Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1268

Search results for: creation of a metaphor

1268 Metaphors Investigation between President Xi Jinping of China and Trump of Us on the Corpus-Based Approach

Authors: Jie Zheng, Ruifeng Luo

Abstract:

The United States is the world’s most developed economy with the strongest military power. China is the fastest growing country with growing comprehensive strength and its economic strength is second only to the US. However, the conflict between them is getting serious in recent years. President’s address is the representative of a nation’s ideology. The paper has built up a small sized corpus of President Xi Jinping and Trump’s speech in Davos to investigate their respective use and types of metaphors and calculate the respective percentage of each type of metaphor. The result shows President Xi Jinping employs more metaphors than Trump. The metaphors of Xi includes “building” metaphor, “plant” metaphor, “journey” metaphor, “ship” metaphor, “traffic” metaphor, “nation is a person” metaphor, “show” metaphor, etc while Trump’s comprises “war” metaphor, “building” metaphor, “journey” metaphor, “traffic” metaphor, “tax” metaphor, “book” metaphor, etc. After investigating metaphor use differences, the paper makes an analysis of the underlying ideology between the two nations. China is willing to strengthen ties with all the countries all over the world and has built a platform of development for them and itself to go to the destination of social well being while the US pays much concern to itself, emphasizing its first leading position and is also willing to help its alliances to development. The paper’s comparison of the ideology difference between the two countries will help them get a better understanding and reduce the conflict to some extent.

Keywords: metaphor; corpus; ideology; conflict

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1267 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image

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1266 Metaphor Institutionalization as Phase Transition: Case Studies of Chinese Metaphors

Authors: Xuri Tang, Ting Pan

Abstract:

Metaphor institutionalization refers to the propagation of a metaphor that leads to its acceptance in speech community as a norm of the language. Such knowledge is important to both theoretical studies of metaphor and practical disciplines such as lexicography and language generation. This paper reports an empirical study of metaphor institutionalization of 14 Chinese metaphors. It first explores the pattern of metaphor institutionalization by fitting the logistic function (or S-shaped curve) to time series data of conventionality of the metaphors that are automatically obtained from a large-scale diachronic Chinese corpus. Then it reports a questionnaire-based survey on the propagation scale of each metaphor, which is measured by the average number of subjects that can easily understand the metaphorical expressions. The study provides two pieces of evidence supporting the hypothesis that metaphor institutionalization is a phrase transition: (1) the pattern of metaphor institutionalization is an S-shaped curve and (2) institutionalized metaphors generally do not propagate to the whole community but remain in equilibrium state. This conclusion helps distinguish metaphor institutionalization from topicalization and other types of semantic change.

Keywords: metaphor institutionalization, phase transition, propagation scale, s-shaped curve

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1265 From Conceptual Metaphor Theory to Generative Conceptual Metaphor Theory

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, generative metaphor theory, metaphorical inference pattern transfer, analogical reasoning

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1264 Towards a Generative Theory of Conceptual Metaphor

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, inference pattern transfer, metaphorical mapping, generative metaphor theory, analogical reasoning

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1263 Lithuanian Sign Language Literature: Metaphors at the Phonological Level

Authors: Anželika Teresė

Abstract:

In order to solve issues in sign language linguistics, address matters pertaining to maintaining high quality of sign language (SL) translation, contribute to dispelling misconceptions about SL and deaf people, and raise awareness and understanding of the deaf community heritage, this presentation discusses literature in Lithuanian Sign Language (LSL) and inherent metaphors that are created by using the phonological parameter –handshape, location, movement, palm orientation and nonmanual features. The study covered in this presentation is twofold, involving both the micro-level analysis of metaphors in terms of phonological parameters as a sub-lexical feature and the macro-level analysis of the poetic context. Cognitive theories underlie research of metaphors in sign language literature in a range of SL. The study follows this practice. The presentation covers the qualitative analysis of 34 pieces of LSL literature. The analysis employs ELAN software widely used in SL research. The target is to examine how specific types of each phonological parameter are used for the creation of metaphors in LSL literature and what metaphors are created. The results of the study show that LSL literature employs a range of metaphors created by using classifier signs and by modifying the established signs. The study also reveals that LSL literature tends to create reference metaphors indicating status and power. As the study shows, LSL poets metaphorically encode status by encoding another meaning in the same sign, which results in creating double metaphors. The metaphor of identity has been determined. Notably, the poetic context has revealed that the latter metaphor can also be identified as a metaphor for life. The study goes on to note that deaf poets create metaphors related to the importance of various phenomena significance of the lyrical subject. Notably, the study has allowed detecting locations, nonmanual features and etc., never mentioned in previous SL research as used for the creation of metaphors.

