Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: ivermectin

8 Comparative Acaricidal Efficacy of Fluralaner vs Oral Ivermectin Against Tick Infestation in Dogs

Authors: Tayyaba Zahra, Shehla Gul Bokhari, Asim Khalid Mahmood, Raheela Akhtar, Khizar Matloob


In Pakistan, dogs are commonly infested with ticks, especially in summers, causing not only dermatological issues but also systemic problems. Persistence of tick infestation often leads to heavy losses. Different acaricides are locally available with variable efficacy; however, recurrence of infestation is commonly reported. The present study was thus designed to compare the efficacy of a novel drug Fluralaner and conventionally used Ivermectin against tick infestation. Dogs positive for tick infestation were randomly divided into 2 groups viz, Groups A and B having 8 dogs each. Ticks were enumerated manually from the whole body of dogs at day 0 before the administration of drugs Dogs in Group A were treated with Fluralaner at day 0, and dogs in Group B were treated with Ivermectin. Post-treatment, ticks were counted again at days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At day 07 of the study, no tick was found on the dogs treated with Fluralaner, while many ticks were present on the dogs treated with Ivermectin showing an efficacy up to 50%. On the consecutive follow-up evaluations, similar results were found for Fluralaner while the efficacy of Ivermectin was further reduced to less than 50%. Furthermore, Fluralaner treated dogs had better RBC counts, PCV, Hgb concentration, LFTs, RFTs post-treatment than the dogs treated with Ivermectin. Statistically, oral Fluralaner proved a more effective drug (P≤0.05)than oral Ivermectin against tick infestation in dogs.

Keywords: fluralaner, ivermectin, dogs, tick infestations

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7 Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State-Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi O.J, Simon-Oke I.A., Oniya M.O., Okaka C.E.


River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology that involve the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was used to assess clinical signs from the respondents and skin snip test was used to evaluate the prevalence of the disease. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated and expressed in percentages. One hundred and ninety-two (192) out of the 384 respondents examined, showed various signs of river blindness. However, it was only 108 (28.1%) respondents with the clinical signs that demonstrated Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in their skin snips. The clinical signs observed among the respondents include skin depigmentation such as dermatitis, leopard skin, papules, pruritus and self-inflicted injury, while ocular symptoms include cataract, ocular lesion and partial blindness. Among these clinical signs, papules, and pruritus were the most dominant in the community. The prevalence of the clinical signs was observed to vary significantly among the age groups and gender (P<0.05). The efficacy of the drug after 6 and 12 months of treatments shows that the drug is more effective at age groups 10-50 years than the age groups 51-90 years. Ivermectin is observed to be efficacious in the treatment of the disease. However, to achieve eradication of the disease, the drug may be administered at 0.15mg/kg twice a year.

Keywords: riverblindness, clinical signs, ivermectin, Idogun

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6 Efficacy of Ivermectin Agaist Sarcoptes Scabiei Var. Cameli in Libya

Authors: Ahmed Rashed


Sarcoptic mange is generally recognized as one of the most serious diseases in camels in Libya. It is an extremely pruritic and contagious skin condition caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli. Thirteen camels (camelis dromedaries), showing progressive infection with S.scabiei mites in skin scrapings, were chosen randomly from different affected herds at AL-Assa camel project. Ten camels were treated with ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, Ivomec, Merck) at a dose rate of 0.2 mg./kg.body weight. Scratching and rubbing had completely disappeared in the treated camels one week after the second injection. Two weeks after the second injection motile mites were found on only one camel, and three weeks after the second injection, no motile mites were detected. Motile mites were observed in the three untreated camels up to the end of the trial.

