Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1901

Search results for: cognitive decline

1901 Prevalence of Cognitive Decline in Major Depressive Illness

Authors: U. B. Zubair, A. Kiyani


Introduction: Depressive illness predispose individuals to a lot of physical and mental health issues. Anxiety and substance use disorders have been studied widely as comorbidity. Biological symptoms also now considered part of the depressive spectrum. Cognitive abilities also decline or get affected and need to be looked into in detail in depressed patients. Objective: To determine the prevalence of cognitive decline among patients with major depressive illness and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Methods: 190 patients of major depressive illness were included in our study to determine the presence of cognitive decline among them. Depression was diagnosed by a consultant psychiatrist by using the ICD-10 criteria for major depressive disorder. British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI) was the psychometric tool used to determine the cognitive decline. Sociodemographic profile was recorded and the relationship of various factors with cognitive decline was also ascertained. Findings: 70% of the patients suffering from depression included in this study showed the presence of some degree of cognitive decline, while 30% did not show any evidence of cognitive decline when screened through BCCCI. Statistical testing revealed that the female gender was the only socio-demographic parameter linked significantly with the presence of cognitive decline. Conclusion: Decline in cognitive abilities was found in a significant number of patients suffering from major depression in our sample population. Screening for this parameter f mental function should be done in depression clinics to pick it early.

Keywords: depression, cognitive decline, prevalence, socio-demographic factors

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1900 The Effects of Cardiovascular Risk on Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults

Authors: A. Badran, M. Hollocks, H. Markus


Background: Common risk factors for cardiovascular disease are associated with age-related cognitive decline. There has been much interest in treating modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the hope of reducing cognitive decline. However, there is currently no validated neuropsychological test to assess the subclinical cognitive effects of vascular risk. The Brief Memory and Executive Test (BMET) is a clinical screening tool, which was originally designed to be sensitive and specific to Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI), an impairment characterised by decline in frontally-mediated cognitive functions (e.g. Executive Function and Processing Speed). Objective: To cross-sectionally assess the validity of the BMET as a measure of the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in an otherwise healthy elderly cohort. Methods: Data from 346 participants (57 ± 10 years) without major neurological or psychiatric disorders were included in this study, gathered as part of a previous multicentre validation study for the BMET. Framingham Vascular Age was used as a surrogate measure of vascular risk, incorporating several established risk factors. Principal Components Analysis of the subtests was used to produce common constructs: an index for Memory and another for Executive Function/Processing Speed. Univariate General Linear models were used to relate Vascular Age to performance on Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory subtests of the BMET, adjusting for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity. Results: Adverse vascular risk was associated with poorer performance on both the Memory and Executive Function/Processing Speed indices, adjusted for Age, Premorbid Intelligence and Ethnicity (p=0.011 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Performance on the BMET reflects the subclinical effects of vascular risk on cognition, in age-related cognitive decline. Vascular risk is associated with decline in both Executive Function/Processing Speed and Memory groups of subtests. Future studies are needed to explore whether treating vascular risk factors can effectively reduce age-related cognitive decline.

Keywords: age-related cognitive decline, vascular cognitive impairment, subclinical cerebrovascular disease, cognitive aging

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1899 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan


This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE

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1898 Leisure, Domestic or Professional Activities so as to Prevent Cognitive Decline: Results FreLE Longitudinal Study

Authors: Caroline Dupre, David Hupin, Christ Goumou, Francois Belan, Frederic Roche, Thomas Celarier, Bienvenu Bongue


Background: Previous cohorts have been notably criticized for not studying the different type of physical activity and not investigating household activities. The objective of this work was to analyse the relationship between physical activity and cognitive decline in older people living in the community. Impact of type of physical activity on the results has been realised. Methods: The study used data from the longitudinal and observational study , FrèLE (FRagility: Longitudinal Study of Expressions). The collected data included: socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, and health status (frailty, comorbidities, cognitive status, depression). Cognitive decline was assessed by using: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE). This tool is structured in three sections: the leisure activity, domestic activity, and professional activity. Logistic regressions and proportional hazards regression models (Cox) were used to estimate the risk of cognitive disorders. Results: At baseline, the prevalence of cognitive disorders was 6.9% according to MMSE. In total, 1167 participants without cognitive disorders were included in the analysis. The mean age was 77.4 years, and 52.1% of the participants were women. After a 2 years long follow-up, we found cognitive disorders on 53 participants (4.5%). Physical activity at baseline is lower in older adults for whom cognitive decline was observed after two years of follow-up. Subclass analyses showed that leisure and domestic activities were associated with cognitive decline, but not professional activities. Conclusions: Analysis showed a relationship between cognitive disorders and type of physical activity. The current study will be completed by the MoCA for mild cognitive impairment. These findings compared to other ongoing studies, will contribute to the debate on the beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition.