Keywords: Lithuanian sign language, sign language literature, sign language metaphor, metaphor at the phonological level, cognitive linguistics

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1262 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

Abstract:

Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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1261 Temporal Axis in Japanese: The Paradox of a Metaphorical Orientation in Time

Authors: Tomoko Usui

Abstract:

In the field of linguistics, it has been said that concepts associated with space and motion systematically contribute structure to the temporal concept. This is the conceptual metaphor theory. conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept (time) as their target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source (space). This paper will examine two major temporal conceptual metaphors: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor and Time-RP Metaphor. Moving time generally receives a front-back orientation, however, Japanese shows a different orientation given to time. By means of Ego perspective, this paper will illustrate the paradox of a metaphorical orientation in time.

Keywords: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor, Japanese saki, temporal metaphors, Time RP Metaphor

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1260 Comparing Russian and American Students’ Metaphorical Competence

Authors: Svetlana L. Mishlanova, Evgeniia V. Ermakova, Mariia E. Timirkina

Abstract:

The paper is concerned with the study of metaphor production in essays written by Russian and English native speakers in the framework of cognitive metaphor theory. It considers metaphorical competence as individual’s ability to recognize, understand and use metaphors in speech. The work analyzes the influence of visual metaphor on production and density of conventional and novel verbal metaphors. The main methods of research include experiment connected with image interpretation, metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) and visual conventional metaphors identification procedure proposed by VisMet group. The research findings will be used in the project aimed at comparing metaphorical competence of native and non-native English speakers.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphorical competence, conventional, novel

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1259 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: metaphor therapy, depression, female, students

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1258 Like Making an Ancient Urn: Metaphor Conceptualization of L2 Writing

Authors: Muhalim Muhalim

Abstract:

Drawing on Lakoff’s theory of metaphor conceptualization, this article explores the conceptualization of language two writing (L2W) of ten students-teachers in Indonesia via metaphors. The ten postgraduate English language teaching students and at the same time (former) English teachers received seven days of intervention in teaching and learning L2. Using introspective log and focus group discussion, the results illuminate us that all participants are unanimous on perceiving L2W as process-oriented rather than product-oriented activity. Specifically, the metaphor conceptualizations exhibit three categories of process-oriented L2W: deliberate process, learning process, and problem-solving process. However, it has to be clarified from the outset that this categorization is not rigid because some of the properties of metaphors might belong to other categories. Results of the study and implications for English language teaching will be further discussed.

Keywords: metaphor conceptualisation, second language, learning writing, teaching writing

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1257 Creation and Management of Knowledge for Organization Sustainability and Learning

Authors: Deepa Kapoor, Rajshree Singh

Abstract:

This paper appreciates the emergence and growing importance as a new production factor makes the development of technologies, methodologies and strategies for measurement, creation, and diffusion into one of the main priorities of the organizations in the knowledge society. There are many models for creation and management of knowledge and diverse and varied perspectives for study, analysis, and understanding. In this article, we will conduct a theoretical approach to the type of models for the creation and management of knowledge; we will discuss some of them and see some of the difficulties and the key factors that determine the success of the processes for the creation and management of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge management, organizational development, organization learning

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1256 The Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory to the Treatment of Depression

Authors: Uma Kanth, Amy Cook

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposes that metaphor is fundamental to human thought. CMT utilizes embodied cognition, in that emotions are conceptualized as effects on the body because of a coupling of one’s bodily experiences and one’s somatosensory system. Time perception is a function of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor in that one’s experience of time is inextricably dependent on one’s perception of the world around them. A hallmark of depressive disorders is the distortion in one’s perception of time, such as neurological dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, and yet, to the author’s best knowledge, previous studies have not before linked CMT, embodied cognition, and depressive disorders. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the investigation of how the applications of CMT and embodied cognition (especially regarding time perception) have promise in improving current techniques to treat depressive disorders. This paper aimed to extend, through a thorough review of literature, the theoretical basis required to further research into CMT and embodied cognition’s application in treating time distortion related symptoms of depressive disorders. Future research could include the development of brain training technologies that capitalize on the principles of CMT, with the aim of promoting cognitive remediation and cognitive activation to mitigate symptoms of depressive disorder.

