Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1999

Search results for: descriptive

1999 Support of Syrian Refugees: The Roles of Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, Perception of Threat, and Negative Emotions

Authors: Senay Yitmen

Abstract:

This research investigated individual’s support and helping intentions towards Syrian refugees in Turkey. This is examined in relation to perceived threat and negative emotions, and also to the perceptions of whether one’s intimate social network (family and friends) considers Syrians a threat (descriptive network norm) and whether this network morally supports Syrian refugees (injunctive norms). A questionnaire study was conducted among Turkish participants (n= 565) and the results showed that perception of threat was associated with negative emotions which, in turn, were related to less support of Syrian refugees. Additionally, descriptive norms moderated the relationship between perceived threat and negative emotions towards Syrian refugees. Furthermore, injunctive norms moderated the relationship between negative emotions and support to Syrian refugees. Specifically, the findings indicate that perceived threat is associated with less support of Syrian refugees through negative emotions when descriptive norms are weak and injunctive norms are strong. Injunctive norms appear to trigger a dilemma over the decision to conform or not to conform: when one has negative emotions as a result of perceived threat, it becomes more difficult to conform to the moral obligation of injunctive norms which is associated with less support of Syrian refugees. Hence, these findings demonstrate that both descriptive and injunctive norms are important and play different roles in individual’s support of Syrian refugees.

Keywords: descriptive norms, emotions, injunctive norms, the perception of threat

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
1998 Effect of Oral-Written Mode of Assessing Senior Secondary School Two English Language Students’ Achievement in Descriptive Essay

Authors: Oluwabukola Oluwaseyi Oduntan

Abstract:

The English Language plays a central and strategic role in the school system because almost all the school subjects are taught using the English language. However, students’ achievement in this subject at senior secondary school is not encouraging. Therefore, this study examined the effects of oral-written mode of assessment on senior secondary school students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. It also examined the moderating effects of students’ gender and class on students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. The study adopted a pretest-posttest, control group, quasi-experimental design with a 2x2x3 factorial matrix. The participant consisted of 140 Senior Secondary II students drawn from four intact classes from four schools randomly selected from four Local Government Areas randomly selected from Oyo town in Oyo State. Two schools were assigned each to the treatment group and the control group. The following instruments were used for the study: Descriptive Essay Achievement Test (r = 0.78); Descriptive Achievement Test Marking Scheme; Check List of Oral-Written Assessment and Teachers’ Instructional Guide on Descriptive Essay (r = 0.81). Seven null hypotheses guided the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were analyzed using Analysis of Covariance, Estimated Marginal Means and Scheffe post-hoc test. The result revealed that treatment had a significant main effect on students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F(1,127) = 25.407, P < .05, η2 = .167). Students exposed to oral-written assessment had a higher achievement scores ((x ) ̅= 36.15) than those exposed to written assessment ((x ) ̅= 28.55). There was no significant main effect of gender on students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F₍₁, ₁₂₇₎ = .349, P > .05, η2 = .003). The result also revealed that the effects of class was not significant on students’ students’ achievement in descriptive essay (F₍₁, ₁₂₇₎ = .679, P > .05, η2 = .006). Oral-written mode of assessment enhanced students’ achievement in a descriptive essay. It is, therefore, recommended that teachers and curriculum developers should adopt the use of oral-written assessment for better improvement of students’ achievement in a descriptive essay.

Keywords: class, gender, oral-written assessment, written assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
1997 The Element of Episode and Idea in the Descriptive Poetry of Hutai'A

Authors: Abubakar Ismaila Yusuf

Abstract:

This research studied element of episode (events) and idea in the descriptive poetry of Hutai’a with the intention to sale the opinion of this type of analysis to others, and also encourage and open door for researchers that thinks only in drama and novel those elements can be implemented. The research uses explanatory method to point out the element of episode and ideology from the said poetry to show that the same element of drama can be seen in poetry. The research finds that element of drama and novel can be seen and implemented analytically in dramatic and some descriptive poetry and its likes. The researcher finally advice colleague to widened scope of research and always think of modernizing it.

