Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6542

Search results for: clinical assessment

6542 Effect of Implementing a Teaching Module about Diet and Exercises on Clinical Outcomes of Patients with Gout

Authors: Wafaa M. El- Kotb, Soheir Mohamed Weheida, Manal E. Fareed

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of implementing a teaching module about diet and exercises on clinical outcomes of patients with gout. Subjects: A purposive sample of 60 adult gouty patients was selected and randomly and alternatively divided into two equal groups 30 patients in each. Setting: The study was conducted in orthopedic out patient's clinic of Menoufia University. Tools of the study: Three tools were utilized for data collection: Knowledge assessment structured interview questionnaire, Clinical manifestation assessment tools and Nutritional assessment sheet. Results: All patients of both groups (100 %) had poor total knowledge score pre teaching, while 90 % of the study group had good total knowledge score post teaching by three months compared to 3.3 % of the control group. Moreover the recovery outcomes were significantly improved among study group compared to control group post teaching. Conclusion: Teaching study group about diet and exercises significantly improved their clinical outcomes. Recommendation: Patient's education about diet and exercises should be ongoing process for patients with gout.

Keywords: clinical outcomes, diet, exercises, teaching module

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6541 Using the Clinical Decision Support Platform, Dem DX, to Assess the ‘Urgent Community Care Team’s Notes Regarding Clinical Assessment, Management, and Healthcare Outcomes

Authors: R. Tariq, R. Lee

Abstract:

Background: Heywood, Middleton & Rochdale Urgent Community Care Team (UCCT)1 is a great example of using a multidisciplinary team to cope with demand. The service reduces unnecessary admissions to hospitals and ensures that patients can leave the hospital quicker by making care more readily available within the community and patient’s homes. The team comprises nurses, community practitioners, and allied health professions, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, pharmacy, and GPs. The main challenge for a team with a range of experiences and skill sets is to maintain consistency of care, which technology can help address. Allied healthcare professionals (HCPs) are often used in expanded roles with duties mainly involving patient consultations and decision making to ease pressure on doctors. The Clinical Reasoning Platform (CRP) Dem Dx is used to support new as well as experienced professionals in the decision making process. By guiding HCPs through diagnosing patients from an expansive directory of differential diagnoses, patients can receive quality care in the community. Actions on the platform are determined using NICE guidelines along with local guidance influencing the assessment and management of a patient. Objective: To compare the clinical assessment, decisions, and actions taken by the UCCT multidisciplinary team in the community and Dem Dx, using retrospective clinical cases. Methodology: Dem Dx was used to analyse 192 anonymised cases provided by the HMR UCCT. The team’s performance was compared with Dem Dx regarding the quality of the documentation of the clinical assessment and the next steps on the patient’s journey, including the initial management, actions, and any onward referrals made. The cases were audited by two medical doctors. Results: The study found that the actions outlined by the Dem Dx platform were appropriate in almost 87% of cases. When in a direct comparison between DemDX and the actions taken by the clinical team, it was found that the platform was suitable 83% (p<0.001) of the time and could lead to a potential improvement of 66% in the assessment and management of cases. Dem Dx also served to highlight the importance of comprehensive and high quality clinical documentation. The quality of documentation of cases by UCCT can be improved to provide a detailed account of the assessment and management process. By providing step-by-step guidance and documentation at every stage, Dem Dx may ensure that legal accountability has been fulfilled. Conclusion: With the ever expanding workforce in the NHS, technology has become a key component in driving healthcare outcomes. To improve healthcare provision and clinical reasoning, a decision support platform can be integrated into HCPs’ clinical practice. Potential assistance with clinical assessments, the most appropriate next step and actions in a patient’s care, and improvements in the documentation was highlighted by this retrospective study. A further study has been planned to ascertain the effectiveness of improving outcomes using the clinical reasoning platform within the clinical setting by clinicians.

Keywords: allied health professional, assessment, clinical reasoning, clinical records, clinical decision-making, ocumentation

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6540 Clinical Neuropsychology in India: Challenges and Achievements

Authors: Garima Joshi, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Neuropsychology in India is a fairly new field, having started only four decades back. Neuropsychology has come a long way since the establishment of the first department, from using western batteries for assessing patients to the development of highly reliable indigenous tools for assessing neuropsychological functioning. Clinical neuropsychology has risen as a discipline in the field of assessing and rehabilitating patients with various neurological conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and other disorders with cognitive decline. The current review attempts to assimilate the history of the discipline in India, along with the current developments and future direction of the field and highlights the pursuit and undertakings of the scientists to provide culturally appropriate services, in terms of assessment and rehabilitation, to the Indian population.

