Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6686

Search results for: health centres

6686 Building Knowledge Society: The Imperative Role of Library and Information Centres (LICs) in Developing Countries

Authors: Desmond Chinedu Oparaku, Oyemike Victor Benson, Ifeyinwa A. Ariole

Abstract:

A critical examination of the emerging knowledge society reveals that library and information centres have a significant role to play in the building of knowledge society. The major highlights of this paper include: the conceptual analysis of knowledge society, overview of library and information centres in developing countries, role of libraries and information centre in building up of knowledge society, library and information professionals as factor in building knowledge, challenges faced by Library and Information Centres (LICs) in building knowledge society, strategies for building knowledge society. The position of this paper is that in spite of the influx of varied information and communication technologies in the information industry which is the driving force of knowledge society, there is a dire need for Libraries and Information Centres (LIC) to contribute positively to the migration and transition processes from the information society to knowledge-based society.

Keywords: information and communication technology (ICT), information centres, information industry, information society

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6685 Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure

Authors: B. Poorna Chander

Abstract:

Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.

Keywords: centre, activities, lifestyles, people, form

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6684 Interdisciplinary Expressive Artistic Activities within Prevention of Crisis Situations and Pathological Strains in Educational Facilities of Juvenile Detention Centres

Authors: Marie Bajnarová

Abstract:

The core part of the research project is represented by taking a perspective on the role of an educator in Juvenile Institutional Centres. In accordance with the research questions, the research explores impact of the environment, situations, practices, attitudes, values and also experience of the respondents. Art activities minimize risky behaviours and contribute to a healthy lifestyle. They also help children and adolescents with conduct disorders develop positive social behaviour, psychosocial skills and cope with difficult life situations.

Keywords: Juvenile Detention Centres, drawing, conduct disorders, art therapy

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6683 Mental Health Problems in College Students of India

Authors: Swati Naruka

Abstract:

"Looking after one’s mind is as important as looking after one’s body". As part of one’s overall health, mental and emotional health or well being is a necessary condition to enable one to manage one’s life successfully. Mental health is the capacity of an individual to form harmonious adjustments to one’s social and physical environments. Universities and colleges are dealing with substantial challenges posed by the changing mental health needs of today’s college students. It is important for administrators, faculty, and staff to understand the profound impact that mental health problems can have on all aspects of campus life, and to treat mental health issues as an institutional responsibility and priority. Counselling centres can respond effectively to the current challenges if they have the support and commitment of the administration; and if they take steps to balance the demand for services with existing resources by reviewing priorities, establishing appropriate limits, employing innovative strategies, and practicing good self-care to minimize stress and burnout. The need for counselling centres has never been greater. They will continue to play an important role in supporting the mission of higher education institutions by providing counselling for students who are experiencing problems and assisting them in achieving their educational and personal goals.

Keywords: mental health, well being, India, college students

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6682 The Design of a Smartbrush Oral Health Installation for Aged Care Centres in Australia

Authors: Lukasz Grzegorz Broda, Taiwo Oseni, Andrew Stranieri, Rodrigo Marino, Ronelle Welton, Mark Yates

Abstract:

The oral health of residents in aged care centres in Australia is poor, contributing to infections, hospital admissions, and increased suffering. Although the use of electric toothbrushes has been deployed in many centres, smartbrushes that record and transmit information about brushing patterns and duration are not routinely deployed. Yet, the use of smartbrushes for aged care residents promises better oral care. Thus, a study aimed at investigating the appropriateness and suitability of a smartbrush for aged care residents is currently underway. Due to the peculiarity of the aged care setting, the incorporation of smartbrushes into residents’ care does require careful planning and design considerations. This paper describes an initial design process undertaken through the use of an actor to understand the important elements to be incorporated whilst installing a smartbrush for use in aged care settings. The design covers the configuration settings of the brush and app, including ergonomic factors related to brush and smartphone placement. A design science approach led to an installation re-design and a revised protocol for the planned study, the ultimate aim being to design installations to enhance perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitudes towards the incorporation of smartbrushes for improving oral health care for aged care residents.

Keywords: smartbrush, applied computing, life and medical sciences, health informatics

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6681 Architectural Heritage of Southern Portugal: Disruptive Practices and Sustainability Plans for its Preservation

Authors: Patrícia Alexandra Rodrigues Monteiro

Abstract:

The way modern societies relate with their architectural heritage has become increasingly difficult. This fact is clearer in historic centres of Portuguese peripheral cities or villages, constantly on the balance between its growth needs and the restrictions imposed by the policies for the built heritage preservation. Nowadays, gentrification phenomenon has levelled the differences between architecture, from north to south of the country, under false pretences of modernity and promises of better living conditions for local populations who inhabit historic centres. With this essay, we will address some of the main problems of southern Portugal’s historic centres, reflecting on the concept of sustainability which, also in this context, has acquired an unavoidable relevance.