Keywords: Hutai'a, poetry, drama, novel

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1996 A Descriptive Study of Self-Compassion in Polytechnic Students in Indonesia

Authors: Emma Dwi Ariyani, Dini Hadiani

Abstract:

This article reports the descriptive analysis of self-compassion in polytechnic students. It has been long believed that self-compassion can improve students’ motivation in completing their studies. This research was conducted with the aim to see the degree of self-compassion in polytechnic students in Indonesia by using Neff's Self-Compassion Scale (short form) measurement tool consisting of 12 items. The research method used was descriptive study with survey technique on 255 students. The results showed that 78% of students had low self-compassion and 22% had high self-compassion. This revealed that polytechnic students still criticize themselves harshly, make a poor judgment and bad self-appraisal, and they also cannot accept their imperfection and consider it as a self-judgment. The students also tend to think that they are the only ones that experience failure and suffering. This can lead to a sense of isolation (self-isolation). Furthermore, the students are often too concerned with aspects that are not liked both in themselves and in life (over-identification). Improving the students’ level of self-compassion can be done by building an educational climate that not only criticizes the students but provides feedback as well. This should focus on the students’ real behavior rather than the students’ general character.

Keywords: descriptive study, polytechnic students, Indonesia, self-compassion

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
1995 [Keynote Talk]: Animation of Objects on the Website by Application of CSS3 Language

Authors: Vladimir Simovic, Matija Varga, Robert Svetlacic

Abstract:

Scientific work analytically explores and demonstrates techniques that can animate objects and geometric characters using CSS3 language by applying proper formatting and positioning of elements. This paper presents examples of optimum application of the CSS3 descriptive language when generating general web animations (e.g., billiards and movement of geometric characters, etc.). The paper presents analytically, the optimal development and animation design with the frames within which the animated objects are. The originally developed content is based on the upgrading of existing CSS3 descriptive language animations with more complex syntax and project-oriented work. The purpose of the developed animations is to provide an overview of the interactive features of CSS3 descriptive language design for computer games and the animation of important analytical data based on the web view. It has been analytically demonstrated that CSS3 as a descriptive language allows inserting of various multimedia elements into websites for public and internal sites.

Keywords: web animation recording, KML GML HTML5 forms, Cascading Style Sheets 3, Google Earth Professional

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1994 PhD Research Design and Descriptive Theory: Theoretical Framework for Development of Integrated Management System

Authors: Samuel Quashie

Abstract:

The importance of theory for PhD construction management research cannot be underestimated, as it requires a sound theoretical basis. Theory efficiency reduces errors in the research problem, solving it by building upon current theory. Provides a structure for examination, enables the efficient development of the construction management field and to it practical real world problems. The aim is to develop the theoretical framework for the application of descriptive theory within the PhD research design To apply the proposed theoretical framework using the case of the topic of ‘integrated management system,’ classifying the phenomena into categories, explore the association between the category–defining attributes and the outcome observed. Forming categorization based upon attributes of phenomena (framework and typologies), and statement of association (models). Predicting (deductive process) and confirming (inductive process). The descriptive theory is important and provides a structure for examination, enables the efficient development of construction management field and to it practical real world problems. In conclusion, the work done in management presents fertile ground for research and theory development.

Keywords: descriptive theory, PhD research design, theoretical framework, construction management

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1993 Investigating Real Ship Accidents with Descriptive Analysis in Turkey

Authors: İsmail Karaca, Ömer Söner

Abstract:

The use of advanced methods has been increasing day by day in the maritime sector, which is one of the sectors least affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is aimed to minimize accidents, especially by using advanced methods in the investigation of marine accidents. This research aimed to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis of particular ship accidents in the Transport Safety Investigation Center of Turkey database. 46 ship accidents, which occurred between 2010-2018, have been selected from the database. In addition to the availability of a reliable and comprehensive database, taking advantage of the robust statistical models for investigation is critical to improving the safety of ships. Thus, descriptive analysis has been used in the research to identify causes and conditional factors related to different types of ship accidents. The research outcomes underline the fact that environmental factors and day and night ratio have great influence on ship safety.

