Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: mhealth

27 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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26 Personalized Intervention through Causal Inference in mHealth

Authors: Anna Guitart Atienza, Ana Fernández del Río, Madhav Nekkar, Jelena Ljubicic, África Periáñez, Eura Shin, Lauren Bellhouse

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The use of digital devices in healthcare or mobile health (mHealth) has increased in recent years due to the advances in digital technology, making it possible to nudge healthy behaviors through individual interventions. In addition, mHealth is becoming essential in poor-resource settings due to the widespread use of smartphones in areas where access to professional healthcare is limited. In this work, we evaluate mHealth interventions in low-income countries with a focus on causal inference. Counterfactuals estimation and other causal computations are key to determining intervention success and assisting in empirical decision-making. Our main purpose is to personalize treatment recommendations and triage patients at the individual level in order to maximize the entire intervention's impact on the desired outcome. For this study, collected data includes mHealth individual logs from front-line healthcare workers, electronic health records (EHR), and external variables data such as environmental, demographic, and geolocation information.

Keywords: causal inference, mHealth, intervention, personalization

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25 Exploring the Perspective of Service Quality in mHealth Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Wan-I Lee, Nelio Mendoza Figueredo

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The impact of COVID-19 has a significant effect on all sectors of society globally. Health information technology (HIT) has become an effective health strategy in this age of distancing. In this regard, Mobile Health (mHealth) plays a critical role in managing patient and provider workflows during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the users' perception of service quality about mHealth services plays a significant role in shaping confidence and subsequent behaviors regarding the mHealth users' intention of use. This study's objective was to explore levels of user attributes analyzed by a qualitative method of how health practitioners and patients are satisfied or dissatisfied with using mHealth services; and analyzed the users' intention in the context of Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores the experienced usability of a mHealth services during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study uses qualitative methods that include in-depth and semi-structured interviews that investigate participants' perceptions and experiences and the meanings they attribute to them. The five cases consisted of health practitioners, clinic staff, and patients' experiences using mHealth services. This study encourages participants to discuss issues related to the research question by asking open-ended questions, usually in one-to-one interviews. The findings show the positive and negative attributes of mHealth service quality. Hence, the significant importance of patients' and health practitioners' issues on several dimensions of perceived service quality is system quality, information quality, and interaction quality. A concept map for perceptions regards to emergency uses' intention of mHealth services process is depicted. The findings revealed that users pay more attention to "Medical care", "ease of use" and "utilitarian benefits" and have less importance for "Admissions and Convenience" and "Social influence". To improve mHealth services, the mHealth providers and health practitioners should better manage users' experiences to enhance mHealth services. This research contributes to the understanding of service quality issues in mHealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, mobile health, service quality, use intention

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24 Mobile Health Programs by Government: A Content Analysis of Online Consumer Reviews

Authors: Ge Zhan

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Mobile health (mHealth) concerns the use of mobile technologies to deliver health care and improve wellness. In this paper, we ask the question of what are the drivers of positive consumer attitude toward mHealth programs. Answers to this question are important to consumer health, but existing marketing and health care service literature does not provide sufficient empirical conclusions on the use of mobile technologies for consumer health. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap by investigating mHealth use and consumer attitude. A content analysis was conducted with sample mHealth programs and online consumer reviews in Hong Kong, UK, US, and India. The research findings will contribute to marketing and health services literature.

Keywords: mobile health, consumer attitude, content analysis, online marketing

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23 A Literature Review on Virtual Interventions for Midlife Women

Authors: Daniel D'Souza, Ping Zou

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The period before, during, and after menopause is a sensitive time for women as they experience intense physical and psychological health changes and symptoms. These changes accompany the hormonal changes that mark the end of a woman’s reproductive age. To help mitigate and cope with these changes, prompt and correct treatment is needed. eHealth has emerged as a branch of telemedicine in the past few decades as an alternate avenue for patients to receive care quickly and conveniently, as it relies on the Internet and computers. Within the past few years, eHealth has also given rise to mHealth, which is the use of personal mobile devices to receive treatment and care. However, there is a lack of study on their use for menopause. This review aimed to review and summarize the literature for eHealth or mHealth and menopause. Several databases related to women’s health and digital health were searched for original studies about eHealth or mHealth and menopause. The search yielded 25 results. The results were generally positive, with these interventions being feasible and having positive effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. However, several issues were raised regarding their design process that may inadvertently prevent these interventions from addressing the needs of all potential users. Therefore, while eHealth and mHealth certainly represent a future model of healthcare delivery for menopausal women, further research and design modifications are needed before this can happen.

Keywords: eHealth, menopause, mHealth, midlife women

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22 Utilizing Topic Modelling for Assessing Mhealth App’s Risks to Users’ Health before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Pedro Augusto Da Silva E Souza Miranda, Niloofar Jalali, Shweta Mistry

