Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10222

Search results for: chronic care management

10222 Integrative Review: Impact of Transitional Care on Self-Management of Chronic Conditions in Un/Underinsured Populations

Authors: Ashleigh Medina


Chronic conditions account for the majority of total health care spending both in the United States and globally. Encouraging self-management to improve chronic conditions, which in turn could decrease the strain placed on hospitals, requires resources to address the patient’s social concerns in addition to their medical concerns. Transitional care has been identified as a possible bridge between acutely managing conditions at the hospital to chronically managing conditions in a community setting. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the impact of transitional care on self-management outcomes of chronic conditions in un/underinsured populations. Both transitional care, by assisting with resources such as funding sources for healthcare and medications or identifying a healthcare provider for continued care, and self-management, by increasing responsibility for one’s care through goal setting and taking action, can impact health outcomes while providing health care cost-savings.

Keywords: chronic conditions, self-management, transitional care, uninsured

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10221 Consumption Insurance against the Chronic Illness: Evidence from Thailand

Authors: Yuthapoom Thanakijborisut


This paper studies consumption insurance against the chronic illness in Thailand. The study estimates the impact of household consumption in the chronic illness on consumption growth. Chronic illness is the health care costs of a person or a household’s decision in treatment for the long term; the causes and effects of the household’s ability for smooth consumption. The chronic illnesses are measured in health status when at least one member within the household faces the chronic illness. The data used is from the Household Social Economic Panel Survey conducted during 2007 and 2012. The survey collected data from approximately 6,000 households from every province, both inside and outside municipal areas in Thailand. The study estimates the change in household consumption by using an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model. The result shows that the members within the household facing the chronic illness would reduce the consumption by around 4%. This case indicates that consumption insurance in Thailand is quite sufficient against chronic illness.

Keywords: consumption insurance, chronic illness, health care, Thailand

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10220 The Association between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Behavior among Patients with Hypertension

Authors: Fazel Zinat Motlagh, Reza Chaman, Rashid Ghafari, Zahra Behzad, Ahmad Ali Eslami


Background: Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform several self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy and self-care behaviors related to hypertension. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Kohgiluye Boyer Ahmad province, the south of Iran, a total of 1836 hypertension patients, were randomly selected and participated in the study. Self-care behavior was measured with using H-SCALE (Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects). Logistic regression conducted to detect correlation between self-efficacy and adherence to hypertension self-care behaviors. Results: Less than half (40.8%) of the participants reported that they have good self-efficacy to manage hypertension. Good self-efficacy was significantly associated with improve in adherence to medication (95% CI: 1.68, 1.83), eating a low-salt diet (95% CI: 1.44–1.73), physical activity (95% CI: 1.39–1.55), quit smoking (95% CI: 0.38–0.47), and weight management techniques (95% CI: 0.66–0.82). Conclusion: Hypertension self-efficacy was associated with adherence to self-care behaviors among adult with hypertension. According to our finding hypertension is a manageable condition. Self-efficacy is important factor in adherence with self-care behaviors related with hypertension.

Keywords: self-efficacy, hypertension, self-care, Iran

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10219 A Stepped Care mHealth-Based Approach for Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes in Clinical Health Psychology

Authors: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Margherita Novelli, Emanuele Maria Giusti, Roberto Cattivelli, Enrico Molinari


Diabesity could be defined as a new global epidemic of obesity and being overweight with many complications and chronic conditions. Such conditions include not only type 2 diabetes, but also cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders. The financial direct and indirect burden (considering also the clinical resources involved and the loss of productivity) is a real challenge in many Western health-care systems. Recently the Lancet journal defined diabetes as a 21st-century challenge. In order to promote patient compliance in diabesity treatment reducing costs, evidence-based interventions to improve weight-loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. Moreover, new technologies can provide useful solutions in this multidisciplinary approach, above all in maintaining long-term compliance and adherence in order to ensure clinical efficacy. Psychological therapies with diet and exercise plans could better help patients in achieving weight loss outcomes, both inside hospitals and clinical centers and during out-patient follow-up sessions. In the management of chronic diseases clinical psychology play a key role due to the need of working on psychological conditions of patients, their families and their caregivers. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies: one of the best up-to-date application is the management of obesity with type 2 diabetes, where mHealth solutions can provide remote opportunities for enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications from clinical, organizational and economic perspectives. A stepped care mHealth-based approach is an interesting perspective in chronic care management of obesity with type 2 diabetes. One promising future direction could be treating obesity, considered as a chronic multifactorial disease, using a stepped-care approach: -mhealth or traditional based lifestyle psychoeducational and nutritional approach. -health professionals-driven multidisciplinary protocols tailored for each patient. -inpatient approach with the inclusion of drug therapies and other multidisciplinary treatments. -bariatric surgery with psychological and medical follow-up In the chronic care management of globesity mhealth solutions cannot substitute traditional approaches, but they can supplement some steps in clinical psychology and medicine both for obesity prevention and for weight loss management.