Keywords: aging, cognitive function, physical activity, mixed models

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1897 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas


The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: cognition, everyday functionality, aging, cognitive decline, healthy aging, Greece

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1896 Functional Vision of Older People with Cognitive Impairment Living in Galician Nursing Homes

Authors: C. Vázquez, L. M. Gigirey, C. P. del Oro, S. Seoane


Poor vision is common among older people, and several studies show connections between visual impairment and cognitive function. 15 older adult live in Galician Government nursing homes, and cognitive decline is one of the main reasons of admission. Objectives: (1) To evaluate functional far and near vision of older people with cognitive impairment. (2) To determine connections between visual and cognitive state of “our” residents. Methodology: A total of 364 older adults (aged 65 years or more) underwent a visual and cognitive screening. We tested presenting visual acuity (binocular visual acuity with habitual correction if warn) for distance and near vision (E-Snellen, usual working distance for near vision). Binocular presenting visual acuity less than 0.3 was used as cut point for diagnosis of visual impairment. Exclusion criteria included immobilized residents unable to reach the USC Dual Sensory Loss Unit for visual screening. To screen cognition we employed the mini-mental examination test (Spanish version). Analysis of categorical variables was performed using chi-square tests. We utilized Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and the variance analysis to determine differences between groups of interest (SPSS 19.0 version). Results: the percentage of residents with cognitive decline reaches 32.2% Prevalence of visual impairment for distance and near vision increases among those subjects with cognitive impairment respect those with normal cognition. Shift correlation exists between distance visual acuity and mini-mental test (age and sex controlled), and moderate association was found in case of near vision (p<0.01). Conclusion: First results shows that people with cognitive impairment have poor functional distance and near vision than those with normal cognition. Next step will be to analyse the individual contribution of distance and near vision loss on cognition.

Keywords: visual impairment, cognition, aging, nursing homes

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1895 The Reasons for the Continuous Decline in the Quality of Higher Education in Iran, with a Case Study of Students at Tehran University Law School

Authors: Mohammad Matin


Nowadays, one of the basic problems of higher education is a significant decline in the quality of education and reduction in efficiency of training. These research and studies are aiming to assess affecting factors of the erosion of academic quality, including educational environmental and content, social and economic factors, elements of the training, elements of education, family factors, from the perspective of students. The result of such improper competition, totally, has led to the decline of education quality in higher education centers, and in many aspects. The results showed a significant difference between male and female students' perspective for two areas of social and economic factors.

Keywords: higher education, decline, the quality of education, student

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1894 Relation between Copper, Lipid Profile, and Cognition in Elderly Jordanians

Authors: Eman Al-khateeba, Ebaa Al-Zayadneha, Osama Al-Dalahmahb, Zeinab Alawadib, Faisal Khatiba, Randa Naffaa, Yanal Shafagoj


The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of plasma copper and lipid concentrations with changes in cognitive function in elderly Jordanian individuals. The study population consisted of two groups; 52 subjects with dementia, and 50 controls. All individuals were screened with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock drawing test (CDT).Serum copper and lipid profile were assessed in all subjects, and the results were statistically evaluated at P < 0.05 level of significance. Dementia group had 10.1 % higher copper levels than controls however the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences could be found between the two groups in lipid profile levels. There was no significant correlation between serum copper, lipid profile and cognitive decline in elderly Jordanians. Demographic variables indicate that educational level less than 12 years and illiterate demonstrated a 3.29 fold (p=0.026) and 6.29 fold (p=0.002) increase in risk of developing dementia, respectively. While coffee intake showed a protective effect against cognitive decline with 6.25 fold lower risk with increased coffee intake.

Keywords: copper, cholesterol, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, lipid profile, coffee

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1893 Postural Balance And Falls Risk In Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Effect Of Gender Differences

Authors: Sonda Jallouli, Sameh Ghroubi, Salma Sakka, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Mohamed Habib Elleuch, Imen Ben Dhia, Chokri Mhiri, Omar Hammouda


The pathophysiology, prevalence, and progression of MS are gender dependent. Indeed, the inflammation is more pronounced in women, but the neurodegeneration is more important in men. In addition, women have more sleep disorders while men suffer more from cognitive decline. These non-physical disorders can negatively affect postural balance and fall risk. However, no study has examined the difference between men and women in those physical parameters in MS. Our objective was to determine the effect gender difference on postural balance and fall risk in MS persons. Methods: Eight men and twelve women with relapsing remitting-MS participated in this study. The assessment includes a posturographic examination to assess static (with eyes opened (EO) and eyes closed (EC)) and dynamic (with EO) postural balance. Unipedal balance and fall risk were assessed by a clinical unipedal balance test and the Four Square Step Test, respectively. Sleep quality was assessed using Spiegel's questionnaire, and cognitive assessment was performed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Simple Reaction Time Test. Results: Compared to men, women showed an increase in CdPVm in static bipedal condition with EC (p=0.037; d=0.71) and a decrease in MoCA scores (p=0.028; d=1.06). No gender differences were found in the other tests. Discussion: Static postural balance was more impaired in women compared to men. This result could be explained by the more pronounced cognitive decline observed in women compared to men. Indeed, cognitive disorders have been shown to be predictive factors of postural balance impairment. Conclusion: women were less stable than men in the static condition, possibly due to their lower cognitive performance. This gender difference could be taken into account by therapists in training programs.