Keywords: descriptive analysis, maritime industry, maritime safety, ship accident statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1992 Descriptive Analysis: New Media Influence on Decision Makers

Authors: Bashaiar Alsanaa

Abstract:

The process of decision making requires environment surveillance and public opinion monitoring, both of which can be attained through effective use of social media. This study aims to investigate the extent to which new media influence the decision making process by the Kuwaiti government. The research explores how unprecedented access to information as well as dynamic user-interaction made possible by new technologies play a significant role in all aspects of decision making whether on the end of the public or decision makers themselves. The research analyzes two case studies where public opinion was forceful on social media in order to explore how such media create interactive and liberal environments for individuals to participate in the process of taking action with regards to political, economic and social issues. The findings of this descriptive study indicate the overwhelming extent to which social media are being used in Kuwait to create new social reform by the government based on citizen interaction with current topics.

Keywords: communication, descriptive, new media technologies, social media.

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
1991 A New Concept for Deriving the Expected Value of Fuzzy Random Variables

Authors: Liang-Hsuan Chen, Chia-Jung Chang

Abstract:

Fuzzy random variables have been introduced as an imprecise concept of numeric values for characterizing the imprecise knowledge. The descriptive parameters can be used to describe the primary features of a set of fuzzy random observations. In fuzzy environments, the expected values are usually represented as fuzzy-valued, interval-valued or numeric-valued descriptive parameters using various metrics. Instead of the concept of area metric that is usually adopted in the relevant studies, the numeric expected value is proposed by the concept of distance metric in this study based on two characters (fuzziness and randomness) of FRVs. Comparing with the existing measures, although the results show that the proposed numeric expected value is same with those using the different metric, if only triangular membership functions are used. However, the proposed approach has the advantages of intuitiveness and computational efficiency, when the membership functions are not triangular types. An example with three datasets is provided for verifying the proposed approach.

Keywords: fuzzy random variables, distance measure, expected value, descriptive parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1990 Systematic Review of Functional Analysis in Brazil

Authors: Felipe Magalhaes Lemos

Abstract:

Functional behavior analysis is a procedure that has been studied for several decades by behavior analysts. In Brazil, we still have few studies in the area, so it was decided to carry out a systematic review of the articles published in the area by Brazilians. A search was done on the following scientific article registration sites: PsycINFO, ERIC, ISI Web of Science, Virtual Health Library. The research includes (a) peer-reviewed studies that (b) have been carried out in Brazil containing (c) functional assessment as a pre-treatment through (d) experimental procedures, direct or indirect observation and measurement of behavior problems (e) demonstrating a relationship between environmental events and behavior. During the review, 234 papers were found; however, only 9 were included in the final analysis. Of the 9 articles extracted, only 2 presented functional analysis procedures with manipulation of environmental variables, while the other 7 presented different procedures for a descriptive behavior assessment. Only the two studies using "functional analysis" used graphs to demonstrate the prevalent function of the behavior. Other studies described procedures and did not make clear the causal relationship between environment and behavior. There is still confusion in Brazil regarding the terms "functional analysis", "descriptive assessment" and "contingency analysis," which are generally treated in the same way. This study shows that few articles are published with a focus on functional analysis in Brazil.

Keywords: behavior, contingency, descriptive assessment, functional analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1989 From Conceptual Metaphor Theory to Generative Conceptual Metaphor Theory

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, generative metaphor theory, metaphorical inference pattern transfer, analogical reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1988 Towards a Generative Theory of Conceptual Metaphor

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, inference pattern transfer, metaphorical mapping, generative metaphor theory, analogical reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1987 A Stylistic Analysis of the Short Story ‘The Escape’ by Qaisra Shahraz

Authors: Huma Javed

Abstract:

Stylistics is a broad term that is concerned with both literature and linguistics, due to which the significance of the stylistics increases. This research aims to analyze Qaisra Shahraz's short story ‘The Escape’ from the stylistic analysis viewpoint. The focus of this study is on three aspects grammar category, lexical category, and figure of speech of the short story. The research designs for this article are both explorative and descriptive. The analysis of the data shows that the writer has used more nouns in the story as compared to other lexical items, which suggests that story has a descriptive style rather than narrative.