Keywords: ivermecti, Sarcoptes scabiei, camels, scrapings

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5 The Efficacy of Albendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and the Impact of Mass Drug Administration of Albendazole and Ivermectin on Health Status

Authors: Mike Yaw Osei-Atweneboana, John Asiedu Larbi, Edward Jenner Tettevi


Background: The lymphatic filariasis (LF) control programme has been on-going in Ghana since 2000. This community-wide approach involves the use of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ALB). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections control is augmented within this programme; however, in areas where LF is not prevalent, albendazole alone is administered to school children. The purpose of this study was therefore, to determine the efficacy of albendazole against soils transmitted helminths and the impact of mass drug administration of albendazole and ivermectin on the health status of children of school going age and pregnant women. Material/Methods: This was a twelve months longitudinal study. A total of 412 subjects including school children (between the ages of 2-17 years) and pregnant women were randomly selected from four endemic communities in Kpandai district of the Northern region. Coprological assessment for parasites was based on the Kato–Katz technique in both dry and rainy seasons at baseline, 21 days and 3 months post-treatment. Single-dose albendazole treatment was administered to all patients at baseline. Preserved samples are currently under molecular studies to identify possible single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the beta tubulin gene which is associated with benzimidazole resistance. Results: Of all the parasites found (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, and Taenia sp.); hookworm was the most prevalent. In the dry season, the overall STHs prevalence at pre-treatment was 29%, while 9% and 13% prevalence was recorded at 21 days, and three months after treatment respectively. However, in the rainy season, the overall STHs prevalence was 8%, while 4% and 12% was recorded at 21 days and three months respectively after ALB treatment. In general, ALB treatment resulted in an overall hookworm egg count reduction rate of 89% in the dry season and 93% in the rainy season, while the T. trichiura egg count reduction rate was 100% in both seasons. Conclusions: STH infections still remains a significant public health burden in Ghana. Hookworm infection seems to respond poorly or sub-optimally to ALB, raising concerns of possible emergence of resistance which may lead to a major setback for the control and elimination of STH infections, especially hookworm infections.

Keywords: hookworm, sub-optimal response, albendazole, trichuriasis, soil-transmitted helminths

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4 Endoscopic Depiction and Treatment Evaluation of Spirocerca lupi in Dogs

Authors: ELdessouky Sheta, Sayed Elzomor, Haithem Farghali, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Naglaa A. Abd Elkader


The present investigation has been dealt with Spirocerca (S.) lupi infested mongrel dogs. This parasitic disease is highly infective to human beings and carnivores. The diagnosis march has been comprised the lateral contrast thoracic radiographs, fecal examination, blood profile, endoscopic examination and histopathological sections of deep seated pinch biopsies. These infested dogs have been put under an adopted treatment with Ivermectin injection combined with oral prednisolone. The obtained results reveal an absence of the pessimistic recognitions particularly after 3 weeks from the onset of treatment. Endoscopically the presented esophageal nodules are marked out in the distal third of infested dogs' esophagus as masses assigned into the esophageal lumen and fundus of stomach. The endoscopic outlook of Spirocerca lupi lesions has been considered an integral procedure of the diagnostic march and for evaluation of treatment follow up. The diagnostic procedures and the recommended treatment are the vet's guidance to care for Spirocerca lupi in dogs, hoping in future to prevent this disease from being spread among human beings and other carnivores.

Keywords: endoscopy, esophagus, stomach spirocercosis, dogs

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3 Effectiveness of Selected Anthementics on Nematode Parasites of Sheep in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, N. Basha, I. V. Nsahlai


This study determined the effectiveness of selected anthementics (Ivermectin 1% (IVM), Closantel 7.5% (CST) and a combination Abamectin 0.08% and Praziquantel 1.5% (CAP) currently being used in SA. Gender, initial egg per gram (EPG) and initial live weight aided in blocking animals into groups, each group was randomly treated with one of four drug treatments comprising: the untreated control (D0), IVM, CST, and CAP. Animals grazed throughout on infested pasture. Rectal faeces were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 21 for determining EPG. Faeces were mixed per group and incubated to identify and determine the abundance of larval forms of Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus, and Cooperia species. Differences between treatments changed over time. On day7 IVM, CST, and CAP depressed EPG to 0.66, 0.37 and 0.80 of their respective starting values whilst EPG increased 1.39 times for D0. Thereafter, EPG increased consistently for all drugs; CST recorded the lowest values. Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Strongyloides, Namatodirus and Coperia species contributed respectively 60%, 30%, 6%, 3%, and 1% of the larval forms on day 0; and 78%, 8%, 11%, 1%, 2% on day 21. Larval forms increased for Haemonchus species but decreased for Trichostrongylus species over time. Closantel was the most effective dewormer. Haemonchus Spp. were least affected whilst Trichostrongylus Spp. were the most affect by all drugs.