Keywords: multiple sclerosis, bipedal postural balance, fall risk, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficiency

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1892 Clinical Neuropsychology in India: Challenges and Achievements

Authors: Garima Joshi, Ashima N. Wadhawan


Neuropsychology in India is a fairly new field, having started only four decades back. Neuropsychology has come a long way since the establishment of the first department, from using western batteries for assessing patients to the development of highly reliable indigenous tools for assessing neuropsychological functioning. Clinical neuropsychology has risen as a discipline in the field of assessing and rehabilitating patients with various neurological conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and other disorders with cognitive decline. The current review attempts to assimilate the history of the discipline in India, along with the current developments and future direction of the field and highlights the pursuit and undertakings of the scientists to provide culturally appropriate services, in terms of assessment and rehabilitation, to the Indian population.

Keywords: clinical neuropsychology, cognitive assessment, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological test batteries in India

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1891 Effects of Aging on Ultra: Triathlon Performance

Authors: Richard S. Jatau, Kankanala Venkateswarlu, Bulus Kpame


The purpose of this critical review is to find out what is known and what is unknown about the effects of aging on endurance performance, especially on ultra- triathlon performance. It has been shown that among master’s athlete’s peak levels of performance decreased by 50% by age 50 it has also been clearly revealed that age associated atrophy, weakness and fatigability cannot be halted, although year round athletic training can slow down this age associated decline. Studies have further revealed that 30% to 50% decrease in skeletal muscle mass between ages 40 and 80 years, which is accompanied by an equal or even greater decline in strength and power and an increase in muscle weakness and fatigability. Studies on ultra- triathlon athletes revealed that 30 to 39 year old showed fastest time, with athletes in younger and older age groups were slower. It appears that the length of the endurance performance appears to influence age related endurance performance decline in short distance triathlons. A significant decline seems to start at the age of 40 to 50 years, whereas in long distance triathlons this decline seems to start after the age of 65 years. However, it is not clear whether this decline is related in any way to the training methods used, the duration of training, or the frequency of training. It’s also not clear whether the triathlon athletes experience more injuries due to long hours of training. It’s also not clear whether these athletes used performance enhancing drugs to enhance their performance. It’s not also clear whiles there has been tremendous increase in the number of athletes specializing in triathlon. On the basis of our experience and available research evidence we have provided answers to some of these questions. We concluded that aging associated decline in ultra–endurance performance is inevitable although it can be slowed down.

Keywords: aging, triathlon, atrophy, endurance

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1890 Combined Treatment of Aged Rats with Donepezil and the Gingko Extract EGb 761® Enhances Learning and Memory Superiorly to Monotherapy

Authors: Linda Blümel, Bettina Bert, Jan Brosda, Heidrun Fink, Melanie Hamann


Age-related cognitive decline can eventually lead to dementia, the most common mental illness in elderly people and an immense challenge for patients, their families and caregivers. Cholinesterase inhibitors constitute the most commonly used antidementia prescription medication. The standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761® is approved for treating age-associated cognitive impairment and has been shown to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from mild dementia. A clinical trial with 96 Alzheimer´s disease patients indicated that the combined treatment with donepezil and EGb 761® had fewer side effects than donepezil alone. In an animal model of cognitive aging, we compared the effect of combined treatment with EGb 761® or donepezil monotherapy and vehicle. We compared the effect of chronic treatment (15 days of pretreatment) with donepezil (1.5 mg/kg p. o.), EGb 761® (100 mg/kg p. o.), or the combination of the two drugs, or vehicle in 18 – 20 month old male OFA rats. Learning and memory performance were assessed by Morris water maze testing, motor behavior in an open field paradigm. In addition to chronic treatment, the substances were administered orally 30 minutes before testing. Compared to the first day and to the control group, only the combination group showed a significant reduction in latency to reach the hidden platform on the second day of testing. Moreover, from the second day of testing onwards, the donepezil, the EGb 761® and the combination group required less time to reach the hidden platform compared to the first day. The control group did not reach the same latency reduction until day three. There were no effects on motor behavior. These results suggest a superiority of the combined treatment of donepezil with EGb 761® compared to monotherapy.