Keywords: depression, conceptual metaphor theory, embodied cognition, time

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1255 Theoretical Reflections on Metaphor and Cohesion and the Coherence of Face-To-Face Interactions

Authors: Afef Badri

Abstract:

The role of metaphor in creating the coherence and the cohesion of discourse in online interactive talk has almost received no attention. This paper intends to provide some theoretical reflections on metaphorical coherence as a jointly constructed process that evolves in online, face-to-face interactions. It suggests that the presence of a global conceptual structure in a conversation makes it conceptually cohesive. Yet, coherence remains a process largely determined by other variables (shared goals, communicative intentions, and framework of understanding). Metaphorical coherence created by these variables can be useful in detecting bias in media reporting.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, face-to-face interactions, metaphor

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1254 Conceptualization of Value Co-Creation for Shrimp Products in Bangladesh

Authors: Subarna Ferdous, Mitsuru Ikeda

Abstract:

For the shrimp companies to remain relevant to its local and international consumers, they must offer new shrimp product and services. It must work actively not just to create value for the consumer, but to involve the consumer in co-creating value for shrimp product innovation in the market. In this theoretical work, we conceptualize the business concept of value co-creation in the context of shrimp products, and propose a framework of value co-creation for shrimp product innovation in shrimp industries. With guidance on value co-creation in in shrimp industry, and shrimp value chain actors mapped to the co-creation cycle, companies can use the framework to offer new shrimp product to consumer communities. Although customer co-creation is known approach in the world, it is not commonly used by the companies in Bangladesh. This paper makes an original contribution by conceptualizing co-creation and set the examples of best co-creation practices in food sector. The results of the study provide management with guidelines for successful co-creation projects with an innovation- and market-oriented approach. The framework also provides a basis for further research in this area.

Keywords: bangladesh, shrimp industry, value co-creation, shrimp product

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1253 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

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1252 Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Konstantinos Perifanos, Eirini Florou, Dionysis Goutsos

Abstract:

This paper presents and benchmarks a number of end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy 0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91 F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples, the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar tasks.

Keywords: metaphor detection, deep learning, representation learning, embeddings

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1251 The Impact of Market Orientation on the Adoption of E-Marketing and Value Co-Creation

Authors: Shu-Hui Chuang, Shao-Chun Chiu, Shu-Hsin Chuang

Abstract:

While the marketing management literature is regarding the direct benefits of market orientation (MO) on firm value, the impact of such MO-based value co-creation remains largely an unexplored area of research. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to provide some new perspectives in examining how MO can enhance value co-creation for customers and sellers. In particular, drawing from the relational view of the firm and IT literature, we propose that the chain of MO-based co-creation of value and how adopt e-marketing systems between partners can facilitate this chain. Using data on use of the e-marketing system, we empirically validate that the sellers’ integrated MO is critical in increasing the e-marketing adoption, which in turn helps to creation co-creation value for both parties.

Keywords: market orientation, value co-creation, e-marketing system, relational view of the firm

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1250 Variations of Metaphors: Wittgenstein's Contribution to Literary Studies

Authors: Dorit Lemberger

Abstract:

Wittgenstein directly used the term "metaphor" only infrequently and with reservations, but his writings include a number of metaphors that have become imprinted in the philosophical memory of Western thought. For example, the ladder in his book Tractatus, or in Philosophical investigations - the ancient city, the beetle in a box, the fly in the fly-bottle, and the duck-rabbit. In light of Wittgenstein's stressing, throughout his investigations, that the only language that exists is ordinary language, and that there is no "second-order" language, the question should be asked: How do these metaphors function, specifically, and in general, how are we to relate to language use that exceeds the normal? Wittgenstein did not disregard such phenomena, but he proposed viewing them in a different way, that would enable understanding them as uses in ordinary language, without necessarily exceeding such language. Two important terms that he coined in this context are "secondary sense" and "experience of meaning". Each denotes language use as reflective of a subjective element characteristic of the speaker, such as intent, experience, or emphasis of a certain aspect. More recent Wittgenstein scholars added the term "quasi-metaphor", that refers to his discussion of the possibility of aesthetic judgment. This paper will examine how, according to Wittgenstein, these terms function without exceeding ordinary language, and will illustrate how they can be applied, in an analysis of the poem "Butterfly" by Nelly Sachs.

