ergonomics, compact, dynamically stable, simple and light weight tubular chassis frame with higher strength.

Keywords: FEM, modal analysis, formula SAE cars, chassis frame, Ansys

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
808 Fast Prediction Unit Partition Decision and Accelerating the Algorithm Using Cudafor Intra and Inter Prediction of HEVC

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Chun Yuan


Since the PU (Prediction Unit) decision process is the most time consuming part of the emerging HEVC (High Efficient Video Coding) standardin intra and inter frame coding, this paper proposes the fast PU decision algorithm and speed up the algorithm using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In intra frame coding, the fast PU decision algorithm uses the texture features to skip intra-frame prediction or terminal the intra-frame prediction for smaller PU size. In inter frame coding of HEVC, the fast PU decision algorithm takes use of the similarity of its own two Nx2N size PU's motion vectors and the hierarchical structure of CU (Coding Unit) partition to skip some modes of PU partition, so as to reduce the motion estimation times. The accelerate algorithm using CUDA is based on the fast PU decision algorithm which uses the GPU to make the motion search and the gradient computation could be parallel computed. The proposed algorithm achieves up to 57% time saving compared to the HM 10.0 with little rate-distortion losses (0.043dB drop and 1.82% bitrate increase on average).

Keywords: HEVC, PU decision, inter prediction, intra prediction, CUDA, parallel

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
807 Seismic Performance of Two-Storey RC Frame Designed EC8 under In-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: N. H. Hamid, A. Azmi, M. I. Adiyanto


This main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the seismic performance of double bay two-storey reinforced concrete frame under in-plane lateral cyclic loading which designed using Eurocode 8 (EC8) by taking into account of seismic loading. The prototype model of reinforced concrete frame was constructed in one-half scale tested under in-plane lateral cyclic loading starts with ±0.2% drift, ±0.25% up to ±3.0% drift with the increment of ±0.25%. The performance of the RC frame is evaluated in terms of the hysteresis loop (load vs. displacement), stiffness, ductility, lateral strength, stress-strain relationship and equivalent viscous damping. Visual observation of the crack pattern after testing were observed where the beam- column joint suffer the most severe damage as it is the critical part in moment resisting frame. Spalling of concrete starts occurred at ±2.0% drift and become worse at ±2.5% drift. The experimental result shows that the maximum lateral strength of specimen is 99.98 kN and ductility of the specimen is µ=4.07 which lies between 3≤µ≤6 in order to withstand moderate to severe earthquakes.

Keywords: ductility, equivalent viscous damping, hysteresis loops, lateral strength, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
806 Experimental Study on Bending and Torsional Strength of Bulk Molding Compound Seat Back Frame Part

Authors: Hee Yong Kang, Hyeon Ho Shin, Jung Cheol Yoo, Il Taek Lee, Sung Mo Yang


Lightweight technology using composites is being developed for vehicle seat structures, and its design must meet the safety requirements. According to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 207 seating systems test procedure, the back moment load is applied to the seat back frame structure for the safety evaluation of the vehicle seat. The seat back frame using the composites is divided into three parts: upper part frame, and left- and right-side frame parts following the manufacturing process. When a rear moment load is applied to the seat back frame, the side frame receives the bending load and the torsional load at the same time. This results in the largest loaded strength. Therefore, strength test of the component unit is required. In this study, a component test method based on the FMVSS 207 seating systems test procedure was proposed for the strength analysis of bending load and torsional load of the automotive Bulk Molding Compound (BMC) Seat Back Side Frame. Moreover, strength evaluation according to the carbon band reinforcement was performed. The back-side frame parts of the seat that are applied to the test were manufactured through BMC that is composed of vinyl ester Matrix and short carbon fiber. Then, two kinds of reinforced and non-reinforced parts of carbon band were formed through a high-temperature compression molding process. In addition, the structure that is applied to the component test was constructed by referring to the FMVSS 207. Then, the bending load and the torsional load were applied through the displacement control to perform the strength test for four load conditions. The results of each test are shown through the load-displacement curves of the specimen. The failure strength of the parts caused by the reinforcement of the carbon band was analyzed. Additionally, the fracture characteristics of the parts for four strength tests were evaluated, and the weakness structure of the back-side frame of the seat structure was confirmed according to the test conditions. Through the bending and torsional strength test methods, we confirmed the strength and fracture characteristics of BMC Seat Back Side Frame according to the carbon band reinforcement. And we proposed a method of testing the part strength of a seat back frame for vehicles that can meet the FMVSS 207.