Keywords: The Escape, stylistics, grammatical category, lexical category, figure of speech

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
1986 Educational Innovation and ICT: Before and during 21st Century

Authors: Carlos Monge López, Patricia Gómez Hernández

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Educational innovation is a quality factor of teaching-learning processes and institutional accreditation. There is an increasing of these change processes, especially after 2000. However, the publications about this topic are more associated with ICTs in currently century. The main aim of the study was to determine the tendency of educational innovations around ICTs. The used method was mixed research design (content analysis, review of scientific literature and descriptive, comparative and correlation study) with 649 papers. In summary, the results indicated that, progressively, the educational innovation is associated with ICTs, in comparison with this type of change processes without ICTs. In conclusion, although this tendency, scientific literature must divulgate more kinds of pedagogical innovation with the aim of deepening in other new resources.

Keywords: descriptive study, knowledge society, pedagogical innovation, technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
1985 Application of Single Subject Experimental Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research: A Descriptive Analysis

Authors: Jiabei Zhang, Ying Qi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop a descriptive profile of the adapted physical activity research using single subject experimental designs. All research articles using single subject experimental designs published in the journal of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 1984 to 2013 were employed as the data source. Each of the articles was coded in a subcategory of seven categories: (a) the size of sample; (b) the age of participants; (c) the type of disabilities; (d) the type of data analysis; (e) the type of designs, (f) the independent variable, and (g) the dependent variable. Frequencies, percentages, and trend inspection were used to analyze the data and develop a profile. The profile developed characterizes a small portion of research articles used single subject designs, in which most researchers used a small sample size, recruited children as subjects, emphasized learning and behavior impairments, selected visual inspection with descriptive statistics, preferred a multiple baseline design, focused on effects of therapy, inclusion, and strategy, and measured desired behaviors more often, with a decreasing trend over years.

Keywords: adapted physical activity research, single subject experimental designs, physical education, sport science

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1984 A 'Four Method Framework' for Fighting Software Architecture Erosion

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman, Usman Qamar

Abstract:

Software Architecture is the basic structure of software that states the development and advancement of a software system. Software architecture is also considered as a significant tool for the construction of high quality software systems. A clean design leads to the control, value and beauty of software resulting in its longer life while a bad design is the cause of architectural erosion where a software evolution completely fails. This paper discusses the occurrence of software architecture erosion and presents a set of methods for the detection, declaration and prevention of architecture erosion. The causes and symptoms of architecture erosion are observed with the examples of prescriptive and descriptive architectures and the practices used to stop this erosion are also discussed by considering different types of software erosion and their affects. Consequently finding and devising the most suitable approach for fighting software architecture erosion and in some way reducing its affect is evaluated and tested on different scenarios.

Keywords: software architecture, architecture erosion, prescriptive architecture, descriptive architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
1983 Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodology Theoretical Framework and Descriptive Theory: PhD Construction Management

Authors: Samuel Quashie

Abstract:

PhDs in Construction Management often designs their methods based on those established in social sciences using theoretical models, to collect, gather and analysis data to answer research questions. Work aim is to apply qualitative and quantitative as a data analysis method, and as part of the theoretical framework - descriptive theory. To improve the ability to replicate the contribution to knowledge the research. Using practical triangulation approach, which covers, interviews and observations, literature review and (archival) document studies, project-based case studies, questionnaires surveys and review of integrated systems used in, construction and construction related industries. The clarification of organisational context and management delivery that influences organizational performance and quality of product and measures are achieved. Results illustrate improved reliability in this research approach when interpreting real world phenomena; cumulative results of research can be applied with confidence under similar environments. Assisted validity of the PhD research outcomes and strengthens the confidence to apply cumulative results of research under similar conditions in the Built Environment research systems, which have been criticised for the lack of reliability in approaches when interpreting real world phenomena.

Keywords: case studies, descriptive theory, theoretical framework, qualitative and quantitative research

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1982 Critical Thinking and Creativity of Undergraduate Nursing Students: Descriptive and Disposition in Academic Levels

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Chularat Howharn

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Critical thinking and creativity are desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Nursing colleges in Thailand have developed teaching strategies and curricula that nurture critical thinking and creativity dispositions according academic levels. Objectives: This descriptive study identified critical thinking and creativity dispositions of Thai nursing students according academic levels. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 515 nursing students for four academic levels. All are studying at Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chon Buri, Thailand. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analysis were applied. Results: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually increased as academic level is rising from the junior year throughout the senior year, but its scores are neutral. Scores on creativity skill is neutral and constant thorough the four academic years. The fourth grade students had slightly higher scores on creativity when compared to others. A significant relationship between critical thinking and creativity was also found. Conclusions: The scores on critical thinking disposition gradually improved which greatly increased in the senior year. However, creativity has neutrally progressed. The findings suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching strategies for all grades of nursing students to increase their critical thinking and creativity skills.