Keywords: metaphor, quasi-metaphor, secondary sense, experience of meaning

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1249 Music as Source Domain: A Cross-Linguistic Exploration of Conceptual Metaphors

Authors: Eleanor Sweeney, Chunyuan Di

Abstract:

The metaphors people use in everyday discourse do not arise randomly; rather, they develop from our physical experiences in our social and cultural environments. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) explains that through metaphor, we apply our embodied understanding of the physical world to non-material concepts to understand and express abstract concepts. Our most productive source domains derive from our embodied understanding and allow us to develop primary metaphors, and from primary metaphors, an elaborate, creative world of culturally constructed complex metaphors. Cognitive Linguistics researchers draw upon individual embodied experience for primary metaphors. Socioculturally embodied experience through music has long furnished linguistic expressions in diverse languages, as conceptual metaphors or everyday expressions.  Can a socially embodied experience function in the same way as an individually embodied experience in the creation of conceptual metaphors? The authors argue that since music is inherently social and embodied, musical experiences function as a richly motivated source domain. The focus of this study is socially embodied musical experience which is then reflected and expressed through metaphors. This cross-linguistic study explores music as a source domain for metaphors of social alignment in English, French, and Chinese. The authors explored two public discourse sites, Facebook and Linguée, in order to collect linguistic metaphors from three different languages. By conducting this cross-linguistic study, cross-cultural similarities and differences in metaphors for which music is the source domain can be examined. Different musical elements, such as melody, speed, rhythm and harmony, are analyzed for their possible metaphoric meanings of social alignment. Our findings suggest that the general metaphor cooperation is music is a productive metaphor with some subcases, and that correlated social behaviors can be metaphorically expressed with certain elements in music. For example, since performance is a subset of the category behavior, there is a natural mapping from performance in music to behavior in social settings: social alignment is musical performance. Musical performance entails a collective social expectation that exerts control over individual behavior.  When individual behavior does not align with the collective social expectation, music-related expressions are often used to express how the individual is violating social norms. Moreover, when individuals do align their behavior with social norms, similar musical expressions are used. Cooperation is a crucial social value in all cultures, indeed it is a key element of survival, and music provides a coherent, consistent, and rich source domain—one based upon a universal and definitive cultural practice.

Keywords: Chinese, Conceptual Metaphor Theory, cross-linguistic, culturally embodied experience, English, French, metaphor, music

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1248 Shaking the Iceberg: Metaphoric Shifting and Loss in the German Translations of 'The Sun Also Rises'

Authors: Christopher Dick

Abstract:

While the translation of 'literal language' poses numerous challenges for the translator, the translation of 'figurative language' creates even more complicated issues. It has been only in the last several decades that scholars have attempted to propose theories of figurative language translation, including metaphor translation. Even less work has applied these theories to metaphoric translation in literary texts. And almost no work has linked an analysis of metaphors in translation with the recent scholarship on conceptual metaphors. A study of literature in translation must not only examine the inevitable shifts that occur as specific metaphors move from source language to target language but also analyze the ways in which these shifts impact conceptual metaphors and, ultimately, the text as a whole. Doing so contributes to on-going efforts to bridge the sometimes wide gulf between considerations of content and form in literary studies. This paper attempts to add to the body of scholarly literature on metaphor translation and the function of metaphor in a literary text. Specifically, the study examines the metaphoric expressions in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. First, the issue of Hemingway and metaphor is addressed. Next, the study examines the specific metaphors in the original novel in English and the German translations, first in Annemarie Horschitz’s 1928 German version and then in the recent Werner Schmitz 2013 translation. Hemingway’s metaphors, far from being random occurrences of figurative language, are linguistic manifestations of deeper conceptual metaphors that are central to an interpretation of the text. By examining the modifications that are made to these original metaphoric expressions as they are translated into German, one can begin to appreciate the shifts involved with metaphor translation. The translation of Hemingway’s metaphors into German represents significant metaphoric loss and shifting that subsequently shakes the important conceptual metaphors in the novel.

Keywords: Hemingway, Conceptual Metaphor, Translation, Stylistics

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1247 A Comparative Study on Multimodal Metaphors in Public Service Advertising of China and Germany

Authors: Xing Lyu

Abstract:

Multimodal metaphor promotes the further development and refinement of multimodal discourse study. Cultural aspects matter a lot not only in creating but also in comprehending multimodal metaphor. By analyzing the target domain and the source domain in 10 public service advertisements of China and Germany about environmental protection, this paper compares the source when the target is alike in each multimodal metaphor in order to seek similarities and differences across cultures. The findings are as follows: first, the multimodal metaphors center around three major topics: the earth crisis, consequences of environmental damage, and appeal for environmental protection; second, the multimodal metaphors mainly grounded in three universal conceptual metaphors which focused on high level is up; earth is mother and all lives are precious. However, there are five Chinese culture-specific multimodal metaphors which are not discovered in Germany ads: east is high leve; a purposeful life is a journey; a nation is a person; good is clean, and water is mother. Since metaphors are excellent instruments on studying ideology, this study can be helpful on intercultural/cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, cultural aspects, public service advertising, cross-cultural communication