Keywords: architecture, art, heritage, portugal

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6680 Primary Care Physicians in Urgent Care Centres of the United Kingdom

Authors: Mohammad Ansari, Ahmed Ismail, Satinder Mann

Abstract:

Overcrowding in Emergency departments (ED) of United Kingdom has become a common problem. Urgent Care centres were developed nearly a decade ago to reduce pressure on EDs. Unfortunately, the development of Urgent Care centres has failed to produce the projected effects. It was thought that nearly 40% patients attending ED would go to Urgent Care centres and these would be staffed by Primary care Physicians. Data reveals that no more than 20% patients were seen by Primary Care Physicians even when the Urgent Care Centre was based in the ED. This study was carried out at the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK where the Urgent Care centre was based in the ED and employed Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma for nearly one year. This was then followed by a Primary Care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number of patients seen during these periods and the cost-effectiveness of the service.We randomly selected a week of patients seen by Primary Care Physicians with special interest in Trauma and by Primary Care Physicians and the Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number and type of patients seen during these two periods. Nearly 38% patients were seen by Primary care Physician with special interest in Trauma, whilst only 14.3% patients were seen by the Primary care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. The Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma were paid less. Our study confirmed that unless Primary Care Physicians are able to treat minor trauma and interpret x-rays, the urgent care service is not going to be cost effective. Numerous previous studies have shown that 15 to 20% patients attending ED can be treated by Primary Care Physicians who do not require any investigations for their management. It is advantageous to have Urgent Care Centres within the ED because if the patient deteriorates they can be transferred to ED. We recommend that the Urgent care Centres should be a part of ED. Our study shows that Urgent care Centres in the ED can be helpful and cost effective if staffed by either senior Emergency Physicians or Primary Care Physicians with special interest and experience in the management of minor trauma.

Keywords: urgent care centres, primary care physician, advanced nurse practitioner, trauma

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6679 Typology of Customers in Fitness Centres

Authors: Josef Voracek, Jan Sima

Abstract:

The main purpose of our study is to state the basic types of fitness customers. This paper aims to create a specific customer typology in today’s fitness centres in the region of Prague. Our suggested typology of Prague fitness centres customers is based on answers to the questions: What are the customers like, what are their preferences, and what kinds of services do they use more often in Prague fitness centres? These are the main aspects of the presented typology. A survey was conducted on a sample of 1004 respondents from 48 fitness centres, which ran during May 2012. We used questionnaires and latent class analysis for the assessment and interpretation of data. Gender was especially the main filter criterion. In the population, there were 522 males and 482 females. Data were analysed using the LCA method. We identified 6 segments of typical customers, of which three are male and three are female. Each segment is influenced primarily by the age of customers, from which we can develop further characteristics, such as education, income, marital status, etc. Male segments use the main workout area above all, whilst female segments use a much wider range of services offered, for example, group exercises, personal training, and cardio theatres. LCA method was found to be the most suitable tool, because cluster analysis is very limited in the forms and numbers of variables and indicators. Models of 3 latent classes for each gender are optimal, as it is demonstrated by entropy indices and matrices of the likelihood of the membership to the classes. A probable weak point of the survey is the selection of fitness centres, because of the market in Prague is really specific.

Keywords: customer, fitness, latent class analysis, typology

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6678 Timbuktu Pattern of Islamic Education: A Role Model for the Establishment of Islamic Educational System in Sokoto Caliphate

Authors: A. M. Gada, H. U. Malami

Abstract:

Timbuktu is one of the eight regions in the present day the Republic of Mali. It flourished as one of the earliest centres of Islamic learning in West Africa in the eleventh century CE. The famous Islamic centre in Timbuktu is situated in the Sankore mosque, which is known to be one of the earliest established Islamic University. This centre produced scholars who were zealous in disseminating Islamic education to different parts of West Africa and beyond. As a result, most of these centres adopted the Timbuktu pattern of learning. Some of the beneficiaries of this noble activity are Muslim scholars which are responsible for the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate in the early nineteenth century. This paper intends to reflect on the pattern of Islamic education of the Timbuktu scholars and see how it impacted on the Islamic centres of learning established by these Jihad-scholars who were successful in the establishment of an Islamic state known as the Sokoto Caliphate.

Keywords: Timbuktu, Sankore, Islamic educational system, Sokoto Caliphate, centres of Islamic learning

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6677 Induction of Innovation (Districts) in (Spatial) Planning and Policy

Authors: Meera Prajapati

Abstract:

Technological innovation is important for economic and spatial rejuvenation. Innovation districts from the last decades around university towns offer interesting examples. Planning directs the interplay between economic and urban development in these innovation districts that appear in particular regions with economic benefits as a result of incentives to attract multinational industries in innovation centres, research parks, universities, bio incubator assets, etc. The inclination of the OECED towards developing entrepreneurship and innovation to harness a boost in growth requires sustainable living conditions. This research aims to understand ‘how innovation or knowledge centres affected development policies and helped cities to become a high-tech region?’ Therefore, the economic policies of cities are investigated as well as the location logic of centres and their intertwining with supporting services (health, education, living environment, etc.). Case studies (Eindhoven (The Netherlands) and Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)) position Pune (India) in terms of the planning components of innovation.