Keywords: clinical health psychology, mhealth, obesity, type 2 diabetes, stepped care, chronic care management

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10218 Designing an Integrated Platform for Real-Time Recommendations Sharing among the Aged and People Living with Cancer

Authors: Adekunle O. Afolabi, Pekka Toivanen


The world is expected to experience growth in the number of ageing population, and this will bring about high cost of providing care for these valuable citizens. In addition, many of these live with chronic diseases that come with old age. Providing adequate care in the face of rising costs and dwindling personnel can be challenging. However, advances in technologies and emergence of the Internet of Things are providing a way to address these challenges while improving care giving. This study proposes the integration of recommendation systems into homecare to provide real-time recommendations for effective management of people receiving care at home and those living with chronic diseases. Using the simplified Training Logic Concept, stakeholders and requirements were identified. Specific requirements were gathered from people living with cancer. The solution designed has two components namely home and community, to enhance recommendations sharing for effective care giving. The community component of the design was implemented with the development of a mobile app called Recommendations Sharing Community for Aged and Chronically Ill People (ReSCAP). This component has illustrated the possibility of real-time recommendations, improved recommendations sharing among care receivers and between a physician and care receivers. Full implementation will increase access to health data for better care decision making.

Keywords: recommendation systems, Internet of Things, healthcare, homecare, real-time

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10217 Use of Adjunctive Cannabinoids in Opioid Dosing for Patients with Chronic Pain

Authors: Kristina De Milt, Nicole Huang, Jihye Park


Opioids have been a mainstay of the treatment of chronic pain, but their overprescription and misuse have led to an opioid epidemic. Recently, as an attempt to decrease the number of opioids prescribed, the use of cannabinoid therapy has become an increasingly popular adjunctive chronic pain management choice among providers. This review of literature investigates the effects of adjunctive cannabinoids to opioids in the management of chronic pain. The nine articles are included in the literature review range from observational studies to meta-analyses published in the year 2016 and after. A majority of the studies showed a decrease in the need for opioids after adjunctive cannabinoids were introduced and, in some instances, the cessation of opioid consumption. More high-quality evidence is needed to further support this stance and providers should weigh the benefits and risks of adjunctive cannabinoids according to the clinical picture.

Keywords: cannabis, chronic pain, opioids, pain management

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10216 The Impact of Informal Care on Health Behavior among Older People with Chronic Diseases: A Study in China Using Propensity Score Matching

Authors: Hong Wu, Naiji Lu


Improvement of health behavior among people with chronic diseases is vital for increasing longevity and enhancing quality of life. This paper researched the causal effects of informal care on the compliance with doctor’s health advices – smoking control, dietetic regulation, weight control and keep exercising – among older people with chronic diseases in China, which is facing the challenge of aging. We addressed the selection bias by using propensity score matching in the estimation process. We used the 2011-2012 national baseline data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Our results showed informal care can help improve health behavior of older people. First, informal care improved the compliance of smoking controls: whether smoke, frequency of smoking, and the time lag between wake up and the first cigarette was all lower for these older people with informal care; Second, for dietetic regulation, older people with informal care had more meals every day than older people without informal care; Third, three variables: BMI, whether gain weight and whether lose weight were used to measure the outcome of weight control. There were no significant difference between group with informal care and that without for BMI and the possibility of losing weight. Older people with informal care had lower possibility of gain weight than that without; Last, for the advice of keeping exercising, informal care increased the probability of walking exercise, however, the difference between groups for moderate and vigorous exercise were not significant. Our results indicate policy makers who aim to decrease accidents should take informal care to elders into account and provide an appropriate policy to meet the demand of informal care. Our birth policy and postponed retirement policy may decrease the informal caregiving hours, so adjustments of these policies are important and urgent to meet the current situation of aged tendency of population. In addition, government could give more support to develop organizations to provide formal care, such as nursing home. We infer that formal care is also useful for health behavior improvements.

Keywords: chronic diseases, compliance, CHARLS, health advice, informal care, older people, propensity score matching

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10215 [Keynote Talk]: The Emotional Life of Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

Authors: Leslie Beale


Being a patient with a chronic disease is both a physical and emotional experience. The ability to recognize a patient’s emotional health is an important part of a health care provider’s skills. For the purposes of this paper, emotional health is viewed as the way that we feel, and the way that our feelings affect us. Understanding the patient’s emotional health leads to improved provider-patient relationships and health outcomes. For example, when a patient first hears his or her diagnosis from a provider, they might find it difficult to cope with their emotions. Struggling to cope with emotions interferes with the patient’s ability to read, understand, and act on health information and services. As a result, the patient becomes more frustrated and confused, creating barriers to accessing healthcare services. These barriers are challenging for both the patient and their healthcare providers. There are five basic emotions that are part of who we are and are always with us: fear, anger, sadness, joy, and compassion. Living with a chronic disease however can cause a patient to experience and express these emotions in new and unique ways. Within the provider-patient relationship, there needs to be an understanding that each patient experiences these five emotions and, experiences them at different times. In response to this need, the paper highlights a health promotion framework for patients with chronic disease. This framework emphasizes the emotional health of patients.

Keywords: health promotion, emotional health, patients with chronic disease, patient-centered care

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10214 Comprehensive Care and the Right to Autonomy of Children and Adolescents with Cancer

Authors: Sandra Soca Lozano, Teresa Isabel Lozano Pérez, Germain Weber


Cancer is a chronic disease of high prevalence in children and adolescents. Medical care in Cuba is carried out by a multidisciplinary team and family is the mediator between this team and the patient. Around this disease, there are interwoven many stereotypes and taboos by its relation to death. In this research report, we describe the work paradigm of psychological care to patients suffering from these diseases in the University Pediatric Hospital Juan Manuel Márquez of Havana, Cuba. We present the psychosocial factors that must be taken into account to provide comprehensive care and ensuring the quality of life of patients and their families. We also present the factors related to the health team and the management of information done with the patient. This is a descriptive proposal from the working experience accumulated in the named institution and in the review of the literature. As a result of this report we make a proposal of teamwork and the aspects in which psychological intervention should be continue performing in terms of increasing the quality of the care made by the health team. We conclude that it is necessary to continue improving the information management of children and adolescents with theses health problems and took into account their right to autonomy.