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1246 The Universal Cultural Associations in the Conceptual Metaphors Used in the Headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers: A Critical Cognitive Study

Authors: Hind Hassan Arruwaite

Abstract:

Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive semantic tool that provides access to people's conceptual systems. The correlation in the human conceptual system surpasses limited time and specific cultures. The universal associations provide universal schemas that organize people's conceptualization of the world. The study aims to explore how the cultural associations used in conceptual metaphors create commonalities and harmony between people of the world. In the research methodology, the researcher implemented Critical Metaphor Analysis, Metaphor Candidate Identification and Metaphor Identification Procedure models to deliver qualitative and descriptive findings. The semantic tension was the key criterion in identifying metaphorically used words in the headlines. The research materials are the oil trade conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers. The data will be uploaded to the self-constructed corpus to examine electronic lists for identifying conceptual metaphors. The study investigates the types of conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of the newspapers, the cultural associations identified in the conceptual metaphors, and whether the identified cultural associations in conceptual metaphors create universal conceptual schemas. The study aligned with previous seminal works on conceptual metaphor theory in emphasizing the distinctive power of conceptual metaphors in exposing the cultural associations that unify people's perceptions. The correlation of people conceptualization provides universal schemas that involve elements of human sensorimotor experiences. The study contributes to exposing the shared cultural associations that ensure the commonality of all humankind's thinking mechanism.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor theory, primary and specific metaphors, corpus-driven approach, universal associations, image schema, sensorimotor experience, oil trade

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1245 Social Media as a ‘Service’ for Value Co-Creation by Integrating Sponsoring Companies, Sports Entities and Fans

Authors: Harri Jalonen

Abstract:

Social media has changed the ways we communicate, collaborate and connect with each other. It has also influenced our habits of consuming sports. Social media has allowed direct interaction between sponsoring companies, athletes/players and fans. Drawing on the service dominant logic of value co-creation, the conceptual paper identifies three operant resources which are beneficial for value co-creation: i) social identity and sense of community, ii) congruence and brand personality, and iii) participatory culture and fan activation. The paper contributes to the theoretical discussion on how social can be media used for value co-creation purposes in the sports industry.

Keywords: sports, value co-creation, social media, service

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1244 Value Co-Creation in Used-Car Auctions: A Service Scientific Perspective

Authors: Safdar Muhammad Usman, Youji Kohda, Katsuhiro Umemoto

Abstract:

Electronic market place plays an important intermediary role for connecting dealers and retail customers. The main aim of this paper is to design a value co-creation model in used-car auctions. More specifically, the study has been designed in order to describe the process of value co-creation in used-car auctions, to explore the co-created values in used-car auctions, and finally conclude the paper indicating the future research directions. Our analysis shows that economic values as well as non-economic values are co-created in used-car auctions. In addition, this paper contributes to the academic society broadening the view of value co-creation in service science.

Keywords: value co-creation, used-car auctions, non-financial values, service science

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1243 Cerrado and Vereda: A Survey of Portuguese Lexicon for Brazilian Biomes

Authors: Daniel Marra

Abstract:

This paper analyses from a semantic-diachronic viewpoint the change of meanings that two lexical items of Brazilian-Portuguese language have gone through. Cerrado and Vereda designate currently the second largest Brazilian biome and one of its most important subsystems. Nevertheless, these two words have long individual histories that can be traced back to their Latin etymons. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to highlight the process by which meaning instantiated itself in these words’ formation and to discuss how semantic change installed subsequently in them. As this paper shows, the aforementioned words have been, in different past, synchronizes, created, and undergone changes of meanings by metaphor and metonymy. Besides, it is argued here that semantic change takes place due to external causes, such as generalization and specialization of meaning. It happens when a specialized use of a lexical item, restricted to a particular linguistic group, is adopted by other groups, having its meaning generalized by them. In these processes, the etymological idea of the word is generally lost, which gains, in the new group, less specific meaning in relation to its etymology, sometimes with no relation to the original idea. As a final point, it is claimed that both the creation of a lexical item and its change of meaning involve pragmatic goals, such as the need the language users have to express a new meaning related to a certain reality in the empirical world.