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BACKGROUND: Software developers utilize automated solutions to scrape users’ reviews to extract meaningful knowledge to identify problems (e.g., bugs, compatibility issues) and possible enhancements (e.g., users’ requests) to their solutions. However, most of these solutions do not consider the health risk aspects to users. Recent works have shed light on the importance of including health risk considerations in the development cycle of mHealth apps to prevent harm to its users. PROBLEM: The COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada (and World) is currently forcing physical distancing upon the general population. This new lifestyle made the usage of mHealth applications more essential than ever, with a projected market forecast of 332 billion dollars by 2025. However, this new insurgency in mHealth usage comes with possible risks to users’ health due to mHealth apps problems (e.g., wrong insulin dosage indication due to a UI error). OBJECTIVE: These works aim to raise awareness amongst mHealth developers of the importance of considering risks to users’ health within their development lifecycle. Moreover, this work also aims to help mHealth developers with a Proof-of-Concept (POC) solution to understand, process, and identify possible health risks to users of mHealth apps based on users’ reviews. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-method study design. We developed a crawler to mine the negative reviews from two samples of mHealth apps (my fitness, medisafe) from the Google Play store users. For each mHealth app, we performed the following steps: • The reviews are divided into two groups, before starting the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date before 15 Feb 2019) and during the COVID-19 (reviews’ submission date starts from 16 Feb 2019 till Dec 2020). For each period, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic model was used to identify the different clusters of reviews based on similar topics of review The topics before and during COVID-19 are compared, and the significant difference in frequency and severity of similar topics are identified. RESULTS: We successfully scraped, filtered, processed, and identified health-related topics in both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The results demonstrated the similarity between topics before and during the COVID-19.

Keywords: natural language processing (NLP), topic modeling, mHealth, COVID-19, software engineering, telemedicine, health risks

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21 Impact of Mhealth Tools on Psycho-Social Predictors of Behaviour Regarding Contraceptive Use

Authors: Preeti Tiwari, Jay Wood, Duncan Babbage

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Family planning plays a role in saving lives across the globe by preventing unwanted pregnancies. The purpose of this multidisciplinary research was to determine the impact of mHealth tools have on psychosocial determinants of behaviour for family planning. The present study examines a topic that is very relevant in times where human-technology interaction is at its peak. It is probably one of the first studies that have investigated the impact of mobile phone technology on the underlying mechanisms of behaviour change for family planning using primary data. To examine the association between exposure to mHealth tools and predictors of behaviour, data was collected from mHealth intervention areas in India. A post-intervention quasi-experimental study with a 2x2 factorial design was conducted among 831 men and women from the state of Bihar. The quantitative data analysis evaluated the extent of influence that predictors of behaviour (beliefs, social norms, perceived behaviour control, and outcome behaviour) have on a woman’s decisions about family planning. The results indicated an association between exposure to mHealth tools and improved communication about family planning among various family members after receiving health information from a health worker (H1). A relationship between exposure to mHealth tools and increased support women received from their husbands and extended family (mothers-in-law specifically) and peers (H2) was also found. A further result showed that knowledge about family planning was greater among users of family planning (H4). mHealth tools empower women to communicate with family members. This has important implications for developing mobile phone-based tools, as they can be used as a crucial communication channel that can be an effective method of increasing communication among family members about contraceptives. Thus, it can be implied that where women feel nervous talking about contraception, the successful application of mHealth tools can strengthen the interactivity of the health communication and could increase the likelihood of using contraception. However, while it may improve health communication that can inform health decisions, it may be insufficient on its own to cause behaviour change.

Keywords: contraceptive, e-health, psycho-social, women

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20 Role of mHealth in Effective Response to Disaster

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohamadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli

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In recent years, many countries have suffered various natural disasters. Disaster response continues to face the challenges in health care sector in all countries. Information and communication management is a significant challenge in disaster scene. During the last decades, rapid advances in information technology have led to manage information effectively and improve communication in health care setting. Information technology is a vital solution for effective response to disasters and emergencies so that if an efficient ICT-based health information system is available, it will be highly valuable in such situation. Of that, mobile technology represents a nearly computing technology infrastructure that is accessible, convenient, inexpensive and easy to use. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Since there is a high prevalence of cell phones among world population, it is expected the health care providers and managers to take measures for applying this technology for improvement patient safety and public health in disasters. At present there are challenges in the utilization of mhealth in disasters such as lack of structural and financial issues in our country. In this paper we will discuss about benefits and challenges of mhealth technology in disaster setting considering connectivity, usability, intelligibility, communication and teaching for implementing this technology for disaster response.

Keywords: information technology, mhealth, disaster, effective response

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19 Mental Health and Technology: Evidence Review

Authors: Kylie Henderson

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Adapting mental health interventions is important when providing support to those experiencing difficulties. This analysis aimed to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of mental health interventions. Literature that has analysed face-to-face (F2F), phone (Telehealth), mobile (mHealth) and online (e-interventions) interferences found all interventions were effective in reducing and treating symptoms of mental health disorders. F2F and Telehealth interventions facilitated greater engagement and client satisfaction. Due to accessibility and privacy, mHealth and e-interventions were the preferred methods of engagement with health services for youth and young adults. Regardless, these interventions still identified several barriers of high dropout, low adherence, and lack of awareness. Additionally, a large proportion of interventions lacked evidence-based foundations. Exploration of interventions that utilise a variety of interfaces, as well as incorporated evidence-based literature and clinician experience, show that they benefit those experiencing mental health difficulties. Applications like YourHealth+ provide a combination of interventions (F2F, mHealth, and e-interventions) to improve the wellbeing of job seekers and employment consults. Individuals that have used the application in conjunction with therapy have reported feeling more empowered and demonstrated improved wellbeing. Practitioners have also described improved confidence in their ability to provide support to clients. Therefore, it can be proposed that utilising a variety of interventions as well as incorporating literature and experience is beneficial to those experiencing mental health difficulties and to health practitioners.