Keywords: comprehensive care, management of information, psychosocial factors, right to autonomy

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10213 The Relation between Physical Health and Mental Health in Women of Reproductive Age

Authors: Hannah Yael Ephraim


During reproductive age (between 15 and 44), women are particularly susceptible to psychiatric illness. Depression and anxiety disorders are especially common for women during reproductive age. Women of reproductive age are also at greater risk for multiple physical conditions during this time. Existing literature focuses on the impact of mental health on physical health, showing that people with anxiety and depression repeatedly show greater physical health risk among those with developing chronic medical illness. However, there is limited research on the impact physical health has on mental health in women of reproductive age, a large and vulnerable population. For this reason, the current study seeks to ask the following questions: are women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition more likely to experience symptoms of mental illness than women without a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition? Does the type of physical illness relate to signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety? A quasi-experimental research design was implemented to compare the mental health outcomes of women with the diagnosis of chronic medical conditions and women without the diagnosis of a chronic medical condition. Quantitative data was collected through an anonymous ten-minute Qualtrics survey. The survey was sent out through multiple online platforms. The sample includes two groups of women: one group with the diagnosis of a chronic medical illness, and one group without a diagnosis and/or symptoms (N = 541). Participants identify as a woman and are between the ages of 15 and 44. A comparison of women with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition and those without a diagnosis will be conducted to explore differences in depression and anxiety symptoms between women with and without a chronic medical diagnosis. The impact race, SES, and occupation will also be addressed in relation to anxiety and/or depression in women of reproductive age. This study will further the understanding of the relationship between mental illness in women of reproductive age with chronic medical conditions. The results of this study will have implications for the integration of mental health care in women’s health centers and perhaps training of clinicians and physicians providing psychological and medical care to women of reproductive age.

Keywords: mental health, physical health, reproductive age, women

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10212 Management of Diabetics on Hemodialysis

Authors: Souheila Zemmouchi


Introduction: Diabetes is currently the leading cause of end-stage chronic kidney disease and dialysis, so it adds additional complexity to the management of chronic hemodialysis patients. These patients are extremely fragile because of their multiple cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Clear and complete description of the experience: the management of a diabetic on hemodialysis is particularly difficult due to frequent hypoglycaemia and significant inter and perdialyticglycemic variability that is difficult to predict. The aim of our study is to describe the clinical-biological profile and to assess the cardiovascular risk of diabetics undergoing chronic hemodialysis, and compare them with non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried out between January 01 and December 31, 2018, involving 309 hemodialysis patients spread over 4 centersThe data were collected prospectively then compiled and analyzed by the SPSS Version 10 software The FRAMINGHAM RISK SCORE has been used to assess cardiovascular risk in all hemodialysis patients Results: The survey involved 309 hemodialysis patients, including 83 diabetics, for a prevalence of 27% The average age 53 ± 10.2 years. The sex ratio is 1.5. 50% of diabetic hemodialysis patients retained residual diuresis against 32% in non-diabetics. In the group of diabetics, we noted more hypertension (70% versus 38% non-diabetics P 0.004), more intradialytichypoglycemia (15% versus 3% non-diabetics P 0.007), initially, vascular exhaustion was found in 4 diabetics versus 2 non-diabetics. 70% of diabetics with anuria had postdialytichyperglycemia. The study found a statistically significant difference between the different levels of cardiovascular risk according to the diabetic status. Conclusion: There are many challenges in the management of diabetics on hemodialysis, both to optimize glycemic control according to an individualized target and to coordinate comprehensive and effective care.

Keywords: hemodialysis, diabetes, chronic renal failure, glycemic control

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10211 Integrated Care on Chronic Diseases in Asia-Pacific Countries

Authors: Chang Liu, Hanwen Zhang, Vikash Sharma, Don Eliseo Lucerno-Prisno III, Emmanuel Yujuico, Maulik Chokshi, Prashanthi Krishnakumar, Bach Xuan Tran, Giang Thu Vu, Kamilla Anna Pinter, Shenglan Tang