Keywords: age-related cognitive decline, dementia, ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761®, learning and memory, old rats

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1889 Smartphone Addiction and Reaction Time in Geriatric Population

Authors: Anjali N. Shete, G. D. Mahajan, Nanda Somwanshi


Context: Smartphones are the new generation of mobile phones; they have emerged over the last few years. Technology has developed so much that it has become part of our life and mobile phones are one of them. These smartphones are equipped with the capabilities to display photos, play games, watch videos and navigation, etc. The advances have a huge impact on many walks of life. The adoption of new technology has been challenging for the elderly. But, the elder population is also moving towards digitally connected lives. As age advances, there is a decline in the motor and cognitive functions of the brain, and hence the reaction time is affected. The study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of smartphones in improving cognitive functions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of smartphone addiction on reaction time in elderly population Material and Methods: This is an experimental study. 100 elderly subjects were enrolled in this study randomly from urban areas. They all were using smartphones for several hours a day. They were divided into two groups according to the scores of the mobile phone addiction scale (MPAS). Simple reaction time was estimated by the Ruler drop method. The reaction time was then calculated for each subject in both groups. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and Pearson correlation test. Results: The mean reaction time in Group A is 0.27+ 0.040 and in Group B is 0.20 + 0.032. The values show a statistically significant change in reaction time. Conclusion: Group A with a high MPAS score has a low reaction time compared to Group B with a low MPAS score. Hence, it can be concluded that the use of smartphones in the elderly is useful, delaying the neurological decline, and smarten the brain.

Keywords: smartphones, MPAS, reaction time, elderly population

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1888 Mathematics Model Approaching: Parameter Estimation of Transmission Dynamics of HIV and AIDS in Indonesia

Authors: Endrik Mifta Shaiful, Firman Riyudha


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the world's deadliest diseases caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that infects white blood cells and cause a decline in the immune system. AIDS quickly became a world epidemic disease that affects almost all countries. Therefore, mathematical modeling approach to the spread of HIV and AIDS is needed to anticipate the spread of HIV and AIDS which are widespread. The purpose of this study is to determine the parameter estimation on mathematical models of HIV transmission and AIDS using cumulative data of people with HIV and AIDS each year in Indonesia. In this model, there are parameters of r ∈ [0,1) which is the effectiveness of the treatment in patients with HIV. If the value of r is close to 1, the number of people with HIV and AIDS will decline toward zero. The estimation results indicate when the value of r is close to unity, there will be a significant decline in HIV patients, whereas in AIDS patients constantly decreases towards zero.

Keywords: HIV, AIDS, parameter estimation, mathematical models

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1887 Cognitive Decline in People Living with HIV in India and Correlation with Neurometabolites Using 3T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS): A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Kartik Gupta, Virendra Kumar, Sanjeev Sinha, N. Jagannathan


Introduction: A significant number of patients having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection show a neurocognitive decline (NCD) ranging from minor cognitive impairment to severe dementia. The possible causes of NCD in HIV-infected patients include brain injury by HIV before cART, neurotoxic viral proteins and metabolic abnormalities. In the present study, we compared the level of NCD in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients with changes in brain metabolites measured by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: 43 HIV-positive patients (30 males and 13 females) coming to ART center of the hospital and HIV-seronegative healthy subjects were recruited for the study. All the participants completed MRI and MRS examination, detailed clinical assessments and a battery of neuropsychological tests. All the MR investigations were carried out at 3.0T MRI scanner (Ingenia/Achieva, Philips, Netherlands). MRI examination protocol included the acquisition of T2-weighted imaging in axial, coronal and sagittal planes, T1-weighted, FLAIR, and DWI images in the axial plane. Patients who showed any apparent lesion on MRI were excluded from the study. T2-weighted images in three orthogonal planes were used to localize the voxel in left frontal lobe white matter (FWM) and left basal ganglia (BG) for single voxel MRS. Single voxel MRS spectra were acquired with a point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) localization pulse sequence at an echo time (TE) of 35 ms and a repetition time (TR) of 2000 ms with 64 or 128 scans. Automated preprocessing and determination of absolute concentrations of metabolites were estimated using LCModel by water scaling method and the Cramer-Rao lower bounds for all metabolites analyzed in the study were below 15\%. Levels of total N-acetyl aspartate (tNAA), total choline (tCho), glutamate + glutamine (Glx), total creatine (tCr), were measured. Cognition was tested using a battery of tests validated for Indian population. The cognitive domains tested were the memory, attention-information processing, abstraction-executive, simple and complex perceptual motor skills. Z-scores normalized according to age, sex and education standard were used to calculate dysfunction in these individual domains. The NCD was defined as dysfunction with Z-score ≤ 2 in at least two domains. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the difference in brain metabolites between the patients and healthy subjects. Results: NCD was found in 23 (53%) patients. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load between the two groups. Maximum impairment was found in the domains of memory and simple motor skills i.e., 19/43 (44%). The prevalence of deficit in attention-information processing, complex perceptual motor skills and abstraction-executive function was 37%, 35%, 33% respectively. Subjects with NCD had a higher level of Glutamate in the Frontal region (8.03 ± 2.30 v/s. 10.26 ± 5.24, p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Among newly diagnosed, ART-naïve retroviral disease patients from India, cognitive decline was found in 53\% patients using tests validated for this population. Those with neurocognitive decline had a significantly higher level of Glutamate in the left frontal region. There was no significant difference in age, CD4 count and viral load at initiation of ART between the two groups.