Keywords: critical thinking, creativity, undergraduate nursing students, competency

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
1981 The Relationship between Organizational Climate with Job Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Employees of Tehran Electric Company

Authors: Zeinab Amini Moghaddam, Alireza Dehkhodania

Abstract:

Nowadays, organizations have found a high status in the cultural and social structures of societies. The purpose of current study is to investigate the relationship between organizational climate with job burnout as well as job satisfaction. The research method is descriptive and correlational. The population of the study includes all employees in Tehran Electric Company, which equals 1984 people in 2018. The sampling was performed in the form of a consensus, and all employees were regarded as samples. The data gathering tools consist of three questionnaires of Smith’s Job Satisfaction Questionnaire, Halpin and Craft's Occupational climate, and Maslach and Jackson's Job burnout. The results showed that there was a direct and positive relationship between organizational climate and job burnout, as well as job satisfaction. The organizational climate variable could successfully predict job satisfaction. It was also able to predict job burnout.

Keywords: organizational climate, job burnout, job satisfaction, descriptive, correlational

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
1980 Employer Branding and Its Influence in Employee Retention in the Non Governmental Organizations in Jordan

Authors: Wasfi Alrawabdeh

Abstract:

Abstract The prime purpose of this study was to investigate whether employers use branding in their organizations, and how employer branding influence the attraction and retention of employees in the Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Jordan. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. 500 random NGOs employees', including junior and senior staff were conveniently sampled for the study. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the study suggest that organizations use employer-branding processes in their business to attract employees and customers. It was also found that brand names of organizations might significantly influence the decision of employees to join and stay in the organizations. It was therefore suggested that employers need to create conducive work environment with conditions to enable employees feel comfortable and remain in the organization.

Keywords: Employer branding, Employee attraction , and retention , Trust , Satisfaction.

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1979 Democratic Political Socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok

Authors: Mathinee Khongsatid, Phusit Phukamchanoad, Sakapas Saengchai

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This research aims to study the democratic political socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok by using stratified sampling for probability sampling and using purposive sampling for non-probability sampling to collect data toward the distribution of questionnaires to 300 respondents. This covers all of the schools under the authority of Dusit District Office. The researcher analyzed the data by using descriptive statistics which include arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The result shows that 5th and 6th graders under the authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok, have displayed some characteristics following democratic political socialization both inside and outside classroom as well as outside school. However, the democratic political socialization in classroom through grouping and class participation is much more emphasized.

Keywords: democratic, political socialization, students grades 5-6, descriptive statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
1978 A Descriptive Study of ‎Translated Texts from Socio-Cultural Aspects ‎through Polysystem Theory and Patronage Framework

Authors: Reza Nozadheravi, Masoud Hasanzade Novin

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Those techniques of translation which are engaged with short textual segments and mostly are prescriptive can be considered as micro level elements. Macro levels, however, refer to those translation strategies and those external factors that affect the translator’s decisions and have descriptive nature. What was scrutinized in details in the paper reveals the ‎macro-elements which are crucial in canonized translated texts, moreover, different aspects ‎of the patronage, which can be considered as the important factors from having the texts ‎chosen to the final translation products, have been observed in translated texts of Najaf ‎Darya-Bandarie, the well-known Iranian Translator. What is probed in this paper ‎reveals that marco-elements along with the linguistic aspects of the texts, micro-elements, ‎are considered as the significant aspects in translation process and even final translated ‎texts.