Background and Aims: Globally, many health systems focus on hospital-based healthcare models targeting acute care and disease treatment, which are not effective in addressing the challenges of ageing populations, chronic conditions, multi-morbidities, and increasingly unhealthy lifestyles. Recently, integrated care programs on chronic diseases have been developed, piloted, and implemented to meet such challenges. However, integrated care programs in the Asia-Pacific region vary in the levels of integration from linkage to coordination to full integration. This study aims to identify and analyze existing cases of integrated care in the Asia-Pacific region and identify the facilitators and barriers in order to improve existing cases and inform future cases. Methods: The study is a comparative study, with a combination approach of desk-based research and key informant interviews. The selected countries included in this study represent a good mix of lower-middle income countries (the Philippines, India, Vietnam, and Fiji), upper-middle income country (China), and high-income country (Singapore) in the Asia-Pacific region. Existing integrated care programs were identified through the scoping review approach. Trigger, history, general design, beneficiaries, and objectors were summarized with barriers and facilitators of integrated care based on key informant interviews. Representative case(s) in each country were selected and comprehensively analyzed through deep-dive case studies. Results: A total of 87 existing integrated care programs on chronic diseases were found in all countries, with 44 in China, 21 in Singapore, 12 in India, 5 in Vietnam, 4 in the Philippines, and 1 in Fiji. 9 representative cases of integrated care were selected for in-depth description and analysis, with 2 in China, the Philippines, and Vietnam, and 1 in Singapore, India, and Fiji. Population aging and the rising chronic disease burden have been identified as key drivers for almost all the six countries. Among the six countries, Singapore has the longest history of integrated care, followed by Fiji, the Philippines, and China, while India and Vietnam have a shorter history of integrated care. Incentives, technologies, education, and performance evaluation would be crucial for developing strategies for implementing future programs and improve already existing programs. Conclusion: Integrated care is important for addressing challenges surrounding the delivery of long-term care. To date, there is an increasing trend of integrated care programs on chronic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region, and all six countries in our study set integrated care as a direction for their health systems transformation.

Keywords: integrated healthcare, integrated care delivery, chronic diseases, Asia-Pacific region

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10210 Integrating Geographic Information into Diabetes Disease Management

Authors: Tsu-Yun Chiu, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tain-Junn Cheng


Background: Traditional chronic disease management did not pay attention to effects of geographic factors on the compliance of treatment regime, which resulted in geographic inequality in outcomes of chronic disease management. This study aims to examine the geographic distribution and clustering of quality indicators of diabetes care. Method: We first extracted address, demographic information and quality of care indicators (number of visits, complications, prescription and laboratory records) of patients with diabetes for 2014 from medical information system in a medical center in Tainan City, Taiwan, and the patients’ addresses were transformed into district- and village-level data. We then compared the differences of geographic distribution and clustering of quality of care indicators between districts and villages. Despite the descriptive results, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for indices of care in order to compare the quality of diabetes care among different areas. Results: A total of 23,588 patients with diabetes were extracted from the hospital data system; whereas 12,716 patients’ information and medical records were included to the following analysis. More than half of the subjects in this study were male and between 60-79 years old. Furthermore, the quality of diabetes care did indeed vary by geographical levels. Thru the smaller level, we could point out clustered areas more specifically. Fuguo Village (of Yongkang District) and Zhiyi Village (of Sinhua District) were found to be “hotspots” for nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease; while Wangliau Village and Erwang Village (of Yongkang District) would be “coldspots” for lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to blood lipids examination. On the other hand, Yuping Village (in Anping District) was the area with the lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to all laboratory examination. Conclusion: In spite of examining the geographic distribution, calculating rate ratios and their 95% CI could also be a useful and consistent method to test the association. This information is useful for health planners, diabetes case managers and other affiliate practitioners to organize care resources to the areas most needed.

Keywords: catchment area of healthcare, chronic disease management, Geographic information system, quality of diabetes care

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10209 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge


Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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10208 Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Screening: The Role, Strategies and Challenging of Primary Healthcare Faced to Augment and Identify Asymptomatic Infected Patients

Authors: Tarek K. Jalouta, Jolietta R. Holliman, Kathryn R. Burke, Kathleen M. Bewley-Thomas


Background: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In the United States, HCV screening awareness, treatment, and linkage to care are under continues ascending progress. However, still millions of people are asymptomatically infected and undiagnosed yet. Through this community mission, we sought to identify the best and the newest strategies to identify those infected people to educate them, link them to care and cure them. Methods: We have identified patients that did not have a prior HCV screening in our Electronic medical record (EMR) including all our different hospital locations (South Suburban Chicago, Northern, Western and Central Indiana). Providing education to all Primary care/Gastroenterology/Infectious diseases providers and staff in the clinic to increase awareness of the HCV screening. Health-related quality of life, chronic clinical complications, and demographics data were collected for each patient. All outcomes of HCV antibody-reactive and HCV RNA–positive results were identified and statistically analyzed. Results: From July 2016 to July 2018 we screened 35,720 individuals of birth cohort in our different Franciscan’s health medical centers. Of the screened population, 986 (2.7%) individuals were HCV AB-reactive. Of those, 319 (1%) patients were HCV RNA-positive, and 264 patients were counseled and linked to providers. 34 patients initiated anti-HCV therapy with successful treatment. Conclusions: Our HCV screening augmentation project considered the largest screening program in the Midwest. Augmenting the HCV screening process through creating a Best Practice Alert (BPA) in the EMR (Epic Sys.) and point of care testing could be helpful. Although continued work is required, our team is working on increase screening through adding HCV test to CBC-Panels in Emergency Department settings, phone calls to all birth cohort individuals through Robo-Calling System aimed to reach 75,000 individuals by 2019. However, a better linkage to care and referral monitoring system to all HCV RNA positive patients is still needed, and access to therapy, especially for uninsured patients, is challenging.