Keywords: face-to-face, e-interventions, mHealth, YourHealth+

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18 Health Care Providers' Perceptions on mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program: A Thematic Analysis

Authors: Kim H. K. Choy, Oliva H. K. Chu, W. Y. Keung, B. Lim, Winnie P. Y. Tang

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Background: Health care providers have been identified as an at-risk group for obesity. Mobile health technology can be used to motivate lifestyle behavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate hospital-based health care providers’ perceptions of mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Ten health care providers were purposively selected for the study. Qualitative data was collected by individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews which were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: Four themes were identified: (1) mobile health technology motivates lifestyle changes, (2) self-perceived body weight initiates health behavioral changes, (3) organizational support promotes healthy behavior, (4) lack of self-confidence hinders lifestyle modification. The health care providers’ perceptions of mobile health technology, barriers, and facilitators to participation in the mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program were discussed in the study. Conclusions: Barriers, facilitators, self-perceived body weight and experiences of mobile health technology were associated with intention of participation in mHealth Workplace Nutrition Wellness Program. The knowledge generated from the study could be used to guide the design and implementation of effective interventions, strategies and policies of workplace wellness programs to promote participation for hospital’s employees.

Keywords: workplace wellness program, mobile health, barriers, facilitators, qualitative

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17 University Students' Perspectives on a Mindfulness-Based App for Weight, Weight Related Behaviors, and Stress: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

Authors: Lynnette Lyzwinski, Liam Caffery, Matthew Bambling, Sisira Edirippulige

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Introduction: A novel method of delivering mindfulness interventions for populations at risk of weight gain and stress-related eating, in particular, college students, is through mHealth. While there have been qualitative studies on mHealth for weight loss, there has not been a study on mHealth for weight loss using mindfulness that has explored student perspectives on a student centred mindfulness app and mindfulness-based text messages for eating and stress. Student perspective data will provide valuable information for creating a specific purpose weight management app and mindfulness-based text messages (for the Mindfulness App study). Methods: A qualitative focus group study was undertaken at St Lucia campus at the University of Queensland in March 2017. Students over the age of 18 were eligible to participate. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. One week following the focus group, students were sent sample mindfulness-based text messages based on their responses. Students provided written feedback via email. Data were analysed using N Vivo software. Results: The key themes in a future mindfulness-based app are a simple design interface, a focus on education/practical tips, and real-life practical exercises. Social media should be avoided. Key themes surrounding barriers include the perceived difficulty of mindfulness and a lack of proper guidance or knowledge. The mindfulness-based text messages were received positively. Key themes were creating messages with practical tips about how to be mindful and how to integrate mindful reflection of both one’s body and environment while on campus. Other themes including creating positive, inspirational messages. There was lack of agreement on the ideal timing for messages. Discussion: This is the first study that explored student perspectives on a mindfulness-app and mindfulness-based text messages for stress and weight management as a pre-trial study for the Mindfulness App trial for stress, lifestyle, and weight in students. It is important to consider maximizing the potential facilitators of use and minimize potential identified barriers when developing and designing a future mHealth mindfulness-based intervention tailored to the student consumer. Conclusion: Future mHealth studies may consider integrating mindfulness-based text messages in their interventions for weight and stress as this is a novel feature that appears to be acceptable for participants. The results of this focus group provide the basis to develop content for a specific purpose student app for weight management.

Keywords: mindfulness, college students, mHealth, weight loss

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16 A Stepped Care mHealth-Based Approach for Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes in Clinical Health Psychology

Authors: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Giada Pietrabissa, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Margherita Novelli, Emanuele Maria Giusti, Roberto Cattivelli, Enrico Molinari

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Diabesity could be defined as a new global epidemic of obesity and being overweight with many complications and chronic conditions. Such conditions include not only type 2 diabetes, but also cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, cancer, and various psychosocial and psychopathological disorders. The financial direct and indirect burden (considering also the clinical resources involved and the loss of productivity) is a real challenge in many Western health-care systems. Recently the Lancet journal defined diabetes as a 21st-century challenge. In order to promote patient compliance in diabesity treatment reducing costs, evidence-based interventions to improve weight-loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities combine different treatment approaches: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and, in some situations, pharmacological and surgical. Moreover, new technologies can provide useful solutions in this multidisciplinary approach, above all in maintaining long-term compliance and adherence in order to ensure clinical efficacy. Psychological therapies with diet and exercise plans could better help patients in achieving weight loss outcomes, both inside hospitals and clinical centers and during out-patient follow-up sessions. In the management of chronic diseases clinical psychology play a key role due to the need of working on psychological conditions of patients, their families and their caregivers. mHealth approach could overcome limitations linked with the traditional, restricted and highly expensive in-patient treatment of many chronic pathologies: one of the best up-to-date application is the management of obesity with type 2 diabetes, where mHealth solutions can provide remote opportunities for enhancing weight reduction and reducing complications from clinical, organizational and economic perspectives. A stepped care mHealth-based approach is an interesting perspective in chronic care management of obesity with type 2 diabetes. One promising future direction could be treating obesity, considered as a chronic multifactorial disease, using a stepped-care approach: -mhealth or traditional based lifestyle psychoeducational and nutritional approach. -health professionals-driven multidisciplinary protocols tailored for each patient. -inpatient approach with the inclusion of drug therapies and other multidisciplinary treatments. -bariatric surgery with psychological and medical follow-up In the chronic care management of globesity mhealth solutions cannot substitute traditional approaches, but they can supplement some steps in clinical psychology and medicine both for obesity prevention and for weight loss management.