Keywords: clinical neuropsychology, cognitive assessment, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological test batteries in India

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6539 Validation of Global Ratings in Clinical Performance Assessment

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the reliability of clinical performance assessments, having been emphasized by ability-based education, and professors overall assessment methods. We addressed the following problems: First, we try to find out whether there is a difference in what we consider to be the main variables affecting the clinical performance test according to the evaluator’s working period and the number of evaluation experience. Second, we examined the relationship among the global rating score (G), analytic global rating score (Gc), and the sum of the analytical checklists (C). What are the main factors affecting clinical performance assessments in relation to the numbers of times the evaluator had administered evaluations and the length of their working period service? What is the relationship between overall assessment score and analytic checklist score? How does analytic global rating with 6 components in OSCE and 4 components in sub-domains (Gc) CPX: aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude overall assessment score and task-specific analytic checklist score sum (C) affect the professor’s overall global rating assessment score (G)? We studied 75 professors who attended a 2016 Bugyeoung Consortium clinical skills performances test evaluating third and fourth year medical students at the Pusan National University Medical school in South Korea (39 prof. in OSCE, 36 prof. in CPX; all consented to participate in our study). Each evaluator used 3 forms; a task-specific analytic checklist, subsequent analytic global rating scale with sub-6 domains, and overall global scale. After the evaluation, the professors responded to the questionnaire on the important factors of clinical performance assessment. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 21.0. Their understanding of overall assessment was analyzed by dividing the subjects into groups based on experiences. As a result, they considered ‘precision’ most important in overall OSCE assessment, and ‘precise accuracy physical examination’, ‘systemic approaches to taking patient history’, and ‘diagnostic skill capability’ in overall CPX assessment. For OSCE, there was no clear difference of opinion about the main factors, but there was for CPX. Analytic global rating scale score, overall rating scale score, and analytic checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. According to the regression analysis results, task-specific checklist score sum had the greatest effect on overall global rating. professors regarded task-specific analytic checklist total score sum as best reflecting overall OSCE test score, followed by aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude on a subsequent analytic global rating scale. For CPX, subsequent analytic global rating scale score, overall global rating scale score, and task-specific checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. These findings support explanations for validity of professors’ global rating in clinical performance assessment.

Keywords: global rating, clinical performance assessment, medical education, analytic checklist

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6538 Transition of Nutrition Style and Obesity: A Kuwaiti Case Study

Authors: Othman Saleh Al-Razgan

Abstract:

Obesity establishes an epidemic along with an array of comorbidities and this call for careful clinical assessment, to identify causal factors and comprehensive management. In Kuwait, this epidemic reflects the progressive, socio-economic and age-related issues, along with the shift of nutrition from traditional to modern-style. The current research attempts to narrate the obesity and related health issues in Kuwait, with a special emphasis on the magnitude of the issue in Kuwait, nutrition transition over the past three decades, change in life-style, and possible solution for this issue.

Keywords: clinical assessment, comorbidities, obesity, socio-economic

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6537 Need of Trained Clinical Research Professionals Globally to Conduct Clinical Trials

Authors: Tambe Daniel Atem

Abstract:

Background: Clinical Research is an organized research on human beings intended to provide adequate information on the drug use as a therapeutic agent on its safety and efficacy. The significance of the study is to educate the global health and life science graduates in Clinical Research in depth to perform better as it involves testing drugs on human beings. Objectives: to provide an overall understanding of the scientific approach to the evaluation of new and existing medical interventions and to apply ethical and regulatory principles appropriate to any individual research. Methodology: It is based on – Primary data analysis and Secondary data analysis. Primary data analysis: means the collection of data from journals, the internet, and other online sources. Secondary data analysis: a survey was conducted with a questionnaire to interview the Clinical Research Professionals to understand the need of training to perform clinical trials globally. The questionnaire consisted details of the professionals working with the expertise. It also included the areas of clinical research which needed intense training before entering into hardcore clinical research domain. Results: The Clinical Trials market worldwide worth over USD 26 billion and the industry has employed an estimated 2,10,000 people in the US and over 70,000 in the U.K, and they form one-third of the total research and development staff. There are more than 2,50,000 vacant positions globally with salary variations in the regions for a Clinical Research Coordinator. R&D cost on new drug development is estimated at US$ 70-85 billion. The cost of doing clinical trials for a new drug is US$ 200-250 million. Due to an increase trained Clinical Research Professionals India has emerged as a global hub for clinical research. The Global Clinical Trial outsourcing opportunity in India in the pharmaceutical industry increased to more than $2 billion in 2014 due to increased outsourcing from U.S and Europe to India. Conclusion: Assessment of training need is recommended for newer Clinical Research Professionals and trial sites, especially prior the conduct of larger confirmatory clinical trials.

