Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Rwanda

48 Defence Diplomacy and Collective Security in Africa: Case of Rwanda Defence Forces

Authors: Emmanuel Mugiraneza

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Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to pursue international collective security through different mechanisms. This paper shows that with an intent of promoting international collective security, Rwanda has constituted its defense diplomacy policy in three standpoints. First, Rwanda has formed strategic cooperation alliances with state actors, regional and international Organizations that enables her to participate in and promote international collective peace, security and cooperation. Secondary, Rwanda uses defence diplomacy to foster cooperation in to pre-empt, minimize and neutralize potential triggers that would lead to the outbreak of international conflict. Thirdly, Rwanda implements defence diplomacy policy strategy through internationally recognized operational and tactical standards while dispelling hostilities, assisting the friendly nation’s forces and or building and maintaining public confidence and trust in the areas where Rwanda Defence Force deploys for peacekeeping missions in Sudan, South Sudan, Central African Republic and Mozambique for a counterterrorism mission.

Keywords: defence diplomacy, collective security, Rwanda, Peacekeeping

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47 Good Governance and Human Development: Case of Rwanda

Authors: Hatun Korkmaz

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Todays, the developing countries of the world widely face challenges of economic growth, political, social and human development. One of the ways to achieve economic, political and human development is good governance. Without an improvement in good governance, the objectives of human development cannot be achieved. The good governance has become a key issue over preceding two decades and it is the very important component of good economic growth and human development. This paper argues that good governance impacts positively human development with the case of Rwanda. Rwanda is a good example of this subject. In this paper, firstly we explained that what is good governance and human development and how we measure them. Then we researched the relationship between good governance and human development in case of Rwanda with the indexes of many international institutions which are researching in this topics. Rwanda has recorded the 'best progress' since the year 2000, making it the ‘most successful' about governance. Rwanda is seen as one of the top ten countries in the region in terms of relative peace, political stability and economic progress. Part of the reason for Rwanda's success is accountability, which comprises access to information, elimination of corruption and bureaucracy and transparency in public service, which variables cumulatively earned it 72.1 percent. According to this research If countries want batter growth and human development then good reforms of good governance is needed.

Keywords: human development, Rwanda, good governance, governance, development

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46 Digitalized Public Sector Practices: Opportunities for Open Innovation in Rwanda

Authors: Reem Abou Refaie, Christoph Meinel

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The paper explores the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the internal as well as external digitalized work practices of public service providers as part of a Public-Private Partnership Model. It focuses on the effect of uncertainty on generating Open Innovation practices. Our inquiry relies on semi-structured interviews (n=14) from a case study of Rwanda’s Public Service Delivery System in the context of research cooperation with IremboGov, the country’s One-Stop-Shop Platform for public services. It presents four propositions on harnessing opportunities for OI in the context of the public sector beyond the pandemic response. Practitioners can find characterizations of OI opportunities and gain insights on fostering OI in Public Sector Organizations.

Keywords: open innovation, digital transformation, public sector, Rwanda

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45 Mathematical Modelling of Human Cardiovascular-Respiratory System Response to Exercise in Rwanda

Authors: Jean Marie Ntaganda, Froduald Minani, Wellars Banzi, Lydie Mpinganzima, Japhet Niyobuhungiro, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Vincent Dusabejambo, Immaculate Kambutse

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In this paper, we present a nonlinear dynamic model for the interactive mechanism of the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The model is designed and analyzed for human during physical exercises. In order to verify the adequacy of the designed model, data collected in Rwanda are used for validation. We have simulated the impact of heart rate and alveolar ventilation as controls of cardiovascular and respiratory system respectively to steady state response of the main cardiovascular hemodynamic quantities i.e., systemic arterial and venous blood pressures, arterial oxygen partial pressure and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure, to the stabilised values of controls. We used data collected in Rwanda for both male and female during physical activities. We obtained a good agreement with physiological data in the literature. The model may represent an important tool to improve the understanding of exercise physiology.

Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular/respiratory, hemodynamic quantities, numerical simulation, physical activity, sportsmen in Rwanda, system

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44 Ubudehe: A Social Work Analysis of Indigenous Solutions to Poverty Reduction in Post-Genocide Rwanda

Authors: Charles Rutikanga

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As part of the effort to reconstruct Rwanda and foster a shared national identity after the 1994 genocide against Tutsi, the government of Rwanda has drawn on aspects of indigenous culture and traditional practices. One of these traditional practices and cultural values is Ubudehe, which has been re-introduced after it has been gradually lost since colonial times. It is a form of collective action at the village level, which is inclusive, covering men, women, and the most marginalized community members. The philosophy behind Ubudehe is to increase the level of participation and institutional problem-solving capacity at the local level by citizens and local government. Since the early 2000s, the government re-introduced Ubudehe as a neo-traditional cultural institution in order to support the implementation of the country’s poverty reduction and development programs. An empirical study on indigenous and innovative models of social work practice was conducted under the framework of the ‘Professional Social Work in East Africa’ (PROSOWO II) project. Field data were collected on traditional/indigenous approaches, including Ubudehe, from different categories of informants through focus group discussions (FGDs) and personal interviews. The research showed that professional social workers play a significant role in the whole Ubudehe process. While there have been some challenges in the administration and implementation, overall it has contributed to poverty reduction in a post-genocide Rwanda.