Keywords: canolized translated texts‎, culture‎, macro-elements‎, patronage

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
1977 Systems Approach to Design and Production of Picture Books for the Pre-Primary Classes to Attain Educational Goals in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Azeez Ayodele Ayodele

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This paper investigated the problem of picture books design and the quality of the pictures in picture books. The research surveyed nursery and primary schools in four major cities in southwest of Nigeria. The instruments including the descriptive survey questionnaire and a structured interview were developed, validated and administered for collection of relevant data. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the data. The result of the study revealed that there were poor quality of pictures in picture books and this is due to scarcity of trained graphic designers who understand systems approach to picture books design and production. There is thus a need for more qualified graphic designers, given in-service professional training as well as a refresher course as criteria for upgrading by the stakeholders.

Keywords: pictures, picture books, pre-primary schools, trained graphic designers

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1976 Muslim Husbands’ Participation in Women’s Health and Illness: A Descriptive Exploratory Study Applied to Muslim Women in Indonesia

Authors: Restuning Widiasih, Katherine Nelson, Joan Skinner

Abstract:

Muslim husbands have significant roles in the family including their roles in women’s health and illness. However, studies that explore Muslim husbands’ participation in women’s health is limited. The objective of this study was to uncover Muslim husbands’ participation in women’ health and illness including cancer prevention and screening. A descriptive exploratory approach was used involving 20 Muslim women from urban and rural areas of West Java Province, Indonesia. Muslim women shared experience related to their husbands support and activities in women’s health and illness. The data from the interviews were analyzed using the Comparative Analysis for Interview (CAI). Women perceived that husbands fully supported their health by providing opportunities for activities, and reminding them about healthy food, their workloads, and family planning. Husbands actively involved when women faced health issues including sharing knowledge and experience, discussing any health problems, advising for medical check-ups, and accompanying them for treatments. The analysis also found that husbands were less active and offered less advice regarding prevention and early detection of cancer. This study highlights the significant involvement of Muslim husbands in women’s health and illness, yet a lack of support from husbands related to screening and cancer prevention. This condition could be a burden for Muslim women to participate in health programs related to cancer prevention and early detection. Health education programs to improve Muslim husbands’ understanding of women’s health is needed.

Keywords: descriptive exploratory study, Muslim husbands, Muslim women, women's health and illness

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
1975 The Relationship between Exercise Attitude and Performance with Self-Image in Elderly Men in Iran

Authors: Hadis Mahmoodsalehi, Elham Shakoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi

Abstract:

Background and aims: Given the importance of health promotion in elderly and attention to health factors including physical activity and self-image reinforcing, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between exercise attitude and performance with self-image concept in elderly men. Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 50 different daily exercise activities of the elderly men living in Iran (mean age: 60.94 years) were selected through simple sampling method. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding exercise attitude and performance and Beck self-image concept. Pearson correlation test was used for analysis of the data. Results: The results showed the significant correlation between optimism and exercise performance (p = 0.012) and exercise attitude (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings show that exercise performance and attitude are associated positively with optimism in elderly women. So, increasing exercise or improving attitude toward exercise can lead to improving optimism.

Keywords: elderly, exercise performance and attitude, self-image, descriptive–correlational study

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
1974 Identification of Nursing Students’ Attitudes toward Older People in Turkey

Authors: Ayse Berivan Bakan, Senay Karadag Arli, Ela Varol

Abstract:

Objective: The present study aims to identify nursing students’ attitudes toward older people. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with 166 nursing department students enrolled in a four-year undergraduate program in a university located in Eastern Turkey. The participants were chosen using convenience sampling method, and the data were collected through the Descriptive Characteristics Form and Turkish version of Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale (KAOP). Results: It was found that the students participating in the study had positive attitudes toward old people, and the mean scores of those who wanted to work with old people after graduation were significantly high (p<0.05). Scale mean scores according to receiving Gerontology Nursing course showed that the score difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study found that nursing students’ attitudes toward older people were positive. Cultural features of the region where the study was conducted are considered to contribute to this result.