Keywords: clinical research, clinical trials, clinical research professionals

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6536 Improving Effectiveness of Students' Learning during Clinical Rotations at a Teaching Hospital in Rwanda

Authors: Nanyombi Lubimbi, Josette Niyokindi

Abstract:

Background: As in many other developing countries in Africa, Rwanda suffers from a chronic shortage of skilled Health Care professionals including Clinical Instructors. This shortage negatively affects the clinical instruction quality therefore impacting student-learning outcomes. Due to poor clinical supervision, it is often noted that students have no structure or consistent guidance in their learning process. The Clinical Educators and the Rwandan counterparts identified the need to create a favorable environment for learning. Description: During orientation the expectations of the student learning process, collaboration of the clinical instructors with the nurses and Clinical Educators is outlined. The ward managers facilitate structured learning by helping the students identify a maximum of two patients using the school’s objectives to guide the appropriate selection of patients. Throughout the day, Clinical Educators with collaboration of Clinical Instructors when present conduct an ongoing assessment of learning and provide feedback to the students. Post-conference is provided once or twice a week to practice critical thinking skills of patient cases that they have been taking care of during the day. Lessons Learned: The students are found to be more confident with knowledge and skills gained during rotations. Clinical facility evaluations completed by students at the end of their rotations highlight the student’s satisfaction and recommendation for continuation of structured learning. Conclusion: Based on the satisfaction of both students and Clinical Instructors, we have identified need for structured learning during clinical rotations. We acknowledge that more evidence-based practice is necessary to effectively address the needs of nursing and midwifery students throughout the country.

Keywords: Rwanda, clinical rotation, structured learning, critical thinking skills, post-conference

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6535 Cross Matching: An Improved Method to Obtain Comprehensive and Consolidated Evidence

Authors: Tuula Heinonen, Wilhelm Gaus

Abstract:

At present safety, assessment starts with animal tests although their predictivity is often poor. Even after extended human use experimental data are often judged as the core information for risk assessment. However, the best opportunity to generate true evidence is to match all available information. Cross matching methodology combines the different fields of knowledge and types of data (e.g. in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, clinical observations, clinical and epidemiological studies, and daily life observations) and gives adequate weight to individual findings. To achieve a consolidated outcome, the information from all available sources is analysed and compared with each other. If single pieces of information fit together a clear picture becomes visible. If pieces of information are inconsistent or contradictory careful consideration is necessary. 'Cross' can be understood as 'orthographic' in geometry or as 'independent' in mathematics. Results coming from different sources bring independent and; therefore, they result in new information. Independent information gives a larger contribution to evidence than results coming repeatedly from the same source. A successful example of cross matching is the assessment of Ginkgo biloba where we were able to come to the conclusive result: Ginkgo biloba leave extract is well tolerated and safe for humans.

Keywords: cross-matching, human use, safety assessment, Ginkgo biloba leave extract

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6534 A Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical Self-Efficacy of Final Year School of Nursing Students among Universities of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Awole Seid, Yosef Zenebe, Hadgu Gerensea, Kebede Haile Misgina

Abstract:

Background: Clinical competence is one of the ultimate goals of nursing education. Clinical skills are more than successfully performing tasks; it incorporates client assessment, identification of deficits and the ability to critically think to provide solutions. Assessment of clinical competence, particularly identifying gaps that need improvement and determining the educational needs of nursing students have great importance in nursing education. Thus this study aims determining clinical self-efficacy of final year school of nursing students in three universities of Tigray Region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 final year school of nursing students from department of nursing, psychiatric nursing, and midwifery on three universities of Tigray region. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to generate data collected on June, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result is described using tables and charts as required. Logistic regression was employed to test associations. Result: The mean age of students was 22.94 + 1.44. Generally, 21% of students have been graduated in the department in which they are not interested. The study demonstrated 28.6% had poor and 71.4% had good perceived clinical self-efficacy. Beside this, 43.8% of psychiatric nursing and 32.6% of comprehensive nursing students have poor clinical self-efficacy. Among the four domains, 39.3% and 37.9% have poor clinical self- efficacy with regard to ‘Professional development’ and ‘Management of care’. Place of the institution [AOR=3.480 (1.333 - 9.088), p=0.011], interest during department selection [AOR=2.202 (1.045 - 4.642), p=.038], and theory-practice gap [AOR=0.224 (0.110 - 0.457), p=0.000] were significantly associated with perceived clinical self-efficacy. Conclusion: The magnitude of students with poor clinically self efficacy was high. Place of institution, theory-practice gap, students interest to the discipline were the significant predictors of clinical self-efficacy. Students from youngest universities have good clinical self-efficacy. During department selection, student’s interest should be respected. The universities and other stakeholders should improve the capacity of surrounding affiliate teaching hospitals to set and improve care standards in order to narrow the theory-practice gap. School faculties should provide trainings to hospital staffs and monitor standards of clinical procedures.

Keywords: clinical self-efficacy, nursing students, Tigray, northern Ethiopia

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6533 Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

Authors: Kemal Izci

Abstract:

Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.