Keywords: HIV, neurocognitive decline, neurometabolites, magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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1886 Would Intra-Individual Variability in Attention to Be the Indicator of Impending the Senior Adults at Risk of Cognitive Decline: Evidence from Attention Network Test(ANT)

Authors: Hanna Lu, Sandra S. M. Chan, Linda C. W. Lam


Objectives: Intra-individual variability (IIV) has been considered as a biomarker of healthy ageing. However, the composite role of IIV in attention, as an impending indicator for neurocognitive disorders warrants further exploration. This study aims to investigate the IIV, as well as their relationships with attention network functions in adults with neurocognitive disorders (NCD). Methods: 36adults with NCD due to Alzheimer’s disease(NCD-AD), 31adults with NCD due to vascular disease (NCD-vascular), and 137 healthy controls were recruited. Intraindividual standard deviations (iSD) and intraindividual coefficient of variation of reaction time (ICV-RT) were used to evaluate the IIV. Results: NCD groups showed greater IIV (iSD: F= 11.803, p < 0.001; ICV-RT:F= 9.07, p < 0.001). In ROC analyses, the indices of IIV could differentiateNCD-AD (iSD: AUC value = 0.687, p= 0.001; ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.677, p= 0.001) and NCD-vascular (iSD: AUC value = 0.631, p= 0.023;ICV-RT: AUC value = 0.615, p= 0.045) from healthy controls. Moreover, the processing speed could distinguish NCD-AD from NCD-vascular (AUC value = 0.647, p= 0.040). Discussion: Intra-individual variability in attention provides a stable measure of cognitive performance, and seems to help distinguish the senior adults with different cognitive status.

Keywords: intra-individual variability, attention network, neurocognitive disorders, ageing

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1885 Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Stunted Egyptian Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: An Interventional Study

Authors: Ghada M. El-Kassas, Maged A. El Wakeel, Salwa R. El-Zayat


Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary omega-3 might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether omega-3 supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: 100 Egyptian stunted children aged 1-5 years and 100 age and gender-matched normal children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, we assessed anthropometric measures and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED). Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral n-3 (omega-3) LC-PUFA at a dosage of 500 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory and cognitive assessment. Results: Fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. (MPO), (NEO) and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the 2ry phase (P < 0.001 for all). Omega-3 supplementation resulted also in a significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both). Cases showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusions: Omega-3 supplementation successfully improved intestinal inflammatory state related to EED. Also, some improvement of anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with omega-3 supplementation.

Keywords: cognitive functions, EED, omega-3, stunting

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1884 Abilitest Battery: Presentation of Tests and Psychometric Properties

Authors: Sylwia Sumińska, Łukasz Kapica, Grzegorz Szczepański


Introduction: Cognitive skills are a crucial part of everyday functioning. Cognitive skills include perception, attention, language, memory, executive functions, and higher cognitive skills. With the aging of societies, there is an increasing percentage of people whose cognitive skills decline. Cognitive skills affect work performance. The appropriate diagnosis of a worker’s cognitive skills reduces the risk of errors and accidents at work which is also important for senior workers. The study aimed to prepare new cognitive tests for adults aged 20-60 and assess the psychometric properties of the tests. The project responds to the need for reliable and accurate methods of assessing cognitive performance. Computer tests were developed to assess psychomotor performance, attention, and working memory. Method: Two hundred eighty people aged 20-60 will participate in the study in 4 age groups. Inclusion criteria for the study were: no subjective cognitive impairment, no history of severe head injuries, chronic diseases, psychiatric and neurological diseases. The research will be conducted from February - to June 2022. Cognitive tests: 1) Measurement of psychomotor performance: Reaction time, Reaction time with selective attention component; 2) Measurement of sustained attention: Visual search (dots), Visual search (numbers); 3) Measurement of working memory: Remembering words, Remembering letters. To assess the validity and the reliability subjects will perform the Vienna Test System, i.e., “Reaction Test” (reaction time), “Signal Detection” (sustained attention), “Corsi Block-Tapping Test” (working memory), and Perception and Attention Test (TUS), Colour Trails Test (CTT), Digit Span – subtest from The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Eighty people will be invited to a session after three months aimed to assess the consistency over time. Results: Due to ongoing research, the detailed results from 280 people will be shown at the conference separately in each age group. The results of correlation analysis with the Vienna Test System will be demonstrated as well.