Keywords: innovation districts, high-tech regions, smart cities, urban planning and policies

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6676 Framework for the Modeling of the Supply Chain Collaborative Planning Process

Authors: D. Pérez, M. M. E. Alemany

Abstract:

In this work a Framework to model the Supply Chain (SC) Collaborative Planning (CP) Process is proposed, and particularly its Decisional view. The main Framework contributions with regards to previous related works are the following, 1) the consideration of not only the Decision view, the most important one due to the Process type, but other additional three views which are the Physical, Organisation and Information ones, closely related and complementing the Decision View, 2) the joint consideration of two interdependence types, the Temporal (among Decision Centres belonging to different Decision Levels) and Spatial (among Decision Centres belonging to the same Decision Level) to support the distributed Decision-Making process in SC where several decision Centres interact among them in a collaborative manner.

Keywords: collaborative planning, decision view, distributed decision-making, framework

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6675 Urgent Care Centres in the United Kingdom

Authors: Mohammad Ansari, Satinder Mann, Ahmed Ismail

Abstract:

Primary care patients in Emergency Departments (ED) have been the topic of discussion since 1998 in the United Kingdom. Numerous studies have analysed attendances in EDs retrospectively and suggest that at least one third to fifty percent patients attending ED with problems which could be managed appropriately in General Practice or minor injuries units. The pattern of ED Usage seems to be International. In Australia and many departments in the United States include walk in facilities staffed by physicians on family practice residency programme. It clearly appears in the United Kingdom that EDs have to accept that such patients with primary care problems will attend the ED and facilities will have to be provided to see and treat such patients. Urgent care centres were introduced in the United Kingdom nearly a decade ago to reduce the pressure on EDs. Most of these were situated near pre-existing EDs. Unfortunately these centres failed to have the desired effect of reducing the number of patients visiting EDs, it has been noticed that when more patients were seen in Urgent Care centres there were increased attendances in ED as well. A new model of Urgent Care centre was started in the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK. We looked at the working of the centre by looking at the number of patients seen daily against the number of total attendances in the ED. We studied the number and type of patients seen by the Urgent Care Doctor. All the medical records of the patients were seen and the time patients spent in the Urgent Care centre was recorded. The total number of patients seen during this study were 1532. 219 (14.3% ) were seen within our Urgent Care centre. None of the patients waited over four hours to be seen. It has been recognised that primary care patients in the ED are a major part of attendances of the department and unless these patients are seen in Urgent Care centres, overcrowding and long waits cannot been avoided. It has been shown that employing primary care Physicians in Urgent Care centres reduces overall cost because they do not carry out as many investigations as Junior Doctors. In our study over 14% patients were seen by Urgent Care Physicians and none of the patients waited for more than four hours and we feel that care provided to the patients by Urgent Care centre was highly effective and satisfying for the patient.

Keywords: urgent care centres, primary care physicians, overcrowding, cost

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6674 Process of Revitalization of the City Centres in Poland: The Problem of Cooperation between Sectors

Authors: Ewa M. Boryczka

Abstract:

Contemporary city is a subject to rapid economic and social changes. Therefore it requires an active policy designed to meet the diverse needs of their residents, build competitive position and capacity to compete with other cities. Competitiveness of cities depends largely on their resources, but also to a large extent, on the policies and performance of local authorities. Cooperation with private and social sectors also plays an important role, as it affects the use of resources and builds an advantage over other cities. The subject of this article is city's contemporary problems of development with particular emphasis on central areas. This issue is a starting point for reflection on the process of urban regeneration in medium size cities in Poland, as well as cooperation between various actors and their roles in the revitalization processes of Polish cities' centres.

Keywords: city, cooperation between sectors, crisis of city centres, revitalization

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6673 Investigation of Stress and Its Effects on Health Workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria

Authors: Chisom N. Nwaigwe, Blessing N. Egbulefu, Angela Uwakwem

Abstract:

A study on Stress and its’ effect on the health of workers in Federal Medical Centres in Nigeria is presented. The aim is to evaluate how much stress related hazards health workers in our tertiary health institutions are exposed to and to create awareness and reduce the rate at which stress affect the health of the working population in Nigeria, using workers in Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia as a case study. The descriptive survey design was adopted with the aid of 100 questionnaires delivered to the respondents in order to obtain first-hand information. From the findings, the major causes of stress were identified as inadequate staffing, unresolved family problems and psychological/cultural factors like the return of a lactating mother to work after three months post-delivery. The effects of stress on the workers were identified as hypertension, poor job performances, depression, asthma, and peptic ulcers. The study recommended instituting counseling units for stress management, holding seminars on stress management and increasing the salary scale (remuneration) and proper roster planning as solutions to stress reduction in our hospitals. This study is important to management in planning staffing, roaster, and a rehabilitation programme for her staff.