Keywords: anthementics, faecal egg count, L3 larvae, sheep

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2 Secondary Metabolites Identified from a Pseudoalteromonas rubra Bacterial Strain Isolated from a Fijian Marine Alga

Authors: James Sinclair, Katy Soapi, Brad Carte


The marine environment has continuously demonstrated to be a rich source of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds that can address the many pharmaceutical problems facing mankind. The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens has caused scientists to explore contemporary ways of combating these super bugs. A red-pigmented bacterial strain isolated from a marine alga collected in Fiji was identified to be Pseudoalteromonas rubra from 16s rRNA sequencing. This bacterial strain was cultured using a yeast-peptone media and incubated for five days. The ethyl acetate extract of this bacterium was subjected to chromatographic separation techniques such as vacuum liquid chromatography, flash chromatography, size exclusion chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography to yield the pure compound and a number of semi-pure fractions. The crude extract and subsequent purified fractions were analyzed by ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy and was found to contain the compounds ivermectin, stenothricin, cyclo-L-pro-L-val, prodigiosin, mycophenolic acid, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, eplerenone, staurosporine and pseudoalteromone A. The structure of the pure compound, pseudoalteromone A, was elucidated using NMR 1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC and HMBC spectroscopic data.

Keywords: Pseudoalteromonas rubra, Pseudoalteromone A, secondary metabolites, structure elucidation

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1 Urogenital Myiasis in Pregnancy - A Rare Presentation

Authors: Madeleine Elder, Aye Htun


Background: Myiasis is the parasitic infestation of body tissues by fly larvae. It predominantly occurs in poor socioeconomic regions of tropical and subtropical countries where it is associated with poor hygiene and sanitation. Cutaneous and wound myiasis are the most common presentations whereas urogenital myiasis is rare, with few reported cases. Case: a 26-year-old primiparous woman with a low-risk pregnancy presented to the emergency department at 37+3-weeks’ gestation after passing a 2cm black larva during micturition, with 2 weeks of mild vulvar pruritus and dysuria. She had travelled to India 9-months prior. Examination of the external genitalia showed small white larvae over the vulva and anus and a mildly inflamed introitus. Speculum examination showed infiltration into the vagina and heavy white discharge. High vaginal swab reported Candida albicans. Urine microscopy reported bacteriuria with Enterobacter cloacae. Urine parasite examination showed myiasis caused by Clogmia albipunctata species of fly larvae from the family Psychodidae. Renal tract ultrasound and inflammatory markers were normal. Infectious diseases, urology and paediatric teams were consulted. The woman received treatment for her urinary tract infection (which was likely precipitated by bladder irritation from local parasite infestation) and vaginal candidiasis. She underwent daily physical removal of parasites with cleaning, speculum examination and removal, and hydration to promote bladder emptying. Due to the risk of neonatal exposure, aspiration pneumonitis and facial infestation, the woman was steroid covered and proceeded to have an elective caesarean section at 38+3-weeks’ gestation, with delivery of a healthy infant. She then proceeded to have a rigid cystoscopy and washout, which was unremarkable. Placenta histopathology revealed focal eosinophilia in keeping with the history of maternal parasites. Conclusion: Urogenital myiasis is very rare, especially in the developed world where it is seen in returned travellers. Treatment may include systemic therapy with ivermectin and physical removal of parasites. During pregnancy, physical removal is considered the safest treatment option, and discussion around the timing and mode of delivery should consider the risk of harm to the foetus.

Keywords: urogenital myiasis, parasitic infection, infection in pregnancy, returned traveller

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