Keywords: aging, attention, cognitive skills, cognitive tests, psychomotor performance, working memory

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1883 Trend and Cuses of Decline in Trifoliate Yam (Dioscorea dumentorum) Production in Enugu State, Nigeria: Implication for Food Security and Biodiversity Conservation

Authors: J. C. Iwuchukwu, K. C. Okwor


In recent time and in the study area, yam farmers are moving into less laborious and more economical crops and very few yam farmers are growing trifoliate yam. In yam markets, little or no bitter yam is displayed or sold. The work was therefore designed to ascertain trend and causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in Enugu state. Three agricultural zones, six blocks, eighteen circles and one hundred and eight trifoliate yam farmers that were purposively selected constituted sample for the study. An interview schedule was used to collect data while percentage, mean score and standard deviation were used for data analysis. Findings of the study revealed that the respondents had no extension contact, Majority (90.7%) sourced information on trifoliate yam from neighbours/friends/relatives and produced mainly for consumption (67.6%) during rainy season (70.4%). Trifoliate yam was produced manually(71.3%) and organically (58.3%) in a mixture of other crops (87%) using indigenous/local varieties (73.1%). Mean size of land allocated to trifoliate yam production was relatively steady, mean cost of input and income were increasing while output was decreasing within the years under consideration (before 2001 to 2014). Poor/lack of finance(M=1.8) and drudgery associated with trifoliate yam product(M=1.72) were some of the causes of decline in trifoliate yam production in the area. The study recommended that more research and public enlightenment campaigns on the importance of trifoliate yam should be carried out to encourage and consolidate farmers and the masses effort in production and consumption of the crop so that it will not go extinct and then contribute to food security.

Keywords: causes, decline, trend, trifoliate yam

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1882 Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad

Authors: I. Ahmad, A. Hannan, S. Ahmad, M. Asif, M. F. Nawaz, M. A. Tanvir, M. F. Azhar


During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.

Keywords: decline, frequency of mycoflora, A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis, Drechslera australiensis, Armillaria luteobubalina

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1881 Obtaining Norms for Arabic Translated Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Neuropsychological Battery in Normal Elderly Omanis Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

Authors: Ammar Alobaidy, Lamees Alsawafi, Malak Almawali, Balqees Alabri, Hajer Alhamrashdi


Background: There is scarce data in the literature concerning the use of Arabic version neuron psychological cognitive tests in the geriatric age group of the Omani population. Objectives: Our aim is to obtain norms for normal elderly Omanis assessed by The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) neuro psychological battery and to compare these norms with other studies in the literature. Methods: 84 attendants and visitors of in-patients at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, elder than 55 years, were interviewed. All participants were assessed by Dementia Rating Scale & Geriatric Depression Scale to ensure the integrity of their activities of daily living and the absence of depression, respectively. The performance of all participants in the CERAD battery was rated by a single rater to optimize the inter-rater reliability. Results: The cut-point for average performance in CERAD battery is dependent on the age, sex, and level of education and cannot be set as a single cut-point for all elderly Omanis. Conclusion: This study has shown the effect of age, sex, and level of education on the cognitive performance of normal elderly Omanis. The normative data obtained from this study can be utilized to differentiate between the cognitive decline of normal aging and the cognitive impairment due to various neuro cognitive disorders in the elderly Omanis, and probably culturally similar Arabic speaking communities.

Keywords: CERAD, neuropsychological battery, normal aging, elderly Omanis

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1880 Changes in Cognition of Elderly People: A Longitudinal Study in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

Authors: Natchaphon Auampradit, Patama Vapattanawong, Sureeporn Punpuing, Malee Sunpuwan, Tawanchai Jirapramukpitak


Longitudinal studies related to cognitive impairment in elderly are necessary for health promotion and development. The purposes of this study were (1) to examine changes in cognition of elderly over time and (2) to examine the impacts of changes in social determinants of health (SDH) toward changes in cognition of elderly by using the secondary data derived from the Kanchanaburi Demographic Surveillance System (KDSS) by the Institute for Population and Social Research (IPSR) which contained longitudinal data on individuals, households, and villages. Two selected projects included the Health and Social Support for Elderly in KDSS in 2007 and the Population, Economic, Social, Cultural, and Long-term Care Surveillance for Thai Elderly People’s Health Promotion in 2011. The samples were 586 elderly participated in both projects. SDH included living arrangement, social relationships with children, relatives, and friends, household asset-based wealth index, household monthly income, loans for livings, loans for investment, and working status. Cognitive impairment was measured by category fluency and delayed recall. This study employed Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model to investigate changes in cognition by taking SDH and other variables such as age, gender, marital status, education, and depression into the model. The unstructured correlation structure was selected to use for analysis. The results revealed that 24 percent of elderly had cognitive impairment at baseline. About 13 percent of elderly still had cognitive impairment during 2007 until 2011. About 21 percent and 11 percent of elderly had cognitive decline and cognitive improvement, respectively. The cross-sectional analysis showed that household asset-based wealth index, social relationship with friends, working status, age, marital status, education, and depression were significantly associated with cognitive impairment. The GEE model revealed longitudinal effects of household asset-based wealth index and working status against cognition during 2007 until 2011. There was no longitudinal effect of social conditions against cognition. Elderly living with richer household asset-based wealth index, still being employed, and being younger were less likely to have cognitive impairment. The results strongly suggested that poorer household asset-based wealth index and being unemployed were served as a risk factor for cognitive impairment over time. Increasing age was still the major risk for cognitive impairment as well.