Keywords: clinical health psychology, mhealth, obesity, type 2 diabetes, stepped care, chronic care management

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15 Effective Validation Model and Use of Mobile-Health Apps for Elderly People

Authors: Leonardo Ramirez Lopez, Edward Guillen Pinto, Carlos Ramos Linares

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The controversy brought about by the increasing use of mHealth apps and their effectiveness for disease prevention and diagnosis calls for immediate control. Although a critical topic in research areas such as medicine, engineering, economics, among others, this issue lacks reliable implementation models. However, projects such as Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) and various studies have helped to create useful and reliable apps. This research is conducted under a quality model to optimize two mHealth apps for older adults. Results analysis on the use of two physical activity monitoring apps - AcTiv (physical activity) and SMCa (energy expenditure) - is positive and ideal. Through a theoretical and practical analysis, precision calculations and personal information control of older adults for disease prevention and diagnosis were performed. Finally, apps are validated by a physician and, as a result, they may be used as health monitoring tools in physical performance centers or any other physical activity. The results obtained provide an effective validation model for this type of mobile apps, which, in turn, may be applied by other software developers that along with medical staff would offer digital healthcare tools for elderly people.

Keywords: model, validation, effective, healthcare, elderly people, mobile app

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14 Design of a Mhealth Therapy Management to Maintain Therapy Outcomes after Bariatric Surgery

Authors: A. Dudek, P. Tylec, G. Torbicz, P. Duda, K. Proniewska, P. Major, M. Pedziwiatr

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Background: Conservative treatments of obesity, based only on a proper diet and physical activity, without the support of an interdisciplinary team of specialist does not bring satisfactory bariatric results. Long-term maintenance of a proper metabolic results after rapid weight loss due to bariatric surgery requires engagement from patients. Mobile health tool may offer alternative model that enhance participant engagement in keeping the therapy. Objective: We aimed to assess the influence of constant monitoring and subsequent motivational alerts in perioperative period and on post-operative effects in the bariatric patients. As well as the study was designed to identify factors conductive urge to change lifestyle after surgery. Methods: This prospective clinical control study was based on a usage of a designed prototype of bariatric mHealth system. The prepared application comprises central data management with a comprehensible interface dedicated for patients and data transfer module as a physician’s platform. Motivation system of a platform consist of motivational alerts, graphic outcome presentation, and patient communication center. Generated list of patients requiring urgent consultation and possibility of a constant contact with a specialist provide safety zone. 31 patients were enrolled in continuous monitoring program during a 6-month period along with typical follow-up visits. After one year follow-up, all patients were examined. Results: There were 20 active users of the proposed monitoring system during the entire duration of the study. After six months, 24 patients took a part in a control by telephone questionnaires. Among them, 75% confirmed that the application concept was an important element in the treatment. Active users of the application indicated as the most valuable features: motivation to continue treatment (11 users), graphical presentation of weight loss, and other parameters (7 users), the ability to contact a doctor (3 users). The three main drawbacks are technical errors (9 users), tedious questionnaires inside the application (5 users), and time-consuming tasks inside the system (2 users). Conclusions: Constant monitoring and successive motivational alerts to continue treatment is an appropriate tool in the treatment after bariatric surgery, mainly in the early post-operative period. Graphic presentation of data and continuous connection with a clinical staff seemed to be an element of motivation to continue treatment and a sense of security.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, mHealth, mobile health tool, obesity

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13 A Survey of Digital Health Companies: Opportunities and Business Model Challenges

Authors: Iris Xiaohong Quan

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The global digital health market reached 175 billion U.S. dollars in 2019, and is expected to grow at about 25% CAGR to over 650 billion USD by 2025. Different terms such as digital health, e-health, mHealth, telehealth have been used in the field, which can sometimes cause confusion. The term digital health was originally introduced to refer specifically to the use of interactive media, tools, platforms, applications, and solutions that are connected to the Internet to address health concerns of providers as well as consumers. While mHealth emphasizes the use of mobile phones in healthcare, telehealth means using technology to remotely deliver clinical health services to patients. According to FDA, “the broad scope of digital health includes categories such as mobile health (mHealth), health information technology (IT), wearable devices, telehealth and telemedicine, and personalized medicine.” Some researchers believe that digital health is nothing else but the cultural transformation healthcare has been going through in the 21st century because of digital health technologies that provide data to both patients and medical professionals. As digital health is burgeoning, but research in the area is still inadequate, our paper aims to clear the definition confusion and provide an overall picture of digital health companies. We further investigate how business models are designed and differentiated in the emerging digital health sector. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted in the research. For the quantitative analysis, our research data came from two databases Crunchbase and CBInsights, which are well-recognized information sources for researchers, entrepreneurs, managers, and investors. We searched a few keywords in the Crunchbase database based on companies’ self-description: digital health, e-health, and telehealth. A search of “digital health” returned 941 unique results, “e-health” returned 167 companies, while “telehealth” 427. We also searched the CBInsights database for similar information. After merging and removing duplicate ones and cleaning up the database, we came up with a list of 1464 companies as digital health companies. A qualitative method will be used to complement the quantitative analysis. We will do an in-depth case analysis of three successful unicorn digital health companies to understand how business models evolve and discuss the challenges faced in this sector. Our research returned some interesting findings. For instance, we found that 86% of the digital health startups were founded in the recent decade since 2010. 75% of the digital health companies have less than 50 employees, and almost 50% with less than 10 employees. This shows that digital health companies are relatively young and small in scale. On the business model analysis, while traditional healthcare businesses emphasize the so-called “3P”—patient, physicians, and payer, digital health companies extend to “5p” by adding patents, which is the result of technology requirements (such as the development of artificial intelligence models), and platform, which is an effective value creation approach to bring the stakeholders together. Our case analysis will detail the 5p framework and contribute to the extant knowledge on business models in the healthcare industry.