Keywords: stress, causes, effects, workers

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6672 Customers' Perception towards the Service Marketing Mix and Frequency of Use of Mercedes Benz Automobile Service, Thailand

Authors: Pranee Tridhoskul

Abstract:

This research paper is aimed to examine a relationship between the service marketing mix and customers’ frequency of use of service at Mercedes Benz Auto Repair Centres under Thonburi Group, Thailand. Based on 2,267 customers who used the service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres as the population, the sampling of this research was a total of 340 samples, by use of Probability Sampling Technique. Systematic Random Sampling was applied by use of questionnaire in collecting the data at Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres. Mean and Pearson’s basic statistical correlations were utilized in analyzing the data. The study discovered a medium level of customers’ perception towards product and service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres, price, place or distribution channel and promotion. People who provided service were perceived also at a medium level, whereas the physical evidence and service process were perceived at a high level. Furthermore, there appeared a correlation between the physical evidence and service process, and customers’ frequency of use of automobile service per year.

Keywords: service marketing mix, behavior, Mercedes Auto Service Centre, frequency of use

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6671 Challenges to Quality Primary Health Care in Saudi Arabia and Potential Improvements Implemented by Other Systems

Authors: Hilal Al Shamsi, Abdullah Almutairi

Abstract:

Introduction: As primary healthcare centres play an important role in implementing Saudi Arabia’s health strategy, this paper offers a review of publications on the quality of the country’s primary health care. With the aim of deciding on solutions for improvement, it provides an overview of healthcare quality in this context and indicates barriers to quality. Method: Using two databases, ProQuest and Scopus, data extracted from published articles were systematically analysed for determining the care quality in Saudi primary health centres and obstacles to achieving higher quality. Results: Twenty-six articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review. The components of healthcare quality were examined in terms of the access to and effectiveness of interpersonal and clinical care. Good access and effective care were identified in such areas as maternal health care and the control of epidemic diseases, whereas poor access and effectiveness of care were shown for chronic disease management programmes, referral patterns (in terms of referral letters and feedback reports), health education and interpersonal care (in terms of language barriers). Several factors were identified as barriers to high-quality care. These included problems with evidence-based practice implementation, professional development, the use of referrals to secondary care and organisational culture. Successful improvements have been implemented by other systems, such as mobile medical units, electronic referrals, online translation tools and mobile devices and their applications; these can be implemented in Saudi Arabia for improving the quality of the primary healthcare system in this country. Conclusion: The quality of primary health care in Saudi Arabia varies among the different services. To improve quality, management programmes and organisational culture must be promoted in primary health care. Professional development strategies are also needed for improving the skills and knowledge of healthcare professionals. Potential improvements can be implemented to improve the quality of the primary health system.

Keywords: quality, primary health care, Saudi Arabia, health centres, general medical

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6670 Floorboards, Whitewalls and Butterflies: Ethnography of a Community Mental Health Cafe

Authors: J. N. Bardi, N. Wright, S. Timmons, P. Crawford

Abstract:

Introduction: In the United Kingdom (UK), the transfer of care from the asylums to the community has meant that some people with mental health problems (MHP) may not have access to suitable or adequate statutory community mental health services (CMHS). However, in addition to statutory CMHS, there are informal CMHS that provide spaces where people with MHP can attend such as faith communities, clubhouses, user-led organisations, day centres including drop-in-centres and community hubs and community mental health cafés (CMHCs). Aim: To qualitatively understand what happens in a community mental health café in relation to the place, people and processes, from the participant's perspective. Methodology: Ethnography Methods: Data collection will be field notes from observations written as thick description and interviews with participants. Data analysis will be thematic and narrative analysis. Relevance: The study seeks to observe what happens in a user-led community mental health café and explore if it provides the services that it claims to offer. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to examine the research evidence related to informal CMHS, focusing on similarities and differences. Results indicated that informal CMHS differ with regards to why, how, who set them up and who funds them, but they are similar because people with MHP who attend them report related psychological, vocational, and social interaction benefits. In addition to the differences listed above, CMHCs differ in their adoption of the commercial café model of social space and some CMHCs claim to address needs of social isolation and loneliness which they assert are not properly addressed by statutory CMHS and some informal CMHS. Therefore, CMHCs explicitly differentiate themselves from statutory CMHS and some informal CMHS such as day centres, hospitals and social services. However, CMHCs were found to be like drop-in-centres and community hubs which are also free for MHP to attend without the need for assessments, membership or appointments. To situate community mental health café within other informal CMHS and provide a rationale for the proposed study a scoping review was conducted to determine the scope of available research evidence on CMHCs. Findings from the scoping review reflected the literature review findings with regards to the benefits of attending informal CMHCs for people with MHP. Of the ten studies included in the scoping review, seven were on CMHCs for people living with dementia and two were on CMHCs for people with a broader range of MHP. The researcher hopes that findings from the proposed PhD study will build on the existing understanding of informal CMHS, extend the research evidence on CMHCs and address any gap in the literature.