Keywords: older people, attitudes, gerontology, nursing students, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1973 The Role of Entrepreneurship Education in Enhancing Self-Employment: Students' Perspective

Authors: Stanley Fore, Gaetan Ngabonziza

Abstract:

In spite of the need for skilled labour in South Africa, tertiary education graduates are increasingly faced with unemployment, which poses a serious obstacle to the economic growth of the country. This paper is an outcome of the study that investigated students’ perceptions on the role of entrepreneurship education in enhancing graduates’ self-employment. The study was descriptive in nature and used a survey questionnaire to answer questions pertaining to the extent to which entrepreneurship education is important in enhancing self-employment endeavours. Collected data were analysed using of the statistical software for social science (SPSS) for descriptive statistics in the form of tables and charts. The study found that entrepreneurship education is critical in providing knowledge and skills that are required to succeed in self-employment. As one module of entrepreneurship does not ensure self-employment orientation or more positive expectations about entrepreneurial abilities and careers, this study suggests that students, irrespective of their field of study, should be given entrepreneurship modules in every academic year. This will help in reminding them that their success does not solely rely on their ability to find a better-paying employment but also on their ability to employ themselves.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, education, self-employment, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
1972 Officinal Quality Assurance: Investigation near the Pharmacists Dispensary at Oran- Algeria

Authors: S. Boulenouar, A. Boukli Hacene, S. Brahmi

Abstract:

Quality is an old concept but which recently became omnipresent in the society. It is a pledge of the well done job and therefore the satisfaction of the customer. Now, dispensing pharmacies seem to be held away from this approach. Officinal staff is called to dispense drugs. However this essential function is rarely studied and taken into account. To contribute to the good use of medicines and to reduce the dangers, it is important to consider the dispensation of drugs practised in the pharmacies. It is a both descriptive and retrospective study .The descriptive part is to conduct a survey near to the dispensary pharmacists. The retrospective section concentrates on the analysis of medicine prescriptions dispensed to patients. Following the survey that we carried out near the pharmacists of dispensary of the town of Oran, it appears that in majority, they are not inclined, by themselves, to take up the challenge of quality at the dispensary. The approach requires time and a motivation that pharmacists do not have for the moment. Efforts are still needed on the part of pharmacists, but also of authorities and organizations in charge of quality in the dispensary. At the end of this work, it seems to us that the implementation of a quality approach is part of our reflection on the added value of the pharmacist of dispensary in the drug chain.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, dispensary, dispensing of the drug, quality approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
1971 The Creative Unfolding of “Reduced Descriptive Structures” in Musical Cognition: Technical and Theoretical Insights Based on the OpenMusic and PWGL Long-Term Feedback

Authors: Jacopo Baboni Schilingi

Abstract:

We here describe the theoretical and philosophical understanding of a long term use and development of algorithmic computer-based tools applied to music composition. The findings of our research lead us to interrogate some specific processes and systems of communication engaged in the discovery of specific cultural artworks: artistic creation in the sono-musical domain. Our hypothesis is that the patterns of auditory learning cannot be only understood in terms of social transmission but would gain to be questioned in the way they rely on various ranges of acoustic stimuli modes of consciousness and how the different types of memories engaged in the percept-action expressive systems of our cultural communities also relies on these shadowy conscious entities we named “Reduced Descriptive Structures”.

Keywords: algorithmic sonic computation, corrected and self-correcting learning patterns in acoustic perception, morphological derivations in sensorial patterns, social unconscious modes of communication

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1970 Understanding the 3R's Element in the Creation of Ecological Form That Leads to Ecodesign

Authors: Mohd Hasni Chumiran

Abstract:

The rapid growth of global industrialism over the past few decades has led to various environmental issues and ecological instability, all due to human activity. In order to solve this global issue, the manufacturers alike have begun to embrace the use of ecodesign products. However, when considering a specific field, multiple questions have been raised and industrial designers (the practising designer's R&D group) have been unable to define the ecological cycle methodology. In this paper, we investigate the validation of problematic in the creation of ecodesign products with the 'reduce, reuse and recycle' (3R’s) method, which is an untested product design theory. The aim of this research is to address the 3R’s method can be extracted in order to transmit an ecological form of ecodesign, specifically among Malaysian furniture manufacturers. By operating the Descriptive Study I (DS-I) phase: Design Research Methodology (DRM), the research has applied two research approaches by the methodological triangulation tradition. To achieve the result, this validation of descriptive structure (design theory) shall be matched with the research hypothesis along the use of research questions.

Keywords: design research methodology, ecodesign, ecological form, industrial design

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