Keywords: digital health, business models, entrepreneurship opportunities, healthcare

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12 A Folk’s Theory of the MomConnect (mHealth) Initiative in South Africa

Authors: Eveline Muika Kabongo, Peter Delobelle, Ferdinand Mukumbang, Edward Nicol

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Introduction: Studies have been conducted to establish the effect of the MomConnect program in South Africa, but these studies did not focus on the stakeholders' and implementers' perspectives and the underlying program theory of the MomConnect initiative program. We strived to obtain stakeholders’ perspectives and assumptions on the MomConnect program and develop an initial program theory (IPT) of how the MomConnect initiative was expected to work. Methods: A realist-informed explanatory design used. The interviewer was performed with 10 key informants selected purposively among MomConnect key informants at the a national level of NDoH South Africa. The interview was done via zoom and lasted for 30 to 60 minutes. Introduction and abduction inferencing approaches were applied. The deductive and inductive approaches were performed during the analysis. ICAMO hereustic framework was used to analysed the data in order to get key informants expectations on how the MomConnect will work or not. Results: We developed three folk’s theories illustrating how the key informants’ expected the MomConnect to work. These theories showed that the MomConnect intended to provide users with health information and education that will empower and motivate them with knowledge which will allow the improvement of health services delivery among HCPs and improvement of the uptake of MCH services among pregnant women and mothers and decrease the rate of maternal and child mortality in the country. The lack of an updated mechanism to link women to the outcome was an issue. Another problem enlightened was the introduction of the WhatsApp program instead of SMS messaging, which was free of charge to women. Conclusion: The Folk’s theory developed from this study provided an insight into how the MomConnect was expected to work and what did not work. The folk’s theory will be merged with information from candidate theories on synthesis review and document review to develop our initial program theory of the MomConnect initiative.

Keywords: mHealth, MomConnect program, realist evaluation, maternal and child health, maternal and child health services, introduction, theory-driven

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11 Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities for Mobile Health Applications

Authors: Yuli Paola Cifuentes Sanabria, Lina Paola Beltrán Beltrán, Leonardo Juan Ramírez López

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The availability to deploy mobile applications for healthcare is increasing daily thru different mobile app stores. But within these capabilities the number of hacking attacks has also increased, in particular into medical mobile applications. The security vulnerabilities in medical mobile apps can be triggered by errors in code, incorrect logic, poor design, among other parameters. This is usually used by malicious attackers to steal or modify the users’ information. The aim of this research is to analyze the vulnerabilities detected in mobile medical apps according to risk factor standards defined by OWASP in 2014.

Keywords: mHealth apps, OWASP, protocols, security vulnerabilities, risk factors

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10 MOVIDA.polis: Physical Activity mHealth Based Platform

Authors: Rui Fonseca-Pinto, Emanuel Silva, Rui Rijo, Ricardo Martinho, Bruno Carreira

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The sedentary lifestyle is associated to the development of chronic noncommunicable diseases (obesity, hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2) and the World Health Organization, given the evidence that physical activity is determinant for individual and collective health, defined the Physical Activity Level (PAL) as a vital signal. Strategies for increasing the practice of physical activity in all age groups have emerged from the various social organizations (municipalities, universities, health organizations, companies, social groups) by increasingly developing innovative strategies to promote motivation strategies and conditions to the practice of physical activity. The adaptation of cities to the new paradigms of sustainable mobility has provided the adaptation of urban training circles and mobilized citizens to combat sedentarism. This adaptation has accompanied the technological evolution and makes possible the use of mobile technology to monitor outdoor training programs and also, through the network connection (IoT), use the training data to make personalized recommendations. This work presents a physical activity counseling platform to be used in the physical maintenance circuits of urban centers, the MOVIDA.polis. The platform consists of a back office for the management of circuits and training stations, and for a mobile application for monitoring the user performance during workouts. Using a QRcode, each training station is recognized by the App and based on the individual performance records (effort perception, heart rate variation) artificial intelligence algorithms are used to make a new personalized recommendation. The results presented in this work were obtained during the proof of concept phase, which was carried out in the PolisLeiria training circuit in the city of Leiria (Portugal). It was possible to verify the increase in adherence to the practice of physical activity, as well as to decrease the interval between training days. Moreover, the AI-based recommendation acts as a partner in the training and an additional challenging factor. The platform is ready to be used by other municipalities in order to reduce the levels of sedentarism and approach the weekly goal of 150 minutes of moderate physical activity. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia FCT- Portugal and CENTRO2020 under the scope of MOVIDA project: 02/SAICT/2016 – 23878.