Keywords: changes in cognition, cognitive impairment, elderly, KDSS, longitudinal study

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1879 Cognition and Communication Disorders Effect on Death Penalty Cases

Authors: Shameka Stanford


This presentation will discuss how cognitive and communication disorders in the areas of executive functioning, receptive and expressive language can impact the problem-solving and decision making of individuals with such impairments. More specifically, this presentation will discuss approaches the legal defense team of capital case lawyers can add to their experience when servicing individuals who have a history of educational decline, special education, and limited intervention and treatment. The objective of the research is to explore and identify the correlations between impaired executive function skills and decision making and competency for individuals facing death penalty charges. To conduct this research, experimental design, randomized sampling, qualitative analysis was employed. This research contributes to the legal and criminal justice system related to how they view, defend, and characterize, and judge individuals with documented cognitive and communication disorders who are eligible for capital case charges. More importantly, this research contributes to the increased ability of death penalty lawyers to successfully defend clients with a history of academic difficulty, special education, and documented disorders that impact educational progress and academic success.

Keywords: cognitive impairments, communication disorders, death penalty, executive function

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1878 An Analysis of Fertility Decline in India: Evidences from Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh

Authors: Ajay Kumar


Using data from census of India, sample registration system and national family health survey (NFHS-3), this paper traces spatial pattern, trends and the factors which have played their role differently in fertility transition in Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. For the purpose spatial variation analysis, trend line and binary logistic regression analysis has been carried out. There exist considerable regional disparities in terms of fertility decline in northern and southern states. The pace of fertility decline has been faster in southern and coastal regions, and at a slow pace in backward northern state. In Tamil Nadu fertility declined substantially among the women of lower and higher age groups in comparison to Uttar Pradesh characterized by low literacy, low female age at marriage, poor health infrastructure and low status of women. The Study shows that Fertility rates have been higher among the most vulnerable and deprived sections of the society like Illiterate women, women belong to scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and women residing in rural areas.

Keywords: age specific fertility rate, fertility transition, replacement level, total fertility rate

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1877 Beta-Carotene Attenuates Cognitive and Hepatic Impairment in Thioacetamide-Induced Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy via Mitigation of MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Authors: Marawan Abd Elbaset Mohamed, Hanan A. Ogaly, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed-Farid O.A., Marwa S. Khattab, Reham M. Abd-Elsalam


Liver fibrosis is a severe worldwide health concern due to various chronic liver disorders. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is one of its most common complications affecting liver and brain cognitive function. Beta-Carotene (B-Car) is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in fungi, plants, and fruits. The study attempted to know B-Car neuroprotective potential against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive decline in HE in rats. Hepatic encephalopathy was induced by TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) three times per week for two weeks. B-Car was given orally (10 or 20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks after TAA injections. Organ body weight ratio, Serum transaminase activities, liver’s antioxidant parameters, ammonia, and liver histopathology were assessed. Also, the brain’s mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), antioxidant parameters, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine monophosphate (AMP), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) expression and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression were measured. The brain’s cognitive functions (Spontaneous locomotor activity, Rotarod performance test, Object recognition test) were assessed. B-Car prevented alteration of the brain’s cognitive function in a dose-dependent manner. The histopathological outcomes supported these biochemical evidences. Based on these results, it could be established that B-Car could be assigned to treat the brain’s neurotoxicity consequences of HE via downregualtion of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways.

Keywords: beta-carotene, liver injury, MAPK, NF-κB, rat, thioacetamide

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1876 The Impact of Cognition and Communication on the Defense of Capital Murder Cases

Authors: Shameka Stanford


This presentation will discuss how cognitive and communication disorders in the areas of executive functioning, receptive and expressive language can impact the problem-solving and decision making of individuals with such impairments. More specifically, this presentation will discuss approaches the legal defense team of capital case lawyers can add to their experience when servicing individuals who have a history of educational decline, special education, and limited intervention and treatment. The objective of the research is to explore and identify the correlations between impaired executive function skills and decision making and competency for individuals facing death penalty charges. To conduct this research, experimental design, randomized sampling, qualitative analysis was employed. This research contributes to the legal and criminal justice system related to how they view, defend, and characterize, and judge individuals with documented cognitive and communication disorders who are eligible for capital case charges. More importantly, this research contributes to the increased ability of death penalty lawyers to successfully defend clients with a history of academic difficulty, special education, and documented disorders that impact educational progress and academic success.

Keywords: communication disorders, cognitive disorders, capital murder, death penalty, executive function

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1875 Application of Decline Curve Analysis to Depleted Wells in a Cluster and then Predicting the Performance of Currently Flowing Wells

Authors: Satish Kumar Pappu


The most common questions which are frequently asked in oil and gas industry are how much is the current production rate from a particular well and what is the approximate predicted life of that well. These questions can be answered through forecasting of important realistic data like flowing tubing hole pressures FTHP, Production decline curves which are used predict the future performance of a well in a reservoir. With the advent of directional drilling, cluster well drilling has gained much importance and in-fact has even revolutionized the whole world of oil and gas industry. An oil or gas reservoir can generally be described as a collection of several overlying, producing and potentially producing sands in to which a number of wells are drilled depending upon the in-place volume and several other important factors both technical and economical in nature, in some sands only one well is drilled and in some, more than one. The aim of this study is to derive important information from the data collected over a period of time at regular intervals on a depleted well in a reservoir sand and apply this information to predict the performance of other wells in that reservoir sand. The depleted wells are the most common observations when an oil or gas field is being visited, w the application of this study more realistic in nature.