Keywords: development, indigenous approach, social work, Ubudehe

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43 A Comparative Study of the Impact of the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) on Trends in the Second Demographic Transition in Rwanda

Authors: Etienne Gatera

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Many studies have been conducted on SDT. Most of them focus on developed countries because of influencing factors such as; education, health, labor force, female labor force participation, industrialization, urbanization and migration. However, this thesis project paper aims to assess the impact of the total fertility rate (TFR) on the trends of the SDR in Rwanda. We will mainly be based in Rwanda after the 1994 genocide. Rwanda is located in East Africa, with approximately 13 million inhabitants. Thus, after the 1994 Tutsi genocide. The population growth rate exploded out of control with 6.17 children per woman in 1995. However, it's declined to 4.2 in 2014-2015 and declining to 4.1% in 2019-2020. Respectively with 3.4 children per woman in urban areas and 4.3 in rural areas. According to the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Rwanda's population is expected to continue to grow for the rest of the century and reach 33.35 million people in 2099, with 2.1 children per woman in 2050. However, this project document aims to demonstrate the impact of the TFR on SDT trends in Rwanda. Thus, the decline in the TFR in Rwanda began with the introduction of family planning practices, which now account for 47.5% in 2019. Childbearing with three children for rural women compared to two children in the city, the increase in Divorce and separation caused by the behavior called "Kuza n'ijoro" or "coming at night" similar to cohabitation in developed countries. The decline in remarriage is caused by single mothers behavior who prefer to raise their children rather than remarry. Therefore, the study used probability sampling with (Stratified random sampling) method with a survey questionnaire of 1067 respondents in the 5 Districts (3 in rural areas and two in urban areas), with the target group of women Age between 15-49. The study demonstrated that the age of marriage in rural areas is two years higher than in urban areas. Divorce is more common in urban is with 6.2% with 5.2% in rural areas. However, separation is more common in rural areas than in urban areas, with a lower rate of 3%, due to the higher system called "Kuza n'ijoro" or "come at night", similar to cohabitation in developed countries. The study revealed that more than 85% of divorced people prefer to remain single, which confirms the low remarriage rate. Childbearing has started to decrease, especially for young singles in urban areas, due to the economic situation, with national statistics showing that unemployment in the youth community is still 16% higher. Therefore, the study concluded by confirming the hypothesis based on the results of the TFR indicators such as marriage, remarriage, divorce, separation, divorce, Kuza n'ijoro, childbearing] and abortion. The study consists of four sections, an introduction and background, a review of the literature, a description of the data and methodology, an analysis of the data, discussion results and a conclusion.

Keywords: Kuza n'ijoro, Rwanda, second demographic transition (SDT), total fertility rate (TFR)

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42 Household Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancies in Kigali City, Rwanda

Authors: Dieudonne Uwizeye, Reuben Muhayiteto

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Teenage pregnancy is a challenging problem for sustainable development due to restrictions it poses to socioeconomic opportunities for young mothers, their children and families. Being unable to take appropriate economic and social responsibilities, teen mothers get trapped into poverty and become economic burden to their family and country. Besides, teenage pregnancy is also a health problem because children born to very young mothers are vulnerable with greater risk of illnesses and deaths, and teenage mothers are more likely to be exposed to greater risk of maternal mortality and to other health and psychological problems. In Kigali city, in Rwanda, teenage pregnancy rate is currently high and its increase in recent years is worrisome. However, only individual factors influencing the teenage pregnancy tend to be the basis of interventions. It is important to understand the important socioeconomic factors at the household level that are associated with teenage pregnancy to help government, parents, and other stakeholders to appropriately address the problem with sustainable measures. This study analyzed secondary data from the Fifth Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (RDHS-V 2014-2015) conducted by the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The aim was to examine household socio-economic factors that are associated with incidence of teenage pregnancies in Kigali city. In addition to descriptive analysis, Pearson’s Chi Square and Binary Logistic Regression were used in the analysis. Findings indicate that marital status and age of household head, number of members in a household, number of rooms used for sleeping, educational level of the household head and household's wealth are significantly associated with teenage pregnancy in Rwanda ( p< 0.05). It was found that teenagers living with parents, those having parents with higher education and those from richer families are less likely to become pregnant. Age of household head was pinpointed as factor to teenage pregnancy, with teenage-headed households being more vulnerable. The findings also revealed that household composition correlates with the probability of teenage pregnancy (p < 0.05) with teenagers from households with less number of members being more vulnerable. Regarding the size of the house, the study suggested that the more rooms available in households, the less incidences of teenage pregnancy are likely to be observed (p < 0.05). However, teenage pregnancy was not significantly associated with physical violence among parents (p = 0.65) and sex of household heads (p = 0.52), except in teen-headed households of which female are predominantly heads. The study concludes that teenage pregnancy remains a serious social, economic and health problem in Rwanda. The study informs government officials, parents and other stakeholders to take interventions and preventive measures through community sex education, policies and strategies to foster effective parental guidance, care and control of young girls through meeting their necessary social and financial needs within households.

Keywords: household socio-economic factors, Rwanda, Rwanda demographic and health survey, teenage pregnancy

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41 Statistical Modelling of Maximum Temperature in Rwanda Using Extreme Value Analysis

Authors: Emmanuel Iyamuremye, Edouard Singirankabo, Alexis Habineza, Yunvirusaba Nelson

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Temperature is one of the most important climatic factors for crop production. However, severe temperatures cause drought, feverish and cold spells that have various consequences for human life, agriculture, and the environment in general. It is necessary to provide reliable information related to the incidents and the probability of such extreme events occurring. In the 21st century, the world faces a huge number of threats, especially from climate change, due to global warming and environmental degradation. The rise in temperature has a direct effect on the decrease in rainfall. This has an impact on crop growth and development, which in turn decreases crop yield and quality. Countries that are heavily dependent on agriculture use to suffer a lot and need to take preventive steps to overcome these challenges. The main objective of this study is to model the statistical behaviour of extreme maximum temperature values in Rwanda. To achieve such an objective, the daily temperature data spanned the period from January 2000 to December 2017 recorded at nine weather stations collected from the Rwanda Meteorological Agency were used. The two methods, namely the block maxima (BM) method and the Peaks Over Threshold (POT), were applied to model and analyse extreme temperature. Model parameters were estimated, while the extreme temperature return periods and confidence intervals were predicted. The model fit suggests Gumbel and Beta distributions to be the most appropriate models for the annual maximum of daily temperature. The results show that the temperature will continue to increase, as shown by estimated return levels.