Keywords: seat back frame, bending and torsional strength, BMC (Bulk Molding Compound), FMVSS 207 seating systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
805 Design Application Procedures of 15 Storied 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure

Authors: H. Nikzad, S. Yoshitomi


This paper presents the design application and reinforcement detailing of 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure based on linear static analysis. Databases are generated for section sizes based on automated structural optimization method utilizing Active-set Algorithm in MATLAB platform. The design constraints of allowable section sizes, capacity criteria and seismic provisions for static loads, combination of gravity and lateral loads are checked and determined based on ASCE 7-10 documents and ACI 318-14 design provision. The result of this study illustrates the efficiency of proposed method, and is expected to provide a useful reference in designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.

Keywords: design constraints, ETABS, linear static analysis, MATLAB, RC shear wall-frame structures, structural optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
804 Collapse Performance of Steel Frame with Hysteric Energy Dissipating Devices

Authors: Hyung-Joon Kim, Jin-Young Park


Energy dissipating devices (EDDs) have become more popular as seismic-force-resisting systems for building structures. However, there is little information on the collapse capacities of frames employing EDDs which are an important criterion for their seismic design. This study investigates the collapse capacities of steel frames with TADAS hysteric energy dissipative devices (HEDDs) that become an alternative to steel braced frames. To do this, 5-story steel ordinary concentrically braced frame and steel frame with HEDDs are designed and modeled. Nonlinear dynamic analyses and incremental dynamic analysis with 40 ground motions scaled to maximum considered earthquake are carried out. It is shown from analysis results that the significant enhancement in terms of the collapse capacities is found due to the introduction HEDDs.

Keywords: collapse capacity, incremental dynamic analysis, steel braced frame, TADAS hysteric energy dissipative device

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
803 Design, Analysis and Optimization of Space Frame for BAJA SAE Chassis

Authors: Manoj Malviya, Shubham Shinde


The present study focuses on the determination of torsional stiffness of a space frame chassis and comparison of elements used in the Finite Element Analysis of frame. The study also discusses various concepts and design aspects of a space frame chassis with the emphasis on their applicability in BAJA SAE vehicles. Torsional stiffness is a very important factor that determines the chassis strength, vehicle control, and handling. Therefore, it is very important to determine the torsional stiffness of the vehicle before designing an optimum chassis so that it should not fail during extreme conditions. This study determines the torsional stiffness of frame with respect to suspension shocks, roll-stiffness and anti-roll bar rates. A spring model is developed to study the effects of suspension parameters. The engine greatly contributes to torsional stiffness, and therefore, its effects on torsional stiffness need to be considered. Deflections in the tire have not been considered in the present study. The proper element shape should be selected to analyze the effects of various loadings on chassis while implementing finite element methods. The study compares the accuracy of results and computational time for different element types. Shape functions of these elements are also discussed. Modelling methodology is discussed for the multibody analysis of chassis integrated with suspension arms and engine. Proper boundary conditions are presented so as to replicate the real life conditions.

Keywords: space frame chassis, torsional stiffness, multi-body analysis of chassis, element selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
802 Implementation of ALD in Product Development: Study of ROPS to Improve Energy Absorption Performance Using Absorption Part

Authors: Zefry Darmawan, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi


Product development is a big issue in the industrial competition and takes a serious part in development of technology. Product development process could adapt high changes of market needs and transform into engineering concept in order to produce high-quality product. One of the latest methods in product development is Analysis-Led-Design (ALD). It utilizes digital engineering design tools with finite analysis to perform product robust analysis and valuable for product reliability assurance. Heavy machinery which operates under severe condition should maintain safety to the customer when faced with potential hazard. Cab frame should able to absorb the energy while collision. Through ALD, a series of improvement of cab frame to increase energy absorption was made and analyzed. Improvement was made by modifying shapes of frame and-or install absorption device in certain areas. Simulation result showed that install absorption device could increase absorption energy than modifying shape.

Keywords: ALD, ROPS, energy absorption, cab frame

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