Keywords: chronic hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C treatment, chronic hepatitis C screening, chronic hepatitis C prevention, liver cancer

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10207 Perception of Nursing Care of Patients in a University Hospital

Authors: Merve Aydin, Mağfiret Kara Kaşikçi


Aim: To determine the perceptions of inpatients about care at Farabi Hospital in KTU. Material and Method: This research was conducted by using the universe known examples of formulas and probability selected by sampling method with 277 chosen patients in the hospital at least 14 days in other internal and surgical clinics except for pediatric, psychiatry, and intensive care unit services between January-March 2014 in KTU Farabi Hospital. The data was collected through the forms of nursing care perception scale of patients and defining characteristics of patients. In the evaluation of data, percentage, mean, Mann Whitney U, Student t and Kurskall Wallis tests were applied. Results: The average point the patients got in nursing care perception scale is 62.64±10.08’dir. 48.7 % of patients regard nursing care well and 36.8 % of them regard it very well. 19 % of the patients regard nursing care badly. When the age, sex, occupation, marital status, educational background, residential place, income level, hospitalization period, hospitalization clinic and having a hospital attendant were compared with nursing care perception average point, the difference among point averages was not found meaningful statistically (p > 0.05). The average point of nursing care perception was found greater in those having chronic disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The perception point of patients about nursing care is above the average according to the average of the lowest and highest points. The great majority of patients regard nursing care well or very well.

Keywords: hospital, patient, perception of nursing care, nursing care

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10206 An Examination of Low Engagement in a Group-Based ACT Intervention for Chronic Pain Management: Highlighting the Need for User-Attainment Focused Digitalised Interventions

Authors: Orestis Kasinopoulos, Maria Karekla, Vasilis Vasiliou, Evangelos Karademas


Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is an empirically supported intervention for treating Chronic Pain Patients, yet its effectiveness for some chronic conditions or when adapted to other languages, has not been explored. An ACT group intervention was designed to explore the effectiveness of treating a Greek speaking heterogeneous sample of Chronic Pain patients with the aim of increasing quality of life, acceptance of pain and functionality. Sixty-nine patients were assessed and randomly assigned to an ACT or control group (relaxation techniques) for eight, 90-minute, sessions. Results are currently being analysed and follow-ups (6 and 12 month) are being completed. Low adherence rates and high attrition rates observed in the study, however point to the direction of future modified interventions. Such modifications may include web-based and smartphone interventions and their benefits in being implemented in chronic pain patients.

Keywords: chronic pain, ACT, internet-delivered, digitalised intervention, adherence, attrition

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10205 The out of Proportion - Pulmonary Hypertension in Indians with Chronic Lung Disease

Authors: S. P. Chintan, A. M. Khoja, M. Modi, R. K. Chopra, S. Garde, D. Jain, O. Kajale


Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare but debilitating disease that affects individuals of all ages and walks of life. As recent as 15 years ago, a patient diagnosed with PH was given an average survival rate of 2.8 years. Recent advances in treatment options have allowed patients to improve quality o and quantity of life. Initial screening for PH is through echocardiography with final diagnosis confirmed through right heart catheterization. PH is now considered to have five major classifications with subgroups among each. The mild to moderate PH is common in chronic lung diseases like Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and Interstitial lung disease. But very severe PH is noted in few cases. In COPD patients, PH is associated with an increased risk of severe exacerbations and a reduced life expectancy. Similarly, in patients with ILD, the presence of PH correlates with a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential to slow disease progression. We report here five cases of severe PH (Out of Proportion) of which four cases were of COPD and another one of IPF (UIP pattern). There echocardiography showed gross RA/RV dilatation, interventricular septum bulging to the left and mPAP of more than 100 mmHg in all the five cases. These patients were put on LTOT, pulmonary rehabilitation, combination pharmacotherapy of vasodilators and diuretics in continuation to the treatment of underlying disease. As these patients have grave prognosis close monitoring and follow up is required. Physicians associated with respiratory care and treating chronic lung disease should have knowledge in the diagnosis and management of patients with PH.

Keywords: COPD, pulmonary hypertension, chronic lung disease, India

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10204 Synthetic Dermal Template Use in the Reconstruction of a Chronic Scalp Wound

Authors: Stephanie Cornish


The use of synthetic dermal templates, also known as dermal matrices, such as PolyNovo® Biodegradable Temporising Matrix (BTM), has been well established in the reconstruction of acute wounds with a full thickness defect of the skin. Its use has become common place in the treatment of full thickness burns and is not unfamiliar in the realm of necrotising fasciitis, free flap donor site reconstruction, and the management of acute traumatic wounds. However, the use of dermal templates for more chronic wounds is rare. The authors present the successful use of BTM in the reconstruction of a chronic scalp wound following the excision of a malignancy and multiple previous failed attempts at repair, thus demonstrating the potential for an increased scope of use.

Keywords: dermal template, BTM, chronic, scalp wound, reconstruction

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10203 Sociocultural Context of Pain Management in Oncology and Palliative Nursing Care