Keywords: climate change, global warming, extreme value theory, rwanda, temperature, generalised extreme value distribution, generalised pareto distribution

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40 The Impact of Sustainable Packaging on Customers’ Willingness to Buy: A Study Based in Rwanda

Authors: Nirere Martine

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Purpose –The purpose of this study aims to understand the intention of customers to adopt sustainable packaging and the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Design/methodology/approach – A new research model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) and structural equation modeling are used to examine causality and test relationship based on the data collected from 251 Rwanda samples. Findings – The findings indicated that perceived ease of use positively affects perceived usefulness. However, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. However, perceived risk and perceived cost negatively affect the intention to adopt sustainable packaging. The intention to adopt sustainable packaging positively affects the willingness to buy a product using sustainable packaging. Originality/value – Many researchers have investigated the issue of a consumers’ behavior to purchase a product. In particular, they have examined whether customers are willing to pay extra for a packaging product. There has been no study that has examined the impact of sustainable packaging on customers’ willingness to buy. The results of this study can help manufacturers form a better understanding of customers’ willingness to purchase a product using sustainable packaging.

Keywords: consumers’ behavioral, sustainable packaging, TAM, Rwanda

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39 Governance vs Diaspora Remittances for Sustainable Development: A Case of Rwanda and Kenya

Authors: Albert Maake, Ifunanya Isama

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International remittances to developing countries reached US$ 485 billion in 2018. By 2015, the East African region had surpassed US$3.5 mark. Considering this, there is no argument as to the contribution of Diaspora remittances as an alternative source of funds in the development process of the developing countries. Nevertheless, this paper seeks to argue that good governance in areas such as policy design, implementation and monitoring play a critical role in the sustainable development process of a nation as opposed to Diaspora remittances in general. Therefore this study intends at analyzing the contribution of Governance as opposed to that of Diaspora remittances for nation development. Employing documentary analysis technique, the secondary data with respect to the countries under study on Diaspora remittances will be collected. Selected indicators for Governance-HDI, Debt-to-GDP Ratio and Corruption Index, will be sourced from the World Bank Data for the purpose of consistency and where applicable the Central Statistical Agencies of the Nations under study. By means of descriptive statistics and content analysis the data will be comparatively analyzed to highlight the unique experiences in Rwanda and Kenya. The findings and interpretations from the study will affirm and promote capacity building for best practices in good governance for the countries under study.

Keywords: diaspora remittance, governance, Kenya, Rwanda, sustainable development

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38 Electronic Health Record System: A Perspective to Improve the Value of Services Rendered to Patients in Healthcare Organization in Rwanda, Case of CHUB and Hopital De Nemba

Authors: Mugabe Nzarama Gabriel

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In Rwanda, many healthcare organizations are still using a paper based patients’ data record system although it still present weaknesses to share health patients’ information across different services when necessary. In developed countries, the EHR has been put in place to revolutionize the paper based record system but still the EHR has some challenges related to privacy, security, or interoperability. The purpose of this research was to assess the existing patients’ data record system in healthcare sector in Rwanda, see what an EHR can improve to the system in place and assess the acceptance of EHR as system which is interoperable, very secure and interoperable and see whether stakeholders are ready to adopt the system. The case based methodology was used and TAM theoretical framework to design the questionnaire for the survey. A judgmental sample across two cases, CHUB and Hopital de Nemba, has been selected and SPSS has been used for descriptive statistics. After a qualitative analysis, the findings showed that the paper based record is useful, gives complete information about the patient, protects the privacy of patients but it is still less secure and less interoperable. The respondents shown that they are ready to use the proposed EHR System and want it secure, capable of enforcing the privacy but still they are not all ready for the interoperability. A conclusion has been formulated; recommendations and further research have been proposed.

Keywords: EHR system, healthcare service, TAM, privacy, interoperability

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37 Possibility of Creating Polygon Layers from Raster Layers Obtained by using Classic Image Processing Software: Case of Geological Map of Rwanda

Authors: Louis Nahimana

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Most maps are in a raster or pdf format and it is not easy to get vector layers of published maps. Faced to the production of geological simplified map of the northern Lake Tanganyika countries without geological information in vector format, I tried a method of obtaining vector layers from raster layers created from geological maps of Rwanda and DR Congo in pdf and jpg format. The procedure was as follows: The original raster maps were georeferenced using ArcGIS10.2. Under Adobe Photoshop, map areas with the same color corresponding to a lithostratigraphic unit were selected all over the map and saved in a specific raster layer. Using the same image processing software Adobe Photoshop, each RGB raster layer was converted in grayscale type and improved before importation in ArcGIS10. After georeferencing, each lithostratigraphic raster layer was transformed into a multitude of polygons with the tool "Raster to Polygon (Conversion)". Thereafter, tool "Aggregate Polygons (Cartography)" allowed obtaining a single polygon layer. Repeating the same steps for each color corresponding to a homogeneous rock unit, it was possible to reconstruct the simplified geological constitution of Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo in vector format. By using the tool «Append (Management)», vector layers obtained were combined with those from Burundi to achieve vector layers of the geology of the « Northern Lake Tanganyika countries ».