Keywords: decline curve analysis, estimation of future gas reserves, reservoir sands, reservoir risk profile

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1874 Study of the Microflora of Cedar Forests with Different Degrees of Decline in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria)

Authors: Cherak Imen, Sellami Mehdi


The Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica, is endemic to the mountains of North Africa. This is one of the most valuable softwood, both economically, ecologically, aesthetically and culturally. In Algeria, the cedar forests currently have worrying symptoms of decline which therefore require special monitoring. Fungal endophytes are involved in various diseases of the Atlas cedar. They attack all organs on which they cause many symptoms. These microflora live in complex interaction with plants. In this study, we identified a total of 09 mycotaxons collected needles Cedarwood at three stations with different degrees of decline (Talmet, Boumerzoug and Tuggurt) in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria). The study conducted on a total of 12 trees were identified 08 mycoendophytes in Talmet station, 04 species in the Boumerzoug station and 03 in Tuggurt station. The total species richness mycoendophytes depending on the types of cedar forests showed that the largest diversity was recorded at the cedar forest healthy, Alternaria is the most common type in all stations. This work should be completed by further detailed studies to identify other endophyte species and better know its interactions with the Atlas cedar.

Keywords: Cedrus atlantica, endophytic fungi, microflora, mycotaxons, mycoendophyte

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1873 Decline in Melon Yield and Its Contribution to Young Farmers' Diversification into Watermelon Farming in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Oyediran Wasiu Oyeleke


Melon is a popular economic cucurbit in Southwest, Nigeria. In recent time, many young farmers are shifting from melon to watermelon farming due to poor yield and low monetary returns. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the decline in melon yield and its contribution to young farmers’ diversification into watermelon farming in Oyo state, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting 75 respondents from five villages in Ibarapa block of the Oyo State Agricultural Development Project (ADP). Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Results show that majority of the respondents (77.3%) were between 31-40 years of age and 46.70% had secondary school education. Most of the respondents (80%) cultivated more than 3 ha of land for watermelon. Majority of the respondents (74.7%) intercropped melon with other crops while watermelon was cultivated as a sole crop. None of the respondents either grew improved melon seeds (certified seeds) or applied fertilizers but all respondents cultivated treated watermelon seeds, applied fertilizers, and agro-chemicals. The average yields of melon fell from 376.53kg/ha in 2009 to 280.70kg/ha in 2011. However, the respondents were shifting into watermelon production because of available quality seeds and its early maturity, easy harvest, and high sales. There was a significant relationship between melon output and young farmers’ diversification to watermelon in the study area at p < 0.05. The study concluded that decline in the melon yield discouraged youth to continue melon farming in the study area. It is hereby recommended that certified melon seeds should be made available while extension service providers should provide training support for the young farmers in order to reposition and boost melon production in the study area.

Keywords: decline, melon yield, contribution, watermelon, diversification, young farmers

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1872 Landcover Mapping Using Lidar Data and Aerial Image and Soil Fertility Degradation Assessment for Rice Production Area in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Philippines

Authors: Eliza. E. Camaso, Guiller. B. Damian, Miguelito. F. Isip, Ronaldo T. Alberto


Land-cover maps were important for many scientific, ecological and land management purposes and during the last decades, rapid decrease of soil fertility was observed to be due to land use practices such as rice cultivation. High-precision land-cover maps are not yet available in the area which is important in an economy management. To assure   accurate mapping of land cover to provide information, remote sensing is a very suitable tool to carry out this task and automatic land use and cover detection. The study did not only provide high precision land cover maps but it also provides estimates of rice production area that had undergone chemical degradation due to fertility decline. Land-cover were delineated and classified into pre-defined classes to achieve proper detection features. After generation of Land-cover map, of high intensity of rice cultivation, soil fertility degradation assessment in rice production area due to fertility decline was created to assess the impact of soils used in agricultural production. Using Simple spatial analysis functions and ArcGIS, the Land-cover map of Municipality of Quezon in Nueva Ecija, Philippines was overlaid to the fertility decline maps from Land Degradation Assessment Philippines- Bureau of Soils and Water Management (LADA-Philippines-BSWM) to determine the area of rice crops that were most likely where nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and sulfur deficiencies were induced by high dosage of urea and imbalance N:P fertilization. The result found out that 80.00 % of fallow and 99.81% of rice production area has high soil fertility decline.

Keywords: aerial image, landcover, LiDAR, soil fertility degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184