Authors: Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni


Pain management is a question of quality of life and an indicator for nursing quality. Chronic pain which is predominant in oncology and palliative nursing situations is perceived today as a multifactorial, individual emotional experience with specific characteristics including the sociocultural dimension when dealing with migrant patients. This dimension of chronic pain is of major importance in professional nursing of migrant patients in hospices or palliative care units. Objectives of the study are: 1. To find out more about the sociocultural views on pain and nursing care, on customs and nursing practices connected with pain of both Turkish Muslim and German Christian women, 2. To improve individual and family oriented nursing practice with view to sociocultural needs of patients in severe pain in palliative care. In a qualitative-explorative comparative study 4 groups of women, Turkish Muslims immigrants (4 from the first generation, 5 from the second generation) and German Christian women of two generations (5 of each age group) of the same age groups as the Turkish women and with similar educational backgrounds were interviewed (semistructured ethnographic interviews using Spradley, 1979) on their perceptions and experiences of pain and nursing care within their families. For both target groups the presentation will demonstrate the following results in detail: Utterance of pain as well as “private” and “public” pain vary within different societies and cultures. Permitted forms of pain utterance are learned in childhood and determine attitudes and expectations in adulthood. Language, especially when metaphors and symbols are used, plays a major role for misunderstandings. The sociocultural context of illness may include specific beliefs that are important to the patients and yet seem more than far-fetched from a biomedical perspective. Pain can be an influential factor in family relationships where respect or hierarchies do not allow the direct utterance of individual needs. Specific resources are often, although not exclusively, linked to religious convictions and are significantly helpful in reducing pain. The discussion will evaluate the results of the study with view to the relevant literature and present nursing interventions and instruments beyond medication that are helpful when dealing with patients from various socio-cultural backgrounds in painful end-oflife situations.

Keywords: pain management, migrants, sociocultural context, palliative care

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10202 Caring for the Bedridden Older Members: Beliefs and Values of Northern Thai Families

Authors: Budsarin Padwang, Darunee Jongudomkarn, Thawan Nieamsup, Autchareeya Patumwan, Rutja Phuphaibul


In Northern Thailand, a pilot study by the qualitative data, on caring for family members with chronic illness/bedridden based on in-depth interviews of the 12 elderly caregivers in family was carried out during November to December 2017. There are four families that living with three generations in the family. This report is part of a larger study of 'The intergenerational contract of the family in long-term care for older members' to understand the situation and context related to the research questions. Content analysis was obtained and the results revealed as followings. 1) No choice and no freedom: most caregivers were asked by their family members to do the care giving roles because of various appropriate reasons and they could not refuse and felt like having no freedom. 2) ‘Katanyu’ to the parents: The Thai ideology of making merit by taking care of parents was beliefs to do the best in their caregiver roles. 3) The family commitments: The issues of family caring and relationships were the key value of keeping family members to take care of older members with chronic illness/bedridden. The preliminary findings can be beneficial for other regions and will lead to in-depth explore to answer the research questions of the larger study in the future.

Keywords: intergenerational contract, long term care, older members, generational family

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10201 Unpleasant Symptom Clusters Influencing Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Anucha Taiwong, Nirobol Kanogsunthornrat


This predictive research aimed to investigate the symptom clusters that influence the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease, as indicated in the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. The purposive sample consisted of 150 patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease who received care at an outpatient chronic kidney disease clinic of a tertiary hospital in Roi-Et province. Data were collected from January to March 2016 by using a patient general information form, unpleasant symptom form, and quality of life (SF-36) and were analyzed by using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed six core symptom clusters including symptom cluster of the mental and emotional conditions, peripheral nerves abnormality, fatigue, gastro-intestinal tract, pain and, waste congestion. Significant predictors for quality of life were the two symptom clusters of pain (Beta = -.220; p < .05) and the mental and emotional conditions (Beta=-.204; p<.05) which had predictive value of 19.10% (R2=.191, p<.05). This study indicated that the symptom cluster of pain and the mental and emotional conditions would worsen the patients’ quality of life. Nurses should be attentive in managing the two symptom clusters to facilitate the quality of life among patients with chronic kidney disease.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, symptom clusters, predictors of quality of life, pre-dialysis

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10200 Analyzing Doctors’ Knowledge of the United Kingdom Chief Medical Officer's Guidelines for Physical Activity: Survey of Secondary Care Doctors in a District General Hospital

Authors: Alexandra Von Guionneau, William Sloper, Charlotte Burford


The benefits of exercise for the prevention and management of chronic disease are well established and the importance of primary care practitioners in promoting exercise is becoming increasingly recognized. However, those with severe manifestations of the chronic disease are managed in a secondary care setting. Secondary care practitioners, therefore, have a role to play in promoting physical activity. Methods: In order to assess secondary care doctors’ knowledge of the Chief Medical Officer’s guidelines for physical activity, a 12-question survey was administered to staff working in a district general hospital in South England during team and unit meetings. Questions related to knowledge of the current guidelines for both 19 - 64 year olds and older adults (65 years and above), barriers to exercise discussion or prescription and doctors’ own exercise habits. Responses were collected anonymously and analyzed using SPSS Version 24.0. Results: 96 responses were collected. Doctors taking part in the survey ranged from foundation years (26%) to consultants (40%). 17.7% of participants knew the guidelines for moderate intensity activity for 19 - 64 year olds. Only one participant knew all of the guidance for both 19 - 64 year olds and older adults. While 71.6% of doctors felt they were adequately informed about how to exercise, only 45.6% met the minimum recommended guidance for moderate intensity activity. Conclusion: More work is needed to promote the physical activity guidelines and exercise prescription to doctors working within a secondary care setting. In addition, doctors require more support to personally meet the recommended minimum level of physical activity.