Keywords: creating raster layer under image processing software, raster to polygon, aggregate polygons, adobe photoshop

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36 Development and Validation of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Use in Urban and Rural Communities of Rwanda

Authors: Phenias Nsabimana, Jérôme W. Some, Hilda Vasanthakaalam, Stefaan De Henauw, Souheila Abbeddou

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Tools for the dietary assessment in adults are limited in low- and middle-income settings. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against the multiple pass-24 h recall tool for use in urban and rural Rwanda. A total of 212 adults (154 females and 58 males), 18-49 aged, including 105 urban and 107 rural residents, from the four regions of Rwanda, were recruited in the present study. A multiple-pass 24- H recall technique was used to collect dietary data in both urban and rural areas in four different rounds, on different days (one weekday and one weekend day), separated by a period of three months, from November 2020 to October 2021. The details of all the foods and beverages consumed over the 24h period of the day prior to the interview day were collected during face-to-face interviews. A list of foods, beverages, and commonly consumed recipes was developed by the study researchers and ten research assistants from the different regions of Rwanda. Non-standard recipes were collected when the information was available. A single semi-quantitative FFQ was also developed in the same group discussion prior to the beginning of the data collection. The FFQ was collected at the beginning and the end of the data collection period. Data were collected digitally. The amount of energy and macro-nutrients contributed by each food, recipe, and beverage will be computed based on nutrient composition reported in food composition tables and weight consumed. Median energy and nutrient contents of different food intakes from FFQ and 24-hour recalls and median differences (24-hour recall –FFQ) will be calculated. Kappa, Spearman, Wilcoxon, and Bland-Altman plot statistics will be conducted to evaluate the correlation between estimated nutrient and energy intake found by the two methods. Differences will be tested for their significance and all analyses will be done with STATA 11. Data collection was completed in November 2021. Data cleaning is ongoing and the data analysis is expected to be completed by July 2022. A developed and validated semi-quantitative FFQ will be available for use in dietary assessment. The developed FFQ will help researchers to collect reliable data that will support policy makers to plan for proper dietary change intervention in Rwanda.

Keywords: food frequency questionnaire, reproducibility, 24-H recall questionnaire, validation

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35 Improving Effectiveness of Students' Learning during Clinical Rotations at a Teaching Hospital in Rwanda

Authors: Nanyombi Lubimbi, Josette Niyokindi

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Background: As in many other developing countries in Africa, Rwanda suffers from a chronic shortage of skilled Health Care professionals including Clinical Instructors. This shortage negatively affects the clinical instruction quality therefore impacting student-learning outcomes. Due to poor clinical supervision, it is often noted that students have no structure or consistent guidance in their learning process. The Clinical Educators and the Rwandan counterparts identified the need to create a favorable environment for learning. Description: During orientation the expectations of the student learning process, collaboration of the clinical instructors with the nurses and Clinical Educators is outlined. The ward managers facilitate structured learning by helping the students identify a maximum of two patients using the school’s objectives to guide the appropriate selection of patients. Throughout the day, Clinical Educators with collaboration of Clinical Instructors when present conduct an ongoing assessment of learning and provide feedback to the students. Post-conference is provided once or twice a week to practice critical thinking skills of patient cases that they have been taking care of during the day. Lessons Learned: The students are found to be more confident with knowledge and skills gained during rotations. Clinical facility evaluations completed by students at the end of their rotations highlight the student’s satisfaction and recommendation for continuation of structured learning. Conclusion: Based on the satisfaction of both students and Clinical Instructors, we have identified need for structured learning during clinical rotations. We acknowledge that more evidence-based practice is necessary to effectively address the needs of nursing and midwifery students throughout the country.

Keywords: Rwanda, clinical rotation, structured learning, critical thinking skills, post-conference

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34 Simulating the Dynamics of E-waste Production from Mobile Phone: Model Development and Case Study of Rwanda

Authors: Rutebuka Evariste, Zhang Lixiao

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Mobile phone sales and stocks showed an exponential growth in the past years globally and the number of mobile phones produced each year was surpassing one billion in 2007, this soaring growth of related e-waste deserves sufficient attentions paid to it regionally and globally as long as 40% of its total weight is made from metallic which 12 elements are identified to be highly hazardous and 12 are less harmful. Different research and methods have been used to estimate the obsolete mobile phones but none has developed a dynamic model and handle the discrepancy resulting from improper approach and error in the input data. The study aim was to develop a comprehensive dynamic system model for simulating the dynamism of e-waste production from mobile phone regardless the country or region and prevail over the previous errors. The logistic model method combined with STELLA program has been used to carry out this study. Then the simulation for Rwanda has been conducted and compared with others countries’ results as model testing and validation. Rwanda is about 1.5 million obsoletes mobile phone with 125 tons of waste in 2014 with e-waste production peak in 2017. It is expected to be 4.17 million obsoletes with 351.97 tons by 2020 along with environmental impact intensity of 21times to 2005. Thus, it is concluded through the model testing and validation that the present dynamic model is competent and able deal with mobile phone e-waste production the fact that it has responded to the previous studies questions from Czech Republic, Iran, and China.

Keywords: carrying capacity, dematerialization, logistic model, mobile phone, obsolescence, similarity, Stella, system dynamics

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33 Nyiragongo: An Active Volcano at Risk of Eruption without Precursor Signs

Authors: Emmanuel Havugimana

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If there is a natural phenomenon that could endanger the lives of countless people in Central Africa, it is the possible eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano. This one is 3,470 m above sea level and has a summit formed by a crater 1.2 km in diameter. Its composite is made up of many layers of lava and tephras from the Great Rift Valley located in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is also located in the region of the volcanic mountains near the city of Goma in Congo and near the city of Gisenyi in Rwanda. Nyiragongo represents an imminent danger considering that its magma has a very low silica content and is thus quite fluid. Its slopes are also high and slippery, and the lava takes advantage of this to flow up to 100 km. Lately, its eruptions took place in May 2002, resumed in May 2021, and they were faster than before. The volcano remains active even today. All these factors make it among the most dangerous volcanoes in the world. On top of that, no one knows when the next eruption will take place, especially since it can also occur without any warning signs. Unfortunately, volcanological monitoring services in Congo are non-existent, and that is why this document concludes that Nyiragongo could if nothing is done in this regard, ravage the two neighboring towns: Goma in Congo and Gisenyi in Rwanda. It also proposes solutions that may contribute to preventing the expected dangers in this context.