Keywords: assessment practices, formative assessment, teacher education, factors for use of formative assessment

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6532 Nursing Students Assessment to the Clinical Learning Environment and Mentoring in Children Nursing

Authors: Lily Parm, Irma Nool, Liina Männiksaar, Mare Tupits, Ivi Prits, Merilin Kuhi, Valentina Raudsepp

Abstract:

Background: The results of previous clinical satisfaction surveys show that nursing students swhounderw entinternships in the pediatricwardhadthelowestsatisfactioncomparedtootherwards, but the quality of students' practicaltrainingexperienceisanimportant determinant in nursing education. The aim of theresearchwastodescribenursingstudents` assessment to the clinical learning environment and supervision in pediatric wards Method: Theresearchisquantitative. All studentswhohadpracticaltraining in the pediatric ward participated in the study (N = 39). FordatacollectionClinicalLearningEnvironment, Supervision, and NurseTeacher (CLES + T) evaluationscalewasused, wherethescalewasanswered on a 5-point Likert scale. In addition, 10 backgroundvariableswereused in the questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 wasusedfordataanalysis. Descriptive statistics and Spearmanncorrelationanalysiswasusedtofindcorrelatinsbetweenbackgroundvariables and satisfaction with supervision.Permissiontoconductthestudy (No 695) hasbeenobtainedbytheEthicsCommittee of theInstituteforHealthDevelopment. Results: Of therespondents, 28 (71.8%) werefirst-year, 9 (23.1%) second-year and 2 (5.1%) fourth-yearstudents. Thelargestshare of the last practicaltrainigwas in nursing, with 27 (69.2%) respondents. Mainlythementorswerenursesfor 32 (82,1%) of students.Satisfactionwiththementoring (4.4 ± 0.83) and wardnursemanager`sleaderhiostyle (4.4 ± 0.7), ratedthehighest and therole of thenurseteacherwasratedthelowest (3,7 ± 0.83.In Spearmann'scorrelationanalysis, therewas a statisticallystrongcorrelationbetween a positiveattitudetowardsthesupervisor'ssupervision and receivingfeedbackfromthesupervisor (r =0.755; p <0.001), studentsatisfactionwithsupervision (r = 0.742; p <0.001), supervisionbased on cooperation (r = 0.77) and instructionbased on theprinciple of equalitythatpromotedlearning (r = 0.755; p <0.001). Conclusions: Theresults of theresearchshowedhighsatisfactionwiththesupervisionand therole of wardmanager. Stillbettercooperationisneededbetweenpracticalplacement and nursingschooltoenhancethestudents`satisfactionwithsupervision.

Keywords: CLES+T, clinical environment, nurse teacher, statisfaction, pediatric ward, mentorship

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6531 Development a Fine Motor and Executive Function Assessment (FiM&EF) for Assessing School Aged Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)

Authors: Negar Miri-Lavasani

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Background: Children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show fine motor skills difficulties, and it is controversial whether this difficulty is based on problems in their fine motor skills or their executive function impairments. Objectives of Study: The Fine Motor and Executive Function assessment tool (FiM&EF) was developed to answer the question, ‘Do the fine motor skill deficits in children with ADHD come from their fine motor problems or is it caused by their executive function problems?’. This paper describes the development of a new assessment of Fine Motor and Executive Function (FiM &EF) needed by primary school students with ADHD aged 6-12 years with ADHD. Methods: A study on the content validity established through a survey of a panel of nine experts is explained in detail. Findings: Most the experts agreed such an assessment was needed and two items were deleted as a result of experts’ feedback. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Distinguishing the main reason of fine motor problem in these children could help the clinician for their therapy plans. Knowledge on the influence of executive functioning on fine motor ability in selected age children with ADHD would provide a clearer clinical picture of the fine motor capabilities and executive function for these children.

Keywords: children with ADHD, executive function, fine motor, test

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6530 The Evaluation of the Patients Related to Numeric Pain Scales: The Case of Turkey

Authors: Maide Yesilyurt, Saide Faydalı

Abstract:

Patients experience pain at different intensities in postoperative. The diagnosis of the pain, the assessment and the success of the treatment and care make the measurement of this finding compulsory. The aim of the study is to determine the evaluation differences numeric pain scales. The descriptive study was conducted with 360 patients with in postoperative. The data were obtained from questionnaires related to six numeric pain scales most preferred in clinical use, and a face-to-face interview technique was used by the researcher. Regarding to numeric pain scale, questions include forth positive and one negative statement. In evaluating the data; chi-square and Pearson correlation tests were used. For the study, the patients’ informed consents, the institution and the ethics committee received permission. In this study, patients' ages are between 18-80, 95.8% of the patients were not informed about pain assessment. Patients evaluated the 5-item numeric scale as the easy, can be answered quickly, accurate, and appropriate for clinical use and the 101 items numeric scale as complex than other scales. Regarding to numeric pain scales with positive statements between age, marital status, educational status, previous surgery, having chronic disease and getting information about pain assessment significant difference has been detected. All numeric pain scales are correlated to each other. As a result, it was determined that as the items in the numerical scales decreased, the patients were able to perceive the scales better, and the items in the scales increased, the patients were in trouble to understand.