Keywords: exercise is medicine, exercise prescription, physical activity guidelines, exercise habits

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10199 Building a Framework for Digital Emergency Response System for Aged, Long Term Care and Chronic Disease Patients in Asia Pacific Region

Authors: Nadeem Yousuf Khan


This paper proposes the formation of a digital emergency response system (dERS) in the aged, long-term care, and chronic disease setups in the post-COVID healthcare ecosystem, focusing on the Asia Pacific market where the aging population is increasing significantly. It focuses on the use of digital technologies such as wearables, a global positioning system (GPS), and mobile applications to build an integrated care system for old folks with co-morbidities and other chronic diseases. The paper presents a conceptual framework of a connected digital health ecosystem that not only provides proactive care to registered patients but also prevents the damages due to sudden conditions such as strokes by alerting and treating the patients in a digitally connected and coordinated manner. A detailed review of existing digital health technologies such as wearables, GPS, and mobile apps was conducted in context with the new post-COVID healthcare paradigm, along with a detailed literature review on the digital health policies and usability. A good amount of research papers is available in the application of digital health, but very few of them discuss the formation of a new framework for a connected digital ecosystem for the aged care population, which is increasing around the globe. A connected digital emergency response system has been proposed by the author whereby all registered patients (chronic disease and aged/long term care) will be connected to the proposed digital emergency response system (dERS). In the proposed ecosystem, patients will be provided with a tracking wrist band and a mobile app through which the control room will be monitoring the mobility and vitals such as atrial fibrillation (AF), blood sugar, blood pressure, and other vital signs. In addition to that, an alert in case if the patient falls down will add value to this system. In case of any variation in the vitals, an alert is sent to the dERS 24/7, and dERS clinical staff immediately trigger that alert which goes to the connected hospital and the adulatory service providers, and the patient is escorted to the nearest connected tertiary care hospital. By the time, the patient reaches the hospital, dERS team is ready to take appropriate clinical action to save the life of the patient. Strokes or myocardial infarction patients can be prevented from disaster if they are accessible to engagement healthcare. This dERS will play an effective role in saving the lives of aged patients or patients with chronic co-morbidities.

Keywords: aged care, atrial fibrillation, digital health, digital emergency response system, digital technology

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10198 Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Feelings of Uncertainty

Authors: Kyngäs Helvi, Patala-Pudas, Kaakinen Pirjo


It has been reported that COPD -patients may experience much emotional distress, which can compromise positive health outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore disease-related uncertainty as reported by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients. Uncertainty was defined as a lack of confidence; negative feelings; a sense of confidence; and awareness of the sources of uncertainty. Research design was a non-experimental cross-sectional survey. The data (n=141) was collected by validated questionnaire during COPD -patients’ visits or admissions to a tertiary hospital. The response rate was 62%. The data was analyzed by statistical methods. Around 70% of the participants were male with COPD diagnosed many years ago. Fifty-four percent were under 65 years and used an electronic respiratory aid apparatus (52%) (oxygen concentrator, ventilator or electronic inhalation device). Forty-one percent of the participants smoked. Disease-related uncertainty was widely reported. Seventy-three percent of the participants had uncertainty about their knowledge of the disease, the pulmonary medication and nutrition. One-quarter (25%) did not feel sure about managing COPD exacerbation. About forty percent (43%) reported that they did not have a written exacerbation decision aid indicating how to act in relation to COPD symptoms. Over half of the respondents were uncertain about self-management behavior related to health habits such as exercise and nutrition. Over a third of the participants (37%) felt uncertain about self-management skills related to giving up smoking. Support from the care providers was correlated significantly with the patients’ sense of confidence. COPD -patients who felt no confidence stated that they received significantly less support in care. Disease-related uncertainty should be considered more closely and broadly in the patient care context, and those strategies within patient education that enhance adherence should be strengthened and incorporated into standard practice.

Keywords: adherence, COPD, disease-management, uncertainty

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10197 Organizing Diabetes Care in a Resource Constrained Country: Bangladesh as an Example

Authors: Liaquat Ali, Khurshid Natasha


Low resource countries are not usually equipped with the organizational tools to implement health care for chronic diseases, and thus, providing effective diabetes care in such countries is a challenging task. Diabetic Association of Bangladesh (BADAS in Bengali acronym) has created a stimulating example to meet this challenge. Starting its journey in 1956 with 39 patients in a small tin shed clinic BADAS, and its affiliated associations now operate 90 hospitals and health centres all over the country. Together, these facilities provide integrated health care to about 1.5 million registered diabetic patients which constitute about 20% of the estimated diabetic population in the country. BADAS has also become a pioneer in health manpower generation in Bangladesh. Along with its affiliates, it now runs 3 Medical Colleges (to generate graduate physicians), 2 Nursing Institutes, and 2 Postgraduate Institutes which conduct 25 postgraduate courses (under the University of Dhaka) in various basic, clinical and public health disciplines. BADAS gives great emphasis on research, which encompasses basic, clinical as well as public health areas. BADAS is an ideal example of public-private partnership in health as most of its infrastructure has been created through government support but it is almost self-reliant in managing its revenue budget which approached approximately 40 million US dollar during 2010. BADAS raises resources by providing high-quality services to the people, both diabetic and non-diabetic. At the same time, BADAS has developed a cross financing model, to support diabetic patients in general and poor diabetic patients (identified through a social welfare network) in particular, through redistribution of the resources. Along with financial sustainability BADAS ensure organizational sustainability through a process of decentralization, community ownership, and democratic management. Presently a large scale pilot project (named as a Health Care Development Project or HCDP) is under implementation under BADAS umbrella with an objective to transform the diabetes care model to a health care model in general. It is expected to create further evidence on providing sustainable (with social safety net) health care delivery for diabetes, and other chronic illnesses as an integral part of general health care delivery in a resource constrained setting.