Keywords: Nyiragongo, volcanic eruption, precursor signs, active volcano

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32 A Constructed Wetland as a Reliable Method for Grey Wastewater Treatment in Rwanda

Authors: Hussein Bizimana, Osman Sönmez

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Constructed wetlands are current the most widely recognized waste water treatment option, especially in developing countries where they have the potential for improving water quality and creating valuable wildlife habitat in ecosystem with treatment requirement relatively simple for operation and maintenance cost. Lack of grey waste water treatment facilities in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology in Rwanda, causes pollution in the surrounding localities of Rugunga sector, where already a problem of poor sanitation is found. In order to treat grey water produced at Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology, with high BOD concentration, high nutrients concentration and high alkalinity; a Horizontal Sub-surface Flow pilot-scale constructed wetland was designed and can operate in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in a sedimentation tank of 5.5 m x 1.42 m x 1.2 m deep and a Horizontal Sub-surface constructed wetland of 4.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.42 m deep. The grey waste water flow rate of 2.5 m3/d flew through vegetated wetland and sandy pilot plant. The filter media consisted of 0.6 to 2 mm of coarse sand, 0.00003472 m/s of hydraulic conductivity and cattails (Typha latifolia spp) were used as plants species. The effluent flow rate of the plant is designed to be 1.5 m3/ day and the retention time will be 24 hrs. 72% to 79% of BOD, COD, and TSS removals are estimated to be achieved, while the nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphate) removal is estimated to be in the range of 34% to 53%. Every effluent characteristic will meet exactly the Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency guidelines primarily because the retention time allowed is enough to make the reduction of contaminants within effluent raw waste water. Treated water reuse system was developed where water will be used in the campus irrigation system again.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, hydraulic conductivity, grey waste water, cattails

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31 A Quasi-Experimental Study of the Impact of 5Es Instructional Model on Students' Mathematics Achievement in Northern Province, Rwanda

Authors: Emmanuel Iyamuremye, Jean François Maniriho, Irenee Ndayambaje

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Mathematics is the foundational enabling discipline that underpins science, technology, and engineering disciplines. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects are foreseen as the engine for socio-economic transformation. Rwanda has done reforms in education aiming at empowering and preparing students for the real world job by providing career pathways in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics related fields. While that considered so, the performance in mathematics has remained deplorable in both formative and national examinations. Therefore, this paper aims at exploring the extent to which the engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate (5Es) instructional model contributing towards students’ achievement in mathematics. The present study adopted the pre-test, post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. The 5Es instructional model was applied to the experimental group while the control group received instruction with the conventional teaching method for eight weeks. One research-made instrument, mathematics achievement test (MAT), was used for data collection. A pre-test was given to students before the intervention to make sure that both groups have equivalent characteristics. At the end of the experimental period, the two groups have undergone a post-test to ascertain the contribution of the 5Es instructional model. Descriptive statistics and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used for the analysis of the study. For determining the improvement in mathematics, Hakes methods of calculating gain were used to analyze the pre-test and post-test scores. Results showed that students exposed to 5Es instructional model achieved significantly better performance in mathematics than students instructed using the conventional teaching method. It was also found that 5Es instructional model made lessons more interesting, easy and created friendship among students. Thus, 5Es instructional model was recommended to be adopted as a close substitute to the conventional teaching method in teaching mathematics in lower secondary schools in Rwanda.

Keywords: 5Es instructional model, achievement, conventional teaching method, mathematics

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30 Seismic Activity in the Lake Kivu Basin: Implication for Seismic Risk Management

Authors: Didier Birimwiragi Namogo

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The Kivu Lake Basin is located in the Western Branch of the East African Rift. In this basin is located a multitude of active faults, on which earthquakes occur regularly. The most recent earthquakes date from 2008, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2019. The cities of Bukabu and Goma in DR Congo and Giseyi in Rwanda are the most impacted by this intense seismic activity in the region. The magnitude of the strongest earthquakes in the region is 6.1. The 2008 earthquake was particularly destructive, killing several people in DR Congo and Rwanda. This work aims to complete the distribution of seismicity in the region, deduce areas of weakness and establish a hazard map that can assist in seismic risk management. Using the local seismic network of the Goma Volcano Observatory, the earthquakes were relocated, and their focus mechanism was studied. The results show that most of these earthquakes occur on active faults described by Villeneuve in 1938. The alignment of the earthquakes shows a pace that follows directly the directions of the faults described by this author. The study of the focus mechanism of these earthquakes, also shows that these are in particular normal faults whose stresses show an extensive activity. Such study can be used for the establishment of seismic risk management tools.

Keywords: earthquakes, hazard map, faults, focus mechanism

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29 Fast-Tracking University Education for Youth Employment: Empirical Evidence from University Graduates in Rwanda

Authors: Fred Alinda, Marjorie Negesa, Gerald Karyeija

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Like elsewhere in the world, youth unemployment remains a big problem more so to the most educated youth and female. In Rwanda, unemployment is estimated at 13.2% among youth graduates compared to 10.9% and 2.6 among secondary and primary graduates respectively. Though empirical evidence elsewhere associate youth unemployment with education level, relevance of skills and access to business support opportunities, mixed evidence still exist on the significance of these factors to youth employment. As youth employment strategies in countries like Rwanda continue to recognize the potential role university education can play to enhance employment, there is a need to understand the catalysts or barriers. This paper, therefore, draws empirical evidence from a survey on the influence of education qualification, skills relevance and access to business support opportunities on employment of the youth university graduates in Masaka sector, Rwanda. The analysis tested four hypotheses; access to university education significantly affects youth employment, Relevance of university education significantly contributes to youth employment; access to business support opportunities significantly contributes to youth employment, and significant gender differences exist in the employment of youth university graduates. A cross-section survey was used in lieu of the need to explore the prevailing status of youth employment and contributing factors across the sector. A questionnaire was used to collect data on a large sample of 269 youth to allow statistical analysis. This was beefed up with qualitative views of leaders and technical officials in the sector. The youth University graduates were selected using simple random sampling while the leaders and technical officials were selected purposively. Percentages were used to describe respondents in line with the variables under while a regression model for youth employment was fitted to determine the significant factors. The model results indicated a significant influence (p<0.05) of gender, education level and access to business support opportunities on employment of youth university graduates. This finding was also affirmed by the qualitative views of key informants. Qualitative views pointed to the fact that university education generally equipped the youth with skills that enabled their transition into employment mainly for a salary or wage. The skills were, however, deficient in technical and practical aspects. In addition, the youth generally lacked limited access to business support opportunities particularly guarantees for loans, business advisory, and grants for business as well as training in business skills that would help them gain salaried employment or transit into self-employment. The study findings bear an implication on the strategy for catalyzing youth employment through university education. The findings imply that university education should be embraced but with greater emphasis on or supplementation with specialized training in practical and technical skills as well as extending business support opportunities to the youth. This will accelerate the contribution of university education to youth employment.