Keywords: numeric pain scales, nurse, pain assessment, patient

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6529 A Comparative Study of Self, Peer and Teacher Assessment Based on an English Writing Checklist

Authors: Xiaoting Shi, Xiaomei Ma

Abstract:

In higher education, students' self-assessment and peer assessment of compositions in writing classes can effectively improve their ability of evaluative judgment. However, students' self-assessment and peer assessment are not advocated by most teachers because of the significant difference in scoring compared with teacher assessment. This study used a multi-faceted Rasch model to explore whether an English writing checklist containing 30 descriptors can effectively improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was adopted to survey students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward self-assessment and peer assessment using the writing checklist. Results of the multi-faceted Rasch model analysis show that the writing checklist can effectively distinguish the students’ writing ability (separate coefficient = 2.05, separate reliability = 0.81, chi-square value (df = 32) = 123.4). Moreover, the results revealed that the checklist could improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. (separate coefficient = 1.71, separate reliability = 0.75, chi-square value (df=4) = 20.8). The results of the questionnaire showed that more than 85% of students and all teachers believed that the checklist had a good advantage in self-assessment and peer assessment, and they were willing to use the checklist to conduct self-assessment and peer assessment in class in the future.

Keywords: english writing, self-assessment, peer assessment, writing checklist

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6528 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

Abstract:

Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: cell therapy, clinical adoption, commercialization, translation

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6527 Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Izazol Binti Idris, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.

Keywords: assessment leaders, assessment goals, instructional leadership, understanding expectation of assessment

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6526 Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Mini Mental State Examination-2 in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Case Studies

Authors: Cornelia-Eugenia Munteanu

Abstract:

From a psychological perspective, psychopathology is the area of clinical psychology that has at its core psychological assessment and psychotherapy. In day-to-day clinical practice, psychodiagnosis and psychotherapy are used independently, according to their intended purpose and their specific methods of application. The paper explores how the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and Mini Mental State Examination-2 (MMSE-2) psychological tools contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral psychotherapy (CBT). This combined approach, psychotherapy in conjunction with assessment of personality and cognitive functions, is illustrated by two cases, a severe depressive episode with psychotic symptoms and a mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. The order in which CBT, MMPI-2, and MMSE-2 were used in the diagnostic and therapeutic process was determined by the particularities of each case. In the first case, the sequence started with psychotherapy, followed by the administration of blue form MMSE-2, MMPI-2, and red form MMSE-2. In the second case, the cognitive screening with blue form MMSE-2 led to a personality assessment using MMPI-2, followed by red form MMSE-2; reapplication of the MMPI-2 due to the invalidation of the first profile, and finally, psychotherapy. The MMPI-2 protocols gathered useful information that directed the steps of therapeutic intervention: a detailed symptom picture of potentially self-destructive thoughts and behaviors otherwise undetected during the interview. The memory loss and poor concentration were confirmed by MMSE-2 cognitive screening. This combined approach, psychotherapy with psychological assessment, aligns with the trend of adaptation of the psychological services to the everyday life of contemporary man and paves the way for deepening and developing the field.

Keywords: assessment, cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, MMPI-2, MMSE-2, psychopathology

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6525 Development and Validation of the University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS) for College Students

Authors: Ryan Dale B. Elnar

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This study developed a multidimensional need assessment scale for college students called The University of Mindanao Needs Assessment Scale (UMNAS). Although there are context-specific instruments measuring the needs of clinical and non-clinical samples, literature reveals no standardized scales to measure the needs of the college students thus a four-phase item development process was initiated to support its content validity. Comprising seven broad facets namely spiritual-moral, intrapersonal, socio-personal, psycho-emotional, cognitive, physical and sexual, a pyramid model of college needs was deconstructed through FGD sample to support the literature review. Using various construct validity procedures, the model was further tested using a total of 881 Filipino college samples. The result of the study revealed evidences of the reliability and validity of the UMNAS. The reliability indices range from .929-.933. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a one-factor-six-dimensional instrument to measure the needs of the college students. Using multivariate regression analysis, year level and course are found predictors of students’ needs. Content analysis attested the usefulness of the instrument to diagnose students’ personal and academic issues and concerns in conjunction with other measures. The norming process includes 1728 students from the different colleges of the University of Mindanao. Further validation is recommended to establish a national norm for the instrument.

Keywords: needs assessment scale, validity, factor analysis, college students

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6524 Neuropsychology of Dyslexia and Rehabilitation Approaches: A Research Study Applied to School Aged Children with Reading Disorders in Greece

Authors: Rozi Laskaraki, Argyris Karapetsas, Aikaterini Karapetsa

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the efficacy of a rehabilitation program based on musical activities, implied to a group of school-aged dyslexic children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of auditory training including musical exercises in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants and Methods: 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45) were involved in this study. In the beginning, students participated in a clinical assessment, including both electrophysiological (i.e., event related potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD, compared to that of the typical readers. After clinical assessment, a subgroup of children with dyslexia was submitted to a music auditory training program, conducted in 45-minute training sessions, once a week, for twenty weeks. The program included structured and digitized musical activities involving pitch, rhythm, melody and tempo perception and discrimination as well as auditory sequencing. After the intervention period, children underwent a new recording of ERPs. Results: The electrophysiological results revealed that children had similar P300 latency values to that of the controls, after the remediation program; thus children overcame their deficits. Conclusion: The outcomes of the current study suggest that ERPs is a valid clinical tool in neuropsychological assessment settings and dyslexia can be ameliorated through music auditory training.