Keywords: cafe, community, ethnography, mental health

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6669 Characters of Developing Commercial Employment Sub-Centres and Employment Density in Ahmedabad City

Authors: Bhaumik Patel, Amit Gotecha

Abstract:

Commercial centres of different hierarchy and sizes play a vital role in the growth and development of the city. Economic uncertainty and demand for space leads to more urban sprawl and emerging more commercial spaces. The study was focused on the understanding of various indicators affecting the commercial development that can help to solve many issues related to commercial urban development and can guide for future employment growth centre development, Accessibility, Infrastructure, Planning and development regulations and Market forces. The aim of the study was to review characteristics and identifying employment density of Commercial Employment Sub-centres by achieving objectives Understanding various employment sub-centres, Identifying characteristics and deriving behaviour of employment densities and Evaluating and comparing employment sub-centres for the Ahmedabad city. Commercial employment sub-centres one in old city (Kalupur), second in highly developed commercial (C.G.road-Ashram road) and third in the latest developing commercial area (Prahladnagar) were identified by distance from city centre, Land use diversity, Access to Major roads and Public transport, Population density in proximity, Complimentary land uses in proximity and Land price. Commercial activities were categorised into retail, wholesale and service sector and sub categorised into various activities. From the study, Time period of establishment of the unit is a critical parameter for commercial activity, building height, and land-use diversity. Employment diversity is also one parameter for the commercial centre. The old city has retail, wholesale and trading and higher commercial density concerning units and employment both. Prahladnagar area functioned as commercial due to market pressure and developed as more units rather than a requirement. Employment density is higher in the centre of the city, as far as distance increases from city centre employment density and unit density decreases. Characters of influencing employment density and unit density are distance from city centre, development type, establishment time period, building density, unit density, public transport accessibility and road connectivity.

Keywords: commercial employment sub-centres, employment density, employment diversity, unit density

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6668 Protection of Human Rights in Polish Centres for Foreigners – in the Context of the European Human Rights System

Authors: Oktawia Braniewicz

Abstract:

The phenomenon of emigration and migration increasingly affects Poland's borders as well. For this reason, it is necessary to examine the level of protection of Human Rights in Polish Centres for Foreigners. The field study covered 11 centers for Foreigners in the provinces Kujawsko-Pomorskie Region, Lubelskie Region, Lodzkie Region, Mazowieckie Region and Podlaskie Region. Photographic documentation of living and social conditions, conversations with center employees and refugees allow to show a comprehensive picture of the situation prevailing in Centres for Foreigners. The object of reflection will be, in particular, the standards resulting from art. 8 and 13 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and article 2 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The degree of realization of the right to education and the right to respect for family and private life will be shown. Issues related to learning the Polish language, access to a professional translator and psychological help will also be approximated. Learning Polish is not obligatory, which causes problems with assimilation and integration with other members of the new community. In centers for foreigners, there are no translators - a translator from an external company is rented if necessary. The waiting time for an interpreter makes the refugees feel anxious, unable to communicate with the employees of the centers (this is a situation in which the refugees do not know either English, Polish or Russian). Psychologist's help is available on designated days of the week. There is no separate specialist in child psychology, which is a serious problem.

Keywords: human rights, Polish centres, foreigners, fundamental freedoms

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6667 An Appraisal of the Level of Civil Servants Participation in Recreational Activities

Authors: Isyaku Labaran Fagge

Abstract:

This study investigated on appraisal of civil servants level of participation in recreational activities in North Western States of Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, a descriptive survey was employed for the designed questionnaire which were administered on 300 respondents, who served as subject for this study, in North Western States of Nigeria. Descriptive statistics of simple frequency count, percentage and Chi square (x2) statistical techniques at 0.05 alpha level were used for all statistical tests of significance. The findings of the study revealed that senior civil servants by (gender, status and location) do participate in recreational activities. On the knowledgeable personnels, all the recreational centres (by gender, status and location) had no knowledgeable personnels to handle the centres across North Western States. Many recreational centers should be create. Government should train and employ more knowledgeable personnel to handle the centres. Civil servants in urban areas do participate more than the civil servants in rural areas.