Keywords: education, employment, self-employment, youth

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28 Learning the C-A-Bs: Resuscitation Training at Rwanda Military Hospital

Authors: Kathryn Norgang, Sarah Howrath, Auni Idi Muhire, Pacifique Umubyeyi

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Description : A group of nurses address the shortage of trained staff to respond to critical patients at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) by developing a training program and a resuscitation response team. Members of the group who received the training when it first launched are now trainer of trainers; all components of the training program are organized and delivered by RMH staff-the clinical mentor only provides adjunct support. This two day training is held quarterly at RMH; basic life support and exposure to interventions for advanced care are included in the test and skills sign off. Seventy staff members have received the training this year alone. An increased number of admission/transfer to ICU due to successful resuscitation attempts is noted. Lessons learned: -Number of staff trained 2012-2014 (to be verified). -Staff who train together practice with greater collaboration during actual resuscitation events. -Staff more likely to initiate BLS if peer support is present-more staff trained equals more support. -More access to Advanced Cardiac Life Support training is necessary now that the cadre of BLS trained staff is growing. Conclusions: Increased access to training, peer support, and collaborative practice are effective strategies to strengthening resuscitation capacity within a hospital.

Keywords: resuscitation, basic life support, capacity building, resuscitation response teams, nurse trainer of trainers

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27 Magnitude and Outcome of Resuscitation Activities at Rwanda Military Hospital for the Period of April 2013-September 2013

Authors: Auni Idi Muhire

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Background: Prior to April 2012, resuscitations were often ineffective resulting in poor patient outcomes. An initiative was implemented at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH) to review root causes and plan strategies to improve patient outcomes. An interdisciplinary committee was developed to review this problem. Purpose: Analyze the frequency, obstacles, and outcome of patient resuscitation following cardiac and/or respiratory arrest. Methods: A form was developed to allow recording of all actions taken during resuscitation including response times, staff present, and equipment and medications used. Results:-The patient population requiring the most resuscitation effort are the intensive care patients, most frequently the neonatal the intensive care patients (42.8%) -Despite having trained staff representatives, not all resuscitations follow protocol -Lack of compliance with drug administration guidelines was noted, particularly in initiating use of drugs despite the drug being available (59%). Lesson Learned: Basic Life Support training for interdisciplinary staff resulted in more effective response to cardiac and/or respiratory arrest at RMH. Obstacles to effective resuscitation included number of staff, knowledge and skill level of staff, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, staff communication, and patient Do not Attempt Resuscitation (DNR) status.

Keywords: resuscitation, case analysis of knowledge versus practice, intensive care, critical care

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26 Legal Feminism, Modernity and Their Impact on Some African Countries

Authors: Umulisa Linda, Andy Cons Matata

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The origin of legal feminism can be attributed to an attempt to provide a safe space for women such as voting, parental, and inheritance rights, among others. It was also a rebellion against male supremacy. However, with the development of technology and especially in the era of the internet, it appears that both legal feminism and the modernism are losing their luster. While these movements had their origin either in the United States of America or western Europe, their impacts have been felt as far as Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In Africa, different countries have different levels of penetration of these movements. This study, therefore, had its focus on how legal feminism and modernism have influenced legal developments in Kenya and Rwanda. The study adopted a qualitative approach with the respondents being asked about their feelings and perceptions on how the two movements had affected legal developments in their countries. In order to gauge the opinion of different categories of people such as the youth, middle-aged and the elderly people as well as being gender-sensitive, the study adopted a purpose method of sampling. The questionnaires and the focus group discussions were employed as the main tools for data gathering. From the questionnaires, the focus group discussions, and the data analysis that followed, the study concluded that both legal feminism and modernity had penetrated the legal systems of both Kenya and Rwanda so deeply. The study further found that the proponents of the two movements were mostly urban based and educated women. The men were generally opposed to the movements.

Keywords: legal development, legal feminsim, modernism, voting, parental and inheritance rights

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25 Study on Changes of Land Use impacting the Process of Urbanization, by Using Landsat Data in African Regions: A Case Study in Kigali, Rwanda