Keywords: dyslexia, event related potentials, learning disabilities, music, rehabilitation

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6523 Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State-Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi O.J, Simon-Oke I.A., Oniya M.O., Okaka C.E.

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River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology that involve the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was used to assess clinical signs from the respondents and skin snip test was used to evaluate the prevalence of the disease. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated and expressed in percentages. One hundred and ninety-two (192) out of the 384 respondents examined, showed various signs of river blindness. However, it was only 108 (28.1%) respondents with the clinical signs that demonstrated Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in their skin snips. The clinical signs observed among the respondents include skin depigmentation such as dermatitis, leopard skin, papules, pruritus and self-inflicted injury, while ocular symptoms include cataract, ocular lesion and partial blindness. Among these clinical signs, papules, and pruritus were the most dominant in the community. The prevalence of the clinical signs was observed to vary significantly among the age groups and gender (P<0.05). The efficacy of the drug after 6 and 12 months of treatments shows that the drug is more effective at age groups 10-50 years than the age groups 51-90 years. Ivermectin is observed to be efficacious in the treatment of the disease. However, to achieve eradication of the disease, the drug may be administered at 0.15mg/kg twice a year.

Keywords: riverblindness, clinical signs, ivermectin, Idogun

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6522 EEG Neurofeedback Training – Healing the Wounded Brain

Authors: Jamuna Rajeswaran

Abstract:

In the past two decades, with a population of more than a billion. India is passing through a major socio-demographic and epidemiological transition with consequent changes in health scenario. TBI constitute significant burden on health care resources in India The impact on a person and family can be devastating. Patients with TBI experience persistent cognitive deficits, emotional changes, which contribute to the disruption of life activities. The recovery of TBI would be maximized by appropriate rehabilitation. Neurofeedback is an emerging neuroscience-based clinical application. Sixty patients were recruited for this study after obtaining informed consent. Rivermead Head Injury Follow-up Questionnaire, Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale were used to assess the behavioral and symptomotolgy associated with post TBI. Neuropsychological assessment was carried out using NIMHANS neuropsychological battery 2004. The Intervention group received neurofeedback training and the waitlist group did not receive any treatment during this phase. Patients were allocated to intervention and waitlist group at random. There were 30 patients in each group. Patients were given 20 sessions of NFT Patients were trained on the O1 and O2 channels for alpha theta training. Each session was of 40 minutes duration with 5-6 sessions per week. The post-training assessment was carried out for the intervention group after 20 sessions of NFT. The waitlist group underwent assessment after one month. Results showed neurofeedback training is effective in ameliorating deficits in cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with TBI. Improvements were corroborated by the clinical interview with patients and significant others post NFT.

Keywords: assessment, rehabilitation, cognition, EEG neurofeedback

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6521 A Propose of Personnel Assessment Method Including a Two-Way Assessment for Evaluating Evaluators and Employees

Authors: Shunsuke Saito, Kazuho Yoshimoto, Shunichi Ohmori, Sirawadee Arunyanart

Abstract:

In this paper, we suggest a mechanism of assessment that rater and Ratee (or employees) to convince. There are many problems exist in the personnel assessment. In particular, we were focusing on the three. (1) Raters are not sufficiently recognized assessment point. (2) Ratee are not convinced by the mechanism of assessment. (3) Raters (or Evaluators) and ratees have empathy. We suggest 1: Setting of "understanding of the assessment points." 2: Setting of "relative assessment ability." 3: Proposal of two-way assessment mechanism to solve these problems. As a prerequisite, it is assumed that there are multiple raters. This is because has been a growing importance of multi-faceted assessment. In this model, it determines the weight of each assessment point evaluators by the degree of understanding and assessment ability of raters and ratee. We used the ANP (Analytic Network Process) is a theory that an extension of the decision-making technique AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). ANP can be to address the problem of forming a network and assessment of Two-Way is possible. We apply this technique personnel assessment, the weights of rater of each point can be reasonably determined. We suggest absolute assessment for Two-Way assessment by ANP. We have verified that the consent of the two approaches is higher than conventional mechanism. Also, human resources consultant we got a comment about the application of the practice.