Keywords: Bangladesh, self sustain, health care, constrain

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10196 Intrathecal Fentanyl with 0.5% Bupivacaine Heavy in Chronic Opium Abusers

Authors: Suneet Kathuria, Shikha Gupta, Kapil Dev, Sunil Katyal


Chronic use of opioids in opium abusers can cause poor pain control and increased analgaesic requirement. We compared the duration of spinal anaesthesia in chronic opium abusers and non-abusers. This prospective randomised study included 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Grade I or II adults undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg bupivacaine, and 25 μg fentanyl in non-opium abusers (Group A); and chronic opium abusers (Group B), and 40 μg fentanyl in chronic opium abusers (Group C). Patients were assessed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of effective analgesia. Mean time to onset of adequate analgesia in opium abusers was significantly longer in chronic opium abusers than in opium-naive patients. The duration of sensory block and motor block was significantly less in chronic opium abusers than in non-opium abusers. Duration of effective analgesia in groups A, B and C was 255.55 ± 26.84, 217.85 ± 15.15, and 268.20 ± 18.25 minutes, respectively; this difference was statistically significant. In chronic opium abusers, the duration of spinal anaesthesia is significantly shorter than that in opium nonabusers. The duration of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl in chronic opium abusers can be improved by increasing the intrathecal fentanyl dose from 25 μg to 40 μg.

Keywords: bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers, fentanyl, intrathecal

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10195 The Importance of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Health Care Economics

Authors: Mutaz Shurahabeel Ahmed Ombada


This paper investigates potential health and financial settlement of health information technology, this paper evaluates health care with the use of IT and other associated industries. It assesses prospective savings and costs of extensive acceptance of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMRS), models significant to health as well as safety remuneration, and conclude that efficient EMRS execution and networking could ultimately save more than US $55 billion annually through recuperating health care effectiveness and that Health Information Technology -enabled prevention and administration of chronic disease could eventually double those savings while rising health and other social remuneration. On the contrary, this is improbable to be realized without related to significant modifications to the health care system.

Keywords: electronic medical record systems, health care economics, EMRS

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10194 Challenges to Quality Primary Health Care in Saudi Arabia and Potential Improvements Implemented by Other Systems

Authors: Hilal Al Shamsi, Abdullah Almutairi


Introduction: As primary healthcare centres play an important role in implementing Saudi Arabia’s health strategy, this paper offers a review of publications on the quality of the country’s primary health care. With the aim of deciding on solutions for improvement, it provides an overview of healthcare quality in this context and indicates barriers to quality. Method: Using two databases, ProQuest and Scopus, data extracted from published articles were systematically analysed for determining the care quality in Saudi primary health centres and obstacles to achieving higher quality. Results: Twenty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The components of healthcare quality were examined in terms of the access to and effectiveness of interpersonal and clinical care. Good access and effective care were identified in such areas as maternal health care and the control of epidemic diseases, whereas poor access and effectiveness of care were shown for chronic disease management programmes, referral patterns (in terms of referral letters and feedback reports), health education and interpersonal care (in terms of language barriers). Several factors were identified as barriers to high-quality care. These included problems with evidence-based practice implementation, professional development, the use of referrals to secondary care and organisational culture. Successful improvements have been implemented by other systems, such as mobile medical units, electronic referrals, online translation tools and mobile devices and their applications; these can be implemented in Saudi Arabia for improving the quality of the primary healthcare system in this country. Conclusion: The quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia varies among the different services. To improve quality, management programmes and organisational culture must be promoted in primary health care. Professional development strategies are also needed for improving the skills and knowledge of healthcare professionals. Potential improvements can be implemented to improve the quality of the primary health system.

Keywords: quality, primary health care, Saudi Arabia, health centres, general medical

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10193 Quality of Life and Renal Biomarkers in Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Bárbara Durão, Pedro Almeida, David Ramilo, André Meneses, Rute Canejo-Teixeira


The importance of quality of life (QoL) assessment in veterinary medicine is an integral part of patient care. This is especially true in cases of chronic diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), where the ever more advanced treatment options prolong the patient’s life. Whether this prolongment of life comes with an acceptable quality of life remains has been called into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CKD disease biomarkers and QoL in cats. Thirty-seven cats diagnosed with CKD and with no known concurrent illness were enrolled in an observational study. Through the course of several evaluations, renal biomarkers were assessed in blood and urine samples, and owners retrospectively described their cat’s quality of life using a validated instrument for this disease. Correlations between QoL scores (AWIS) and the biomarkers were assessed using Spearman’s rank test. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05, and every serial sample was considered independent. Thirty-seven cats met the inclusion criteria, and all owners completed the questionnaire every time their pet was evaluated, giving a total of eighty-four questionnaires, and the average-weighted-impact-score was –0.5. Results showed there was a statistically significant correlation between the quality of life and most of 17 the studied biomarkers and confirmed that CKD has a negative impact on QoL in cats especially due to the management of the disease and secondary appetite disorders. To our knowledge, this is the attempt to assess the correlation between renal biomarkers and QoL in cats. Our results reveal a strong potential of this type of approach in clinical management, mainly in situations where it is not possible to measure biomarkers. Whilst health-related QoL is a reliable predictor of mortality and morbidity in humans; our findings can help improve the clinical practice in cats with CKD.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, biomarkers, quality of life, feline

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