Keywords: physical activity, mHealth, urban training circuits, health promotion

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9 Development and Usability Assessment of a Connected Resistance Exercise Band Application for Strength-Monitoring

Authors: J. A. Batsis, G. G. Boateng, L. M. Seo, C. L. Petersen, K. L. Fortuna, E. V. Wechsler, R. J. Peterson, S. B. Cook, D. Pidgeon, R. S. Dokko, R. J. Halter, D. F. Kotz

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Resistance exercise bands are a core component of any physical activity strengthening program. Strength training can mitigate the development of sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass or strength and function with aging. Yet, the adherence of such behavioral exercise strategies in a home-based setting are fraught with issues of monitoring and compliance. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band capable of transmitting data to an open-source platform. In this work, we developed an application to capture this information in real-time, and conducted three usability studies in two mixed-aged groups of participants (n=6 each) and a group of older adults with obesity participating in a weight-loss intervention (n=20). The system was favorable, acceptable and provided iterative information that could assist in future deployment on ubiquitous platforms. Our formative work provides the foundation to deliver home-based monitoring interventions in a high-risk, older adult population.

Keywords: application, mHealth, older adult, resistance exercise band, sarcopenia

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8 Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol

Authors: Jamunarani Appalasamy, Tha Kyi Kyi, Quek Kia Fatt, Joyce Pauline Joseph, Anuar Zaini M. Zain

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Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)

Keywords: health belief, medication understanding, medication use, self-efficacy

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7 A Qualitative Study Exploring Factors Influencing the Uptake of and Engagement with Health and Wellbeing Smartphone Apps

Authors: D. Szinay, O. Perski, A. Jones, T. Chadborn, J. Brown, F. Naughton

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Background: The uptake of health and wellbeing smartphone apps is largely influenced by popularity indicators (e.g., rankings), rather than evidence-based content. Rapid disengagement is common. This study aims to explore how and why potential users 1) select and 2) engage with such apps, and 3) how increased engagement could be promoted. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and a think-aloud approach were used to allow participants to verbalise their thoughts whilst searching for a health or wellbeing app online, followed by a guided search in the UK National Health Service (NHS) 'Apps Library' and Public Health England’s (PHE) 'One You' website. Recruitment took place between June and August 2019. Adults interested in using an app for behaviour change were recruited through social media. Data were analysed using the framework approach. The analysis is both inductive and deductive, with the coding framework being informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework. The results are further mapped onto the COM-B (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation - Behaviour) model. The study protocol is registered on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/jrkd3/). Results: The following targets were identified as playing a key role in increasing the uptake of and engagement with health and wellbeing apps: 1) psychological capability (e.g., reduced cognitive load); 2) physical opportunity (e.g., low financial cost); 3) social opportunity (e.g., embedded social media); 4) automatic motivation (e.g., positive feedback). Participants believed that the promotion of evidence-based apps on NHS-related websites could be enhanced through active promotion on social media, adverts on the internet, and in general practitioner practices. Future Implications: These results can inform the development of interventions aiming to promote the uptake of and engagement with evidence-based health and wellbeing apps, a priority within the UK NHS Long Term Plan ('digital first'). The targets identified across the COM-B domains could help organisations that provide platforms for such apps to increase impact through better selection of apps.

Keywords: behaviour change, COM-B model, digital health, mhealth

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6 A Patient Passport Application for Adults with Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Tamara Vagg, Cathy Shortt, Claire Hickey, Joseph A. Eustace, Barry J. Plant, Sabin Tabirca

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Introduction: Paper-based patient passports have been used advantageously for older patients, patients with diabetes, and patients with learning difficulties. However, these passports can experience issues with data security, patients forgetting to bring the passport, patients being over encumbered, and uncertainty with who is responsible for entering and managing data in this passport. These issues could be resolved by transferring the paper-based system to a convenient platform such as a smartphone application (app). Background: Life expectancy for some Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients are rising and as such new complications and procedures are predicted. Subsequently, there is a need for education and management interventions that can benefit CF adults. This research proposes a CF patient passport to record basic medical information through a smartphone app which will allow CF adults access to their basic medical information. Aim: To provide CF patients with their basic medical information via mobile multimedia so that they can receive care when traveling abroad or between CF centres. Moreover, by recording their basic medical information, CF patients may become more aware of their own condition and more active in their health care. Methods: This app is designed by a CF multidisciplinary team to be a lightweight reflection of a hospital patient file. The passport app is created using PhoneGap so that it can be deployed for both Android and iOS devices. Data entered into the app is encrypted and stored locally only. The app is password protected and includes the ability to set reminders and a graph to visualise weight and lung function over time. The app is introduced to seven participants as part of a stress test. The participants are asked to test the performance and usability of the app and report any issues identified. Results: Feedback and suggestions received via this testing include the ability to reorder the list of clinical appointments via date, an open format of recording dates (in the event specifics are unknown), and a drop down menu for data which is difficult to enter (such as bugs found in mucus). The app is found to be usable and accessible and is now being prepared for a pilot study with adult CF patients. Conclusions: It is anticipated that such an app will be beneficial to CF adult patients when travelling abroad and between CF centres.