Keywords: personnel evaluation, pairwise comparison, analytic network process (ANP), two-ways

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6520 Physiotherapy Assessment of People with Neurological Conditions in Australia: A National Survey of Clinical Practice

Authors: Jill Garner, Belinda Lange, Sheila Lennon, Maayken van den Berg

Abstract:

Currently, there are approximately one billion people worldwide affected by a neurological condition. Many of whom are assessed and treated by a physiotherapist in a variety of settings. There is a lack of consensus in the literature related to what is clinically assessed by physiotherapists in people with neurological conditions. This study aimed to explore assessment in people with neurological conditions, including how health care setting, experience, and therapeutic approach, may influence neurological assessment. A national survey targeted Australian physiotherapists who assess adults with neurological conditions as part of their clinical practice. The survey consisted of 39 questions and was distributed to physiotherapists through the Australian Physiotherapy Association, and Chief Allied Health Officers across Australia and advertised on the National Neurological Physiotherapy Facebook page. In total, 395 respondents consented to the survey from all states within Australia. Most respondents were female (85.4%) with a mean (SD) age of 35.7 years. Respondents reported working clinically in acute, community, outpatients, and community settings. Stroke was the most assessed condition (58.0%). There is variability in domains assessed by Australian physiotherapists, with common inclusions of balance, muscle strength, gait, falls and safety, function, goal setting, range of movement, pain, coordination, activity tolerance, postural alignment and symmetry and upper limb. There is little evidence to support what physiotherapists assess in practice, in different settings, and in different states within Australia and not enough information to develop a decision tree regarding what is important for assessment in different settings. Further research is needed to explore this area and develop a consensus around best practices.

Keywords: physiotherapy, neurological, assessment, domains

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6519 Evaluation of Digital Assessment of Anal Sphincter Muscle Strength

Authors: Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Gihan Abd El-Lateif Younis El-Tantawi, Mohammed Hamdy Zahran, Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Mohammed Abd El-Salam Shehata, Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan, Medhat Mohamed Anwar

Abstract:

Examination of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction is essential in initial assessment and assessment of efficacy of rehabilitation of patients with faecal incontinence (FI) and obstructed defecation (OD). The present study was conducted to evaluate the digital assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) in comparison to anal manometry squeeze pressure. The present cross-sectional study included 65 patients. There were 40 patients (61.5 %) with FI and 25 patients (38.5 %) with OD. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination including assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS and anal manometry (mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure). There was a statistically significant positive correlation between MOS and anal manometry squeeze pressures including mean squeeze pressure and maximal squeeze pressure among FI group and OD group. In conclusion, assessment of the external anal sphincter muscle strength of voluntary contraction by using MOS is a valid method and can substitute anal manometry assessment.

Keywords: anal manometry, external anal sphincter muscle, Modified Oxford Scale, muscle strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
6518 Evaluation of Cooperative Hand Movement Capacity in Stroke Patients Using the Cooperative Activity Stroke Assessment

Authors: F. A. Thomas, M. Schrafl-Altermatt, R. Treier, S. Kaufmann

Abstract:

Stroke is the main cause of adult disability. Especially upper limb function is affected in most patients. Recently, cooperative hand movements have been shown to be a promising type of upper limb training in stroke rehabilitation. In these movements, which are frequently found in activities of daily living (e.g. opening a bottle, winding up a blind), the force of one upper limb has to be equally counteracted by the other limb to successfully accomplish a task. The use of standardized and reliable clinical assessments is essential to evaluate the efficacy of therapy and the functional outcome of a patient. Many assessments for upper limb function or impairment are available. However, the evaluation of cooperative hand movement tasks are rarely included in those. Thus, the aim of this study was (i) to develop a novel clinical assessment (CASA - Cooperative Activity Stroke Assessment) for the evaluation of patients’ capacity to perform cooperative hand movements and (ii) to test its inter- and interrater reliability. Furthermore, CASA scores were compared to current gold standard assessments for upper extremity in stroke patients (i.e. Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Box & Blocks Test). The CASA consists of five cooperative activities of daily living including (1) opening a jar, (2) opening a bottle, (3) open and closing of a zip, (4) unscrew a nut and (5) opening a clipbox. Here, the goal is to accomplish the tasks as fast as possible. In addition to the quantitative rating (i.e. time) which is converted to a 7-point scale, also the quality of the movement is rated in a 4-point scale. To test the reliability of CASA, fifteen stroke subjects were tested within a week twice by the same two raters. Intra-and interrater reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for total CASA score and single items. Furthermore, Pearson-correlation was used to compare the CASA scores to the scores of Fugl-Meyer upper limb assessment and the box and blocks test, which were assessed in every patient additionally to the CASA. ICC scores of the total CASA score indicated an excellent- and single items established a good to excellent inter- and interrater reliability. Furthermore, the CASA score was significantly correlated to the Fugl-Meyer and Box & Blocks score. The CASA provides a reliable assessment for cooperative hand movements which are crucial for many activities of daily living. Due to its non-costly setup, easy and fast implementation, we suggest it to be well suitable for clinical application. In conclusion, the CASA is a useful tool in assessing the functional status and therapy related recovery in cooperative hand movement capacity in stroke patients.