Keywords: recreation, civil servants, participation, recreational activities

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6666 Exploring Factors That Affect the Utilisation of Antenatal Care Services: Perceptions of Women in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe

Authors: Leoba Nyathi, Augustine K. Tugli, Takalani G. Tshitangano

Abstract:

Use of health care services is an effective way of improving maternal and child health outcomes, especially in the rural areas. The study aimed to find out the perceptions of women on factors that affect the utilisation of antenatal care services (ANC) in Mangwe Rural District, Zimbabwe. The study was conducted in Mabunga village which is situated in Mangwe Rural District, Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach using explorative and descriptive design was adopted for the study. A sample of ten women were chosen from the target population by means of convenience sampling and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Interviews and discussions were audio-taped, transcribed and coded into themes and subthemes. The study results showed that access factors, socio-cultural factors, demographic factors, quality of care and knowledge about antenatal care services were the major factors affecting utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe Rural District. It was discovered that the geographical location of the village to the health care centres has a great impact on utilisation of services. All the women did not initiate ANC services as recommended and they also did not adhere to the number of times they were supposed to visit the health care centres. The findings concluded that women have the knowledge about ANC and they all attended at least once during their last pregnancy. However, inconsistencies in attendance were shown due to access, socio-cultural and demographic factors.

Keywords: antenatal care services, women, utilisation, affect, factors, perceptions

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6665 Identification of Rurban Centres in Determining Regional Development in the Hinterland of Koch Bihar, West Bengal, India

Authors: Ballari Bagchi

Abstract:

The dynamism ingrained in the process of urban-rural integration is manifested in the emergence of rurban settlements, referring to areas that combine the characteristics of agricultural activities found in rural zones with those of suburban living areas and industrialised zones. The concept of rurbanisation refers to the idea of introducing urban conveniences and opportunities, to rural areas in an attempt to stem rural urban migration. In the backdrop of the worldwide problem of disharmonised urban-rural dependence and the associated problems in urban and rural areas, the present study seeks to explore the potentialities of few settlements having a blend of rural and urban characteristics in the urban field of Koch Bihar. The prime concern of the present paper is three-fold: (i) to identify the rurban centres, (ii) to analyse the spatial integration of these identified centres with the rural areas situated in the urban periphery, and (iii) to suggest the necessities to be introduced in these settlements. The methodology applied here includes rurban index, gravity model, and functional classification of rurban centres, correlation and regression analysis and cartographic representation of data collected through primary and secondary sources. The investigation has identified a number of settlements potentially viable to be termed as rurban centres which may render services to the other less equipped rural areas in all aspects of life and thereby would lessen the burden on Koch Bihar urban centre. The levels of infrastructure of these settlements should be such that it might even attract the urban population in a reverse direction. The villages belonging to the lower rung of these service settlements would require metalled road connection with these intermediate settlements in addition to their connection with the core town. That is to say, a proper policy needs to be adopted in this regard to furnish these settlements with required infrastructures for serving their own population as well as the population of other villages. As a consequence of that, the idea of a well-coordinated settlement hierarchy may emerge in future.

Keywords: Hinterland, rurban, settlement hierarchy, urban-rural integration

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6664 Sense-Based Approach in the Design of Anti-Violence Shelters: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Annunziata Albano

Abstract:

Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Non-Partner Sexual Violence (NPSV) are still the most common forms of interpersonal violence against women today, and numerous studies have shown how they can affect women's physical and psychological well-being, frequently leading to depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance abuse. The primary goal of Italian Anti-Violence Centres (AVCs) is to provide an appropriate context for women to embark on a personalised path out of violence by providing various services such as listening groups, psychological and legal support, housing support in collaboration with shelters, work orientation, and specific support in the case of minor children. However, their physical environment is frequently overlooked, partly because these centres are typically established in pre-existing buildings and have a limited budget. Several studies on healthcare design and mental health, on the other hand, emphasise the potential of the built environment to facilitate healing by providing a restorative setting that aids in coping with stress and traumatic experiences, investigating the positive role of natural features and sensorial qualities such as light, colours, sound, and smell. This research aims to collect and summarise the key evidence-based principles derived from a multidisciplinary literature review about interior design elements that can help women recover after their traumatic experience. Furthermore, the study examines multiple case studies of Italian AVCs through the lens of previously determined principles, to understand how and whether these guidelines have been applied and which outcomes can provide relevant insights for design practice, with an emphasis on sensory qualities, usually overlooked in favour of other requirements. The outlined guidelines may serve as a framework for various typologies of services provided to women who are the victims of interpersonal violence, such as women's crisis centres and shelters.

Keywords: anti-violence centres, environmental psychology, interior design, interpersonal violence, restorative environments

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6663 The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level

Authors: M. Moeinaddini, Z. Asadi-Shekari, Z. Sultan, M. Zaly Shah

Abstract:

Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. This study tries to consider the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Land use variables (beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres) are used as independent variables and the happiness score is used as the dependent variable in this study. In addition to the land use variables, socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) are also considered as independent variables. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.