Keywords: Cystic Fibrosis, digital patient passport, mHealth, self management

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5 An Evaluation and Guidance for mHealth Apps

Authors: Tareq Aljaber

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The number of mobile health apps is growing at a fast frequency as it's nearly doubled in a year between 2015 and 2016. Though, there is a lack of an effective evaluation framework to verify the usability and reliability of mobile phone health education applications which would help saving time and effort for the numerous user groups. This abstract describing a framework for evaluating mobile applications in specifically mobile health education applications, along with a guidance select tool to assist different users to select the most suitable mobile health education apps. The effective framework outcome is intended to meet the requirements and needs of the different stakeholder groups additionally to enhancing the development of mobile health education applications with software engineering approaches, by producing new and more effective techniques to evaluate such software. This abstract highlights the significance and consequences of mobile health education apps, before focusing the light on the required to create an effective evaluation framework for these apps. An explanation of the effective evaluation framework is going to be delivered in the abstract, beside with some specific evaluation metrics: an efficient hybrid of selected heuristic evaluation (HE) and usability evaluation (UE) metrics to enable the determination of the usefulness and usability of health education mobile apps. Moreover, an explanation of the qualitative and quantitative outcomes for the effective evaluation framework was accomplished using Epocrates mobile phone app in addition to some other mobile phone apps. This proposed framework-An Evaluation Framework for Mobile Health Education Apps-consists of a hybrid of 5 metrics designated from a larger set in usability evaluation and heuristic evaluation, illuminated grounded on 15 unstructured interviews from software developers (SD), health professionals (HP) and patients (P). These five metrics corresponding to explicit facets of usability recognised through a requirements analysis of typical stakeholders of mobile health apps. These five hybrid selected metrics were scattered across 24 specific questionnaire questions, which are available on request from first author. This questionnaire has been sent to 81 participants distributed in three sets of stakeholders from software developers (SD), health professionals (HP) and patients/general users (P/GU) on the purpose of ranking three sets of mobile health education applications. Finally, the outcomes from the questionnaire data helped us to approach our aims which are finding the profile for different stakeholders, finding the profile for different mobile health educations application packages, ranking different mobile health education application and guide us to build the select guidance too which is apart from the Evaluation Framework for Mobile Health Education Apps.

Keywords: evaluation framework, heuristic evaluation, usability evaluation, metrics

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4 Development of mHealth Information in Community Based on Geographical Information: A Case Study from Saraphi District, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Authors: Waraporn Boonchieng, Ekkarat Boonchieng, Wilawan Senaratana, Jaras Singkaew

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Geographical information system (GIS) is a designated system widely used for collecting and analyzing geographical data. Since the introduction of ultra-mobile, 'smart' devices, investigators, clinicians, and even the general public have had powerful new tools for collecting, uploading and accessing information in the field. Epidemiology paired with GIS will increase the efficacy of preventive health care services. The objective of this study is to apply GPS location services that are available on the common mobile device with district health systems, storing data on our private cloud system. The mobile application has been developed for use on iOS, Android, and web-based platforms. The system consists of two parts of district health information, including recorded resident data forms and individual health recorded data forms, which were developed and approved by opinion sharing and public hearing. The application's graphical user interface was developed using HTML5 and PHP with MySQL as a database management system (DBMS). The reporting module of the developed software displays data in a variety of views, from traditional tables to various types of high-resolution, layered graphics, incorporating map location information with street views from Google Maps. Multi-extension exporting is also supported, utilizing standard platforms such as PDF, PNG, JPG, and XLS. The data were collected in the database beginning in March 2013, by district health volunteers and district youth volunteers who had completed the application training program. District health information consisted of patients’ household coordinates, individual health data, social and economic information. This was combined with Google Street View data, collected in March 2014. Studied groups consisted of 16,085 (67.87%) and 47,811 (59.87%) of the total 23,701 households and 79,855 people were collected by the system respectively, in Saraphi district, Chiang Mai Province. The report generated from the system has had a major benefit directly to the Saraphi District Hospital. Healthcare providers are able to use the basic health data to provide a specific home health care service and also to create health promotion activities according to medical needs of the people in the community.

Keywords: health, public health, GIS, geographic information system

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3 Promoting Patients' Adherence to Home-Based Rehabilitation: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Theory-Driven Mobile Application

Authors: Derwin K. C. Chan, Alfred S. Y. Lee

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The integrated model of self-determination theory and the theory of planned behaviour has been successfully applied to explain individuals’ adherence to health behaviours, including behavioural adherence toward rehabilitation. This study was a randomised controlled trial that examined the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention (i.e., mobile application) developed based on this integrated model in promoting treatment adherence of patients of anterior cruciate ligament rupture during their post-surgery home-based rehabilitation period. Subjects were 67 outpatients (aged between 18 and 60) who undertook anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery for less than 2 months for this study. Participants were randomly assigned either into the treatment group (who received the smartphone application; N = 32) and control group (who receive standard treatment only; N = 35), and completed psychological measures relating to the theories (e.g., motivations, social cognitive factors, and behavioural adherence) and clinical outcome measures (e.g., subjective knee function (IKDC), laxity (KT-1000), muscle strength (Biodex)) relating to ACL recovery at baseline, 2-month, and 4-month. Generalise estimating equation showed the interaction between group and time was significant on intention was only significant for intention (Wald x² = 5.23, p = .02), that of perceived behavioural control (Wald x² = 3.19, p = .07), behavioural adherence (Wald x² = 3.08, p = .08, and subjective knee evaluation (Wald x² = 2.97, p = .09) were marginally significant. Post-hoc between-subject analysis showed that control group had significant drop of perceived behavioural control (p < .01), subjective norm (p < .01) and intention (p < .01), behavioural adherence (p < .01) from baseline to 4-month, but such pattern was not observed in the treatment group. The treatment group had a significant decrease of behavioural adherence (p < .05) in the 2-month, but such a decrease was not observed in 4-month (p > .05). Although the subjective knee evaluation in both group significantly improved at 2-month and 4-month from the baseline (p < .05), and the improvements in the control group (mean improvement at 4-month = 40.18) were slightly stronger than the treatment group (mean improvement at 4-month = 34.52). In conclusion, the findings showed that the theory driven mobile application ameliorated the decline of treatment intention of home-based rehabilitation. Patients in the treatment group also reported better muscle strength than control group at 4-month follow-up. Overall, the mobile application has shown promises on tackling the problem of orthopaedics outpatients’ non-adherence to medical treatment.