Keywords: activitites of daily living, clinical assessment, cooperative hand movements, reliability, stroke

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
6517 Toward a Risk Assessment Model Based on Multi-Agent System for Cloud Consumer

Authors: Saadia Drissi

Abstract:

The cloud computing is an innovative paradigm that introduces several changes in technology that have resulted a new ways for cloud providers to deliver their services to cloud consumers mainly in term of security risk assessment, thus, adapting a current risk assessment tools to cloud computing is a very difficult task due to its several characteristics that challenge the effectiveness of risk assessment approaches. As consequence, there is a need of risk assessment model adapted to cloud computing. This paper requires a new risk assessment model based on multi-agent system and AHP model as fundamental steps towards the development of flexible risk assessment approach regarding cloud consumers.

Keywords: cloud computing, risk assessment model, multi-agent system, AHP model, cloud consumer

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6516 Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools

Authors: Viola Hubačová Pirová

Abstract:

The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.

Keywords: assessment of psychomotor development, preschool children, psychomotor development, review of assessment tools

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6515 Development and Validation of the Response to Stressful Situations Scale in the General Population

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Joana Cabral, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Ermelindo Peixoto

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a Response to Stressful Situations Scale (RSSS) for the Portuguese population. This scale assesses the degree of stress experienced in scenarios that can constitute positive, negative and more neutral stressors, and also describes the physiological, emotional and behavioral reactions to those events according to their intensity. These scenario include typical stressor scenarios relevant to patients with schizophrenia, which are currently absent from most scale, assessing specific risks that these stressors may bring on subjects, which may prove useful in non-clinical and clinical populations (i.e. patients with mood or anxiety disorders, schizophrenia). Results from Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of on two adult samples from general population allowed to confirm a three-factor model with good fit indices: χ2 (144)= 370.211, p = 0.000; GFI = 0.928; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.914, RMSEA = 0.055, P( rmsea ≤ 0.005) = 0.096; PCFI = 0.781. Further data analysis on the scale revealed that RSSS is an adequate assessment tool of stress response in adults to be used in further research and clinical settings, with good psychometric characteristics, adequate divergent and convergent validity, good temporal stability and high internal consistency.

Keywords: assessment, stress events, stress response, stress vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
6514 Effectiveness of the Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants to Predict Neuromotor Outcomes of Premature Babies at 12 Months Corrected Age

Authors: Thanooja Naushad, Meena Natarajan, Tushar Vasant Kulkarni

Abstract:

Background: The Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants (LAPI) is used in clinical practice to identify premature babies at risk of neuromotor impairments, especially cerebral palsy. This study attempted to find the validity of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants to predict neuromotor outcomes of premature babies at 12 months corrected age and to compare its predictive ability with the brain ultrasound. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 89 preterm infants (45 females and 44 males) born below 35 weeks gestation who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a government hospital in Dubai. Initial assessment was done using the Lacey assessment after the babies reached 33 weeks postmenstrual age. Follow up assessment on neuromotor outcomes was done at 12 months (± 1 week) corrected age using two standardized outcome measures, i.e., infant neurological international battery and Alberta infant motor scale. Brain ultrasound data were collected retrospectively. Data were statistically analyzed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants (LAPI) was calculated -when used alone and in combination with the brain ultrasound. Results: On comparison with brain ultrasound, the Lacey assessment showed superior specificity (96% vs. 77%), higher positive predictive value (57% vs. 22%), and higher positive likelihood ratio (18 vs. 3) to predict neuromotor outcomes at one year of age. The sensitivity of Lacey assessment was lower than brain ultrasound (66% vs. 83%), whereas specificity was similar (97% vs. 98%). A combination of Lacey assessment and brain ultrasound results showed higher sensitivity (80%), positive (66%), and negative (98%) predictive values, positive likelihood ratio (24), and test accuracy (95%) than Lacey assessment alone in predicting neurological outcomes. The negative predictive value of the Lacey assessment was similar to that of its combination with brain ultrasound (96%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that the Lacey assessment of preterm infants can be used as a supplementary assessment tool for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. Due to its high specificity, Lacey assessment can be used to identify those babies at low risk of abnormal neuromotor outcomes at a later age. When used along with the findings of the brain ultrasound, Lacey assessment has better sensitivity to identify preterm babies at particular risk. These findings have applications in identifying premature babies who may benefit from early intervention services.

Keywords: brain ultrasound, lacey assessment of preterm infants, neuromotor outcomes, preterm

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6513 Analysis of Suitability of Online Assessment by Maintaining Critical Thinking

Authors: Mohamed Chabi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine Whether paper assessment especially in the subject mathematics will ever be completely replaced by online assessment using Learning Management System and Content Management System such as blackboard. In the subject mathematics, the assessment is the exercise of judgment on the quality of students’ work, as a way of supporting student learning and appraising its outcomes. Testing students has moved from the traditional scribbling and sketching on paper towards working online on a screen and keyboard.

Keywords: paper assessment, online assessment, learning management system, content management system, mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 373