Authors: Delphine Mukaneza, Lin Qiao, Wang Pengxin, Li Yan, Chen Yingyi

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Human activities on land use make the land-cover gradually change or transit. In this study, we examined the use of Landsat TM data to detect the land use change of Kigali between 1987 and 2009 using remote sensing techniques and analysis of data using ENVI and ArcGIS, a GIS software. Six different categories of land use were distinguished: bare soil, built up land, wetland, water, vegetation, and others. With remote sensing techniques, we analyzed land use data in 1987, 1999 and 2009, changed areas were found and a dynamic situation of land use in Kigali city was found during the 22 years studied. According to relevant Landsat data, the research focused on land use change in accordance with the role of remote sensing in the process of urbanization. The result of the work has shown the rapid increase of built up land between 1987 and 1999 and a big decrease of vegetation caused by the rebuild of the city after the 1994 genocide, while in the period of 1999 to 2009 there was a reduction in built up land and vegetation, after the authority of Kigali city established, a Master Plan where all constructions which were not in the range of the master Plan were destroyed. Rwanda's capital, Kigali City, through the expansion of the urban area, it is increasing the internal employment rate and attracts business investors and the service sector to improve their economy, which will increase the population growth and provide a better life. The overall planning of the city of Kigali considers the environment, land use, infrastructure, cultural and socio-economic factors, the economic development and population forecast, urban development, and constraints specification. To achieve the above purpose, the Government has set for the overall planning of city Kigali, different stages of the detailed description of the design, strategy and action plan that would guide Kigali planners and members of the public in the future to have more detailed regional plans and practical measures. Thus, land use change is significantly the performance of Kigali active human area, which plays an important role for the country to take certain decisions. Another area to take into account is the natural situation of Kigali city. Agriculture in the region does not occupy a dominant position, and with the population growth and socio-economic development, the construction area will gradually rise and speed up the process of urbanization. Thus, as a developing country, Rwanda's population continues to grow and there is low rate of utilization of land, where urbanization remains low. As mentioned earlier, the 1994 genocide massacres, population growth and urbanization processes, have been the factors driving the dramatic changes in land use. The focus on further research would be on analysis of Rwanda’s natural resources, social and economic factors that could be, the driving force of land use change.

Keywords: land use change, urbanization, Kigali City, Landsat

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24 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Among Human Immune Deficiency Virus-Positive Patients Under Anti-retroviral Attending in Rwanda, a Case Study of University Teaching Hospital of Butare

Authors: Venuste Kayinamura, V. Iyamuremye, A. Ngirabakunzi

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Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patient can cause a deficiency in glucose metabolism by promoting insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and diabetes, diabetes mellitus keep increasing among HIV-infected patients worldwide but there is limited data on levels of blood glucose and its relationship with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) and HIV-infection worldwide, particularly in Rwanda. A convenient sampling strategy was used in this study and it involved 323 HIV patients (n=323). Patients who are HIV positive under ARVs were involved in this study. The patient’s blood glucose was analyzed using an automated machine or glucometer (COBAS C 311). Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS V. 20.0 and presented in percentages. The highest diabetes mellitus prevalence was 93.33 % in people aged >40 years while the lowest diabetes mellitus prevalence was 6.67% in people aged between 21-and 40 years. The P-value was (0.021). Thus, there is a significant association between age and diabetes occurrence. The highest diabetes mellitus prevalence was 28.2% in patients under ART treatment for more than 10 years, 16.7% were <5years while 20% of patients were on ART treatment between 5-10 years. The P-value here is (0.03), thus the incidence of diabetes is associated with long-term ART use in HIV-infected patients. This study assessed the prevalence of diabetes among HIV-infected patients under ARVs attending the University Teaching Hospital of Butare (CHUB), it shows that the prevalence of diabetes is high in HIV-infected patients under ARTs. This study found no significant relationship between gender and diabetes mellitus growth. Therefore, regular assessment of diabetes mellitus especially among HIV-infected patients under ARVs is highly recommended to control other health issues caused by diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: anti-retroviral, diabetes mellitus, antiretroviral therapy, human immune deficiency virus

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23 Transforming Gender Norms through Play: Qualitative Findings from Primary Schools in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique

Authors: Geetanjali Gill

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International non-governmental organizations (INGOs) and development assistance donors have been implementing education projects in Sub-Saharan Africa and the global South that respond to gender-based inequities and that attempt to transform socio-cultural norms for greater gender equality in schools and communities. These efforts are in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal number four, quality education, and goal number five, gender equality. Some INGOs and donors have also championed the use of play-based pedagogies for improved and more gender equal education outcomes. The study used the qualitative methods of life history interviews and focus groups to gauge social norm change amongst male and female adolescents, families, and teachers in primary schools that have been using gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique. School administrators and project managers from the INGO Right to Play International were consulted in the selection of two primary schools per country (in both rural and urban contexts), as well as the selection of ten male and ten female students in grades four to six in each school, using specific parameters of social norm adherence. The parents (or guardians) and grandparents of four male and four female students in each school who were determined to be ‘outliers’ in their adherence to social norms were also interviewed. Additionally, sex-specific focus groups were held with thirty-six teachers. The study found that gender-responsive play-based pedagogies positively impactedsocio-cultural norms that shape gender relations amongst adolescents, their families, and teachers. Female and male students who spoke about their beliefs about gender equality in the roles and educational and career aspirations of men/boys and women/girls made linkages to the play-based pedagogies and approaches used by their teachers. Also, the parents and grandparents of these students were aware of generational differences in gender norms, and many were accepting of changed gender norms. Teachers who were effectively implementing gender-responsive play-based pedagogies in their classrooms spoke about changes to their own gender norms and how they were able to influence the gender norms of parents and community members. Life history interviews were found to be well-suited for the examination of changes to socio-cultural norms and gender relations. However, an appropriate framing of questions and topics specific to each target group was instrumental for the collection of data on socio-cultural norms and gender. The findings of this study can spur further academic inquiry of linkages between gender norms and education outcomes. The findings are also relevant for the work of INGOs and donors in the global South and for the development of gender-responsive education policies and programs.