Keywords: Brazilian biomes, metaphor and metonymy, Portuguese lexicon, semantic change

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1242 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

Abstract:

This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

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1241 Value in Exchange: The Importance of Users Interaction as the Center of User Experiences

Authors: Ramlan Jantan, Norfadilah Kamaruddin, Shahriman Zainal Abidin

Abstract:

In this era of technology, the co-creation method has become a new development trend. In this light, most design businesses have currently transformed their development strategy from being goods-dominant into service-dominant where more attention is given to the end-users and their roles in the development process. As a result, the conventional development process has been replaced with a more cooperative one. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to explore the extension of co-creation method in the design development process and most studies have focused on issues found during the production process. In the meantime, this study aims to investigate potential values established during the pre-production process, which is also known as the ‘circumstances value creation’. User involvement is questioned and crucially debate at the entry level of pre-production process in value in-exchange jointly spheres; thus user experiences took place. Thus, this paper proposed a potential framework of the co-creation method for Malaysian interactive product development. The framework is formulated from both parties involved: the users and designers. The framework will clearly give an explanation of the value of the co-creation method, and it could assist relevant design industries/companies in developing a blueprint for the design process. This paper further contributes to the literature on the co-creation of value and digital ecosystems.

Keywords: co-creation method, co-creation framework, co-creation, co-production

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1240 Kitchenary Metaphors in Hindi-Urdu: A Cognitive Analysis

Authors: Bairam Khan, Premlata Vaishnava

Abstract:

The ability to conceptualize one entity in terms of another allows us to communicate through metaphors. This central feature of human cognition has evolved with the development of language, and the processing of metaphors is without any conscious appraisal and is quite effortless. South Asians, like other speech communities, have been using the kitchenary [culinary] metaphor in a very simple yet interesting way and are known for bringing into new and unique constellations wherever they are. This composite feature of our language is used to communicate in a precise and compact manner and maneuvers the expression. The present study explores the role of kitchenary metaphors in the making and shaping of idioms by applying Cognitive Metaphor Theories. Drawing on examples from a corpus of adverts, print, and electronic media, the study looks at the metaphorical language used by real people in real situations. The overarching theme throughout the course is that kitchenary metaphors are powerful tools of expression in Hindi-Urdu.

Keywords: cognitive metaphor theories, kitchenary metaphors, hindi-urdu print, and electronic media, grammatical structure of kitchenary metaphors of hindi-urdu

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1239 Metaphors, Cognition, and Action: Conceptual Metaphor Analysis of President Akuffo-Addo’s Speeches in the COVID-19 Crisis

Authors: Isaac Kwabena Adubofour, Esther Serwaah Afreh

Abstract:

The connection between metaphor use, cognition, decision-making, and action has been researched. The same goes for political speeches; they are structured in ways that ensure that the ideology of the leader is communicated so that the opinions of the audience are influenced towards certain lines of action. In a nutshell, metaphors influence thought and action just as presidential speeches do. This partly explains why these addresses use metaphors. Leaders generally may always want to influence the opinions and actions of their audience, and they will need this even more, particularly in crisis situations such as the breakout of a pandemic of global proportions such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Such situations require, among other things, that the thoughts, emotions, and actions of the population are controlled towards dealing with the crisis. The primary question this study assesses is how, in crisis situations like the COVID-19 pandemic, metaphor use could influence thought and determine the policies a government adopts as well as the reactions of the people. Previous researchhasinvestigated metaphors and their influence on decision-making. The nature and relevance of presidential speeches have also been investigated. Even the presence of metaphors in such speeches have been investigated. However, there is a paucity in the actual connection between the presence of metaphors in presidential speeches and their influence on thought and action. Especially in the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic, it becomes relevant to investigate how the presence of metaphors in presidential addresses influences social thought and action. Thus, the current study sought to investigate the potential for metaphor use to influence thought and action on a national scale from the COVID crisis. The goals were met with a theoretical grounding in conceptual metaphor theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980) and Metaphor Identification Process by the Praglejazz Group (2007) in assessing twenty-four (24) speeches of the President of Ghana, Nana Addo Danquah Akuffo-Addo on the pandemic. The findings of the study show that the President’s adoption of war metaphors may not have been ideal since it triggered thoughts, policies, and social actions in line with war. We hope to, in this proposed presentation, all the components of these findings. This investigation expands the research on metaphors and society. It is an indication of the potential investigations on metaphors hold for other aspects too.

Keywords: COVID-19, conceptual metaphor theory, crisis communication, presidential addresses, risk communication

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