Keywords: neighbourhood land use, neighbourhood design, happiness, socio-economic factors, generalised linear modelling

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6662 Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention for Singaporean Women Aged 50 Years and Above: A Study Protocol for a Community Based Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Elaine Yee Sing Wong, Jonine Jancey, Andy H. Lee, Anthony P. James

Abstract:

Singapore has a rapidly aging population, where the majority of older women aged 50 years and above, are physically inactive and have unhealthy dietary habits, placing them at ‘high risk’ of non-communicable diseases. Given the multiplicity of less than optimal dietary habits and high levels of physical inactivity among Singaporean women, it is imperative to develop appropriate lifestyle interventions at recreational centres to enhance both their physical and nutritional knowledge, as well as provide them with the opportunity to develop skills to support behaviour change. To the best of our knowledge, this proposed study is the first physical activity and nutrition cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in Singapore for older women. Findings from this study may provide insights and recommendations for policy makers and key stakeholders to create new healthy living, recreational centres with supportive environments. This 6-month community-based cluster randomised controlled trial will involve the implementation and evaluation of physical activity and nutrition program for community dwelling Singaporean women, who currently attend recreational centres to promote social leisure activities in their local neighbourhood. The intervention will include dietary education and counselling sessions, physical activity classes, and telephone contact by certified fitness instructors and qualified nutritionists. Social Cognitive Theory with Motivational Interviewing will inform the development of strategies to support health behaviour change. Sixty recreational centres located in Singapore will be randomly selected from five major geographical districts and randomly allocated to the intervention (n=30) or control (n=30) cluster. A sample of 600 (intervention n=300; control n=300) women aged 50 years and above will then be recruited from these recreational centres. The control clusters will only undergo pre and post data collection and will not receive the intervention. It is hypothesised that by the end of the intervention, the intervention group participants (n = 300) compared to the control group (n = 300), will show significant improvements in the following variables: lipid profile, body mass index, physical activity and dietary behaviour, anthropometry, mental and physical health. Data collection will be examined and compared via the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 23. Descriptive and summary statistics will be used to quantify participants’ characteristics and outcome variables. Multi-variable mixed regression analyses will be used to confirm the effects of the proposed health intervention, taking into account the repeated measures and the clustering of the observations. The research protocol was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HRE2016-0366). The study has been registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (12617001022358).

Keywords: community based, healthy aging, intervention, nutrition, older women, physical activity

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6661 Improving Rural Access to Specialist Emergency Mental Health Care: Using a Time and Motion Study in the Evaluation of a Telepsychiatry Program

Authors: Emily Saurman, David Lyle

Abstract:

In Australia, a well serviced rural town might have a psychiatrist visit once-a-month with more frequent visits from a psychiatric nurse, but many have no resident access to mental health specialists. Access to specialist care, would not only reduce patient distress and benefit outcomes, but facilitate the effective use of limited resources. The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) was developed to improve access to specialist emergency mental health care in rural and remote communities using telehealth technologies. However, there has been no current benchmark to gauge program efficiency or capacity; to determine whether the program activity is justifiably sufficient. The evaluation of MHEC-RAP used multiple methods and applied a modified theory of access to assess the program and its aim of improved access to emergency mental health care. This was the first evaluation of a telepsychiatry service to include a time and motion study design examining program time expenditure, efficiency, and capacity. The time and motion study analysis was combined with an observational study of the program structure and function to assess the balance between program responsiveness and efficiency. Previous program studies have demonstrated that MHEC-RAP has improved access and is used and effective. The findings from the time and motion study suggest that MHEC-RAP has the capacity to manage increased activity within the current model structure without loss to responsiveness or efficiency in the provision of care. Enhancing program responsiveness and efficiency will also support a claim of the program’s value for money. MHEC-RAP is a practical telehealth solution for improving access to specialist emergency mental health care. The findings from this evaluation have already attracted the attention of other regions in Australia interested in implementing emergency telepsychiatry programs and are now informing the progressive establishment of mental health resource centres in rural New South Wales. Like MHEC-RAP, these centres will provide rapid, safe, and contextually relevant assessments and advice to support local health professionals to manage mental health emergencies in the smaller rural emergency departments. Sharing the application of this methodology and research activity may help to improve access to and future evaluations of telehealth and telepsychiatry services for others around the globe.

Keywords: access, emergency, mental health, rural, time and motion

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6660 Measuring the Impact of Implementing an Effective Practice Skills Training Model in Youth Detention

Authors: Phillipa Evans, Christopher Trotter

Abstract:

Aims: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a practice skills framework implemented in three youth detention centres in Juvenile Justice in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The study is supported by a grant from and Australian Research Council and NSW Juvenile Justice. Recent years have seen a number of incidents in youth detention centres in Australia and other places. These have led to inquiries and reviews with some suggesting that detention centres often do not even meet basic human rights and do little in terms of providing opportunities for rehabilitation of residents. While there is an increasing body of research suggesting that community based supervision can be effective in reducing recidivism if appropriate skills are used by supervisors, there has been less work considering worker skills in youth detention settings. The research that has been done, however, suggest that teaching interpersonal skills to youth officers may be effective in enhancing the rehabilitation culture of centres. Positive outcomes have been seen in a UK detention centre for example, from teaching staff to do five-minute problem-solving interventions. The aim of this project is to examine the effectiveness of training and coaching youth detention staff in three NSW detention centres in interpersonal practice skills. Effectiveness is defined in terms of reductions in the frequency of critical incidents and improvements in the well-being of staff and young people. The research is important as the results may lead to the development of more humane and rehabilitative experiences for young people. Method: The study involves training staff in core effective practice skills and supporting staff in the use of those skills through supervision and de-briefing. The core effective practice skills include role clarification, pro-social modelling, brief problem solving, and relationship skills. The training also addresses some of the background to criminal behaviour including trauma. Data regarding critical incidents and well-being before and after the program implementation are being collected. This involves interviews with staff and young people, the completion of well-being scales, and examination of departmental records regarding critical incidents. In addition to the before and after comparison a matched control group which is not offered the intervention is also being used. The study includes more than 400 young people and 100 youth officers across 6 centres including the control sites. Data collection includes interviews with workers and young people, critical incident data such as assaults, use of lock ups and confinement and school attendance. Data collection also includes analysing video-tapes of centre activities for changes in the use of staff skills. Results: The project is currently underway with ongoing training and supervision. Early results will be available for the conference.

Keywords: custody, practice skills, training, youth workers

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6659 Teachers' Perceptions on Teaching Saudi English Special Edition Textbooks in Respect of Culture

Authors: Sumayyah Qaed J. Alsulami

Abstract:

English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia is still new and evolving. Recently, many of the university language centres that provide intensive and mandatory English courses for the preparatory-year students have been working to develop English teaching. These centres emphasise teaching using 'special editions' textbooks for Saudi students. While the government has been working to provide social and economic policies that intend to open up and communicate widely with the world, there is a need to educate Saudi citizens to be aware and understand others in order to promote tolerance and accept others, especially in a conservative culture like Saudi Arabia. In this study, the data will be English teachers’ views on teaching culture using the special edition textbooks that will be conducted by semi-structured interviews. Teachers’ views will manifest to what extent these textbooks are used interculturally to teach the students.

Keywords: EFL, intercultural teaching, teachers' views, textbooks

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6658 Foreign Football League and Its Socio-Economic Implications in Nigeria

Authors: Usman Dutse, Eldah Ephraim Buba, Dalhatu Sa’idu

Abstract:

The popularity of foreign football leagues are getting a soaring in Africa. Nigerian youths are following these leagues with high sense of dedication and devotion. The paper examines the factors behind the growing popularity of foreign football league in Nigeria and its socio economic implications on the country. Primary data were largely used for the study and collected through the use of questionnaire and interview. The data collected were analysed with the use of descriptive and qualitative methods of analysis. The findings made from the analysis indicates that the reasons why foreign league is popular in Nigeria is because the quality of national league in Nigeria is poor, the matches are not mostly televised, corruption/match fixing is common; for the above mentioned reasons national football league become uninteresting compared to foreign leagues. It was also confirmed that the overwhelming popularity of foreign league has the following social effects: friendship and acquaintance are created between supporters of the same club via social media and viewing centres, it has increased the knowledge and awareness of youth about the economics and politics of international sports. However, it has also brewed rivalry between supporters of clubs, drugs are sold in viewing centres and it sometimes serves as a meeting point for miscreants and criminals. Some of the economic effects were also identified as follows: small entrepreneurs establish commercial viewing centres and they employ other supporting staff to operate. On the strength of the above findings, the following were recommended: There is the urgent need to reform our national league to an acceptable standard; improve the quality of the team, the facilities and media coverage of the matches. This might make Nigerians to channel some of the love for foreign leagues to the local leagues.

Keywords: foreign, league, socioeconomic, implications

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6657 An Evaluative Study of Services Provided in Community Based Rehabilitation Centres in Jordan

Authors: Wesam Darawsheh

Abstract:

Purpose: There is an absence of studies directed to evaluate the effectiveness of Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programs in Jordan. This research study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the services of CBR programmes in Jordan. Method: A questionnaire anonymized survey was carried out with forty-seven participants (stakeholders and volunteers) from four CBR centres in Jordan. It comprised eighteen questions that collected both qualitative and quantitative data with both closed- and open-ended questions. The survey assessed participants’ knowledge of CBR and perception of the effectiveness of services provided. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS Version 22.0 (2016, IBM Corporation New York). Qualitative data were analyzed through thematic content and analysis and open coding to identify emergent themes. Results: The ROC curve revealed that the AUC for questions of the survey to be (AUC=0.846) which indicated a good specificity and sensitivity of the questions of the survey. The MANOVA revealed insignificant results in the effect of the CBR site (p= 0.157), and the level of education of participants (p=0.549), on the perception of the effectiveness of CBR services. There were insignificant differences between the scores of PWDs and volunteers (p=0.781). 40.4% evaluated the effectiveness of CBR services to be low. This mainly stemmed out from the lack of efforts of the CBR programmes to raise the knowledge of the local community about CBR, disability and the role toward PWDs. Conclusions: A speculation