Keywords: self-determination theory, theory of planned behaviour, mobile health, orthopaedic patients

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2 Applying Push Notifications with Behavioral Change Strategies in Fitness Applications: A Survey of User's Perception Based on Consumer Engagement

Authors: Yali Liu, Maria Avello Iturriagagoitia

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Background: Fitness applications (apps) are one of the most popular mobile health (mHealth) apps. These apps can help prevent/control health issues such as obesity, which is one of the most serious public health challenges in the developed world in recent decades. Compared with the traditional intervention like face-to-face treatment, it is cheaper and more convenient to use fitness apps to interfere with physical activities and healthy behaviors. Nevertheless, fitness applications apps tend to have high abandonment rates and low levels of user engagement. Therefore, maintaining the endurance of users' usage is challenging. In fact, previous research shows a variety of strategies -goal-setting, self-monitoring, coaching, etc.- for promoting fitness and health behavior change. These strategies can influence the users’ perseverance and self-monitoring of the program as well as favoring their adherence to routines that involve a long-term behavioral change. However, commercial fitness apps rarely incorporate these strategies into their design, thus leading to a lack of engagement with the apps. Most of today’s mobile services and brands engage their users proactively via push notifications. Push notifications. These notifications are visual or auditory alerts to inform mobile users about a wide range of topics that entails an effective and personal mean of communication between the app and the user. One of the research purposes of this article is to implement the application of behavior change strategies through push notifications. Proposes: This study aims to better understand the influence that effective use of push notifications combined with the behavioral change strategies will have on users’ engagement with the fitness app. And the secondary objectives are 1) to discuss the sociodemographic differences in utilization of push notifications of fitness apps; 2) to determine the impact of each strategy in customer engagement. Methods: The study uses a combination of the Consumer Engagement Theory and UTAUT2 based model to conduct an online survey among current users of fitness apps. The questionnaire assessed attitudes to each behavioral change strategy, and sociodemographic variables. Findings: Results show the positive effect of push notifications in the generation of consumer engagement and the different impacts of each strategy among different groups of population in customer engagement. Conclusions: Fitness apps with behavior change strategies have a positive impact on increasing users’ usage time and customer engagement. Theoretical experts can participate in designing fitness applications, along with technical designers.

Keywords: behavioral change, customer engagement, fitness app, push notification, UTAUT2

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1 Usability Assessment of a Bluetooth-Enabled Resistance Exercise Band among Young Adults

Authors: Lillian M. Seo, Curtis L. Petersen, Ryan J. Halter, David Kotz, John A. Batsis

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Background: Resistance-based exercises effectively enhance muscle strength, which is especially important in older populations as it reduces the risk of disability. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled handle for resistance exercise bands that wirelessly transmits relative force data through low-energy Bluetooth to a local smartphone or similar device. The system has the potential to measure home-based exercise interventions, allowing health professionals to monitor compliance. Its feasibility has already been demonstrated in both clinical and field-based settings, but it remained unclear whether the system’s usability persisted upon repeated use. The current study sought to assess the usability of this system and its users’ satisfaction with repeated use by deploying the device among younger adults to gather formative information that can ultimately improve the device’s design for older adults. Methods: A usability study was conducted in which 32 participants used the above system. Participants executed 10 repetitions of four commonly performed exercises: bicep flexion, shoulder abduction, elbow extension, and triceps extension. Each completed three exercise sessions, separated by at least 24 hours to minimize muscle fatigue. At its conclusion, subjects completed an adapted version of the usefulness, satisfaction, and ease (USE) questionnaire – assessing the system across four domains: usability, satisfaction, ease of use, and ease of learning. The 20-item questionnaire examined how strongly a participant agrees with positive statements about the device on a seven-point Likert scale, with one representing ‘strongly disagree’ and seven representing ‘strongly agree.’ Participants’ data were aggregated to calculate mean response values for each question and domain, effectively assessing the device’s performance across different facets of the user experience. Summary force data were visualized using a custom web application. Finally, an optional prompt at the end of the questionnaire allowed for written comments and feedback from participants to elicit qualitative indicators of usability. Results: Of the n=32 participants, 13 (41%) were female; their mean age was 32.4 ± 11.8 years, and no participants had a physical impairment. No usability questions received a mean score < 5 of seven. The four domains’ mean scores were: usefulness 5.66 ± 0.35; satisfaction 6.23 ± 0.06; ease of use 6.25 ± 0.43; and ease of learning 6.50 ± 0.19. Representative quotes of the open-ended feedback include: ‘A non-rigid strap-style handle might be useful for some exercises,’ and, ‘Would need different bands for each exercise as they use different muscle groups with different strength levels.’ General impressions were favorable, supporting the expectation that the device would be a useful tool in exercise interventions. Conclusions: A simple usability assessment of a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band supports a consistent and positive user experience among young adults. This study provides adequate formative data, assuring the next steps can be taken to continue testing and development for the target population of older adults.

Keywords: Bluetooth, exercise, mobile health, mHealth, usability

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