Keywords: education, gender equality, ghana, international development, life histories, mozambique, rwanda, socio-cultural norms, sub-saharan africa, qualitative research

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22 Determinants of Diarrhoea Prevalence Variations in Mountainous Informal Settlements of Kigali City, Rwanda

Authors: Dieudonne Uwizeye

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Introduction: Diarrhoea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among communities living in urban informal settlements of developing countries. It is assumed that mountainous environment introduces variations of the burden among residents of the same settlements. Design and Objective: A cross-sectional study was done in Kigali to explore the effect of mountainous informal settlements on diarrhoea risk variations. Data were collected among 1,152 households through household survey and transect walk to observe the status of sanitation. The outcome variable was the incidence of diarrhoea among household members of any age. The study used the most knowledgeable person in the household as the main respondent. Mostly this was the woman of the house as she was more likely to know the health status of every household member as she plays various roles: mother, wife, and head of the household among others. The analysis used cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis. Results: Results suggest that risks for diarrhoea vary depending on home location in the settlements. Diarrhoea risk increased as the distance from the road increased. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicate the adjusted odds ratio of 2.97 with 95% confidence interval being 1.35-6.55 and 3.50 adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval being 1.61-7.60 in level two and three respectively compared with level one. The status of sanitation within and around homes was also significantly associated with the increase of diarrhoea. Equally, it is indicated that stable households were less likely to have diarrhoea. The logistic regression analysis indicated the adjusted odds ratio of 0.45 with 95% confidence interval being 0.25-0.81. However, the study did not find evidence for a significant association between diarrhoea risks and household socioeconomic status in the multivariable model. It is assumed that environmental factors in mountainous settings prevailed. Households using the available public water sources were more likely to have diarrhoea in their households. Recommendation: The study recommends the provision and extension of infrastructure for improved water, drainage, sanitation and wastes management facilities. Equally, studies should be done to identify the level of contamination and potential origin of contaminants for water sources in the valleys to adequately control the risks for diarrhoea in mountainous urban settings.

Keywords: urbanisation, diarrhoea risk, mountainous environment, urban informal settlements in Rwanda

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21 Delays for Emergency Cesarean Sections and Neonatal Outcomes in Three Rural District Hospitals in Rwanda: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: J. Niyitegeka, G. Nshimirimana, A. Silverstein, J. Odhiambo, Y. Lin, T. Nkurunziza, R. Riviello, S. Rulisa, P. Banguti, H. Magge, M. Macharia, J. P. Dushime, R. Habimana, B. Hedt-Gauthier

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In low-resource settings, women needing an emergency cesarean section experiences various delays in both reaching and receiving care that is often linked to poor neonatal outcomes. In this study, we quantified different measures of delays and assessed the association between these delays and neonatal outcomes at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective study included 441 neonates and their mothers who underwent emergency cesarean sections in 2015 at Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals. Four possible delays were measured: Time from start of labor to district hospital admission, travel time from a health center to the district hospital, time from admission to surgical incision, and time from the decision for the emergency cesarean section to surgical incision. Neonatal outcomes were categorized as unfavorable (APGAR < 7 or death) and favorable (APGAR ≥ 7). We assessed the relationship between each type of delay and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. In our study, 38.7% (108 out of 279) of neonates’ mothers labored for 12 to 24 hours before hospital admission and 44.7% (159 of 356) of mothers were transferred from health centers that required 30 to 60 minutes of travel time to reach the district hospital. 48.1% (178 of 370) of caesarean sections started within five hours after admission and 85.2% (288 of 338) started more than thirty minutes after the decision for the emergency cesarean section was made. Neonatal outcomes were significantly worse among mothers with more than 90 minutes of travel time from the health center to the district hospital compared to health centers attached to the hospital (OR = 5.12, p = 0.02). Neonatal outcomes were also significantly different depending on decision to incision intervals; neonates with cesarean deliveries starting more than thirty minutes after decision had better outcomes than those started immediately (OR = 0.32, p = 0.04). Interventions that decrease barriers to access to maternal health care services can improve neonatal outcome after emergency cesarean section. Triaging could explain the inverse relationship between time from decision to incision and neonatal outcome; this must be studied more in the future.

Keywords: Africa, emergency obstetric care, rural health delivery, maternal and child health

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20 Effects of Nutrients Supply on Milk Yield, Composition and Enteric Methane Gas Emissions from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Rwanda

Authors: Jean De Dieu Ayabagabo, Paul A.Onjoro, Karubiu P. Migwi, Marie C. Dusingize

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This study investigated the effects of feed on milk yield and quality through feed monitoring and quality assessment, and the consequent enteric methane gas emissions from smallholder dairy farms in drier areas of Rwanda, using the Tier II approach for four seasons in three zones, namely; Mayaga and peripheral Bugesera (MPB), Eastern Savanna and Central Bugesera (ESCB), and Eastern plateau (EP). The study was carried out using 186 dairy cows with a mean live weight of 292 Kg in three communal cowsheds. The milk quality analysis was carried out on 418 samples. Methane emission was estimated using prediction equations. Data collected were subjected to ANOVA. The dry matter intake was lower (p<0.05) in the long dry season (7.24 Kg), with the ESCB zone having the highest value of 9.10 Kg, explained by the practice of crop-livestock integration agriculture in that zone. The Dry matter digestibility varied between seasons and zones, ranging from 52.5 to 56.4% for seasons and from 51.9 to 57.5% for zones. The daily protein supply was higher (p<0.05) in the long rain season with 969 g. The mean daily milk production of lactating cows was 5.6 L with a lower value (p<0.05) during the long dry season (4.76 L), and the MPB zone having the lowest value of 4.65 L. The yearly milk production per cow was 1179 L. The milk fat varied from 3.79 to 5.49% with a seasonal and zone variation. No variation was observed with milk protein. The seasonal daily methane emission varied from 150 g for the long dry season to 174 g for the long rain season (p<0.05). The rain season had the highest methane emission as it is associated with high forage intake. The mean emission factor was 59.4 Kg of methane/year. The present EFs were higher than the default IPPC value of 41 Kg from developing countries in African, the Middle East, and other tropical regions livestock EFs using Tier I approach due to the higher live weight in the current study. The methane emission per unit of milk production was lower in the EP zone (46.8 g/L) due to the feed efficiency observed in that zone. Farmers should use high-quality feeds to increase the milk yield and reduce the methane gas produced per unit of milk. For an accurate assessment of the methane produced from dairy farms, there is a need for the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach that considers all the sources of emissions.

Keywords: footprint, forage, girinka, tier

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19 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete

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There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: root crops, sweet potato, surplus, alcohol

Procedia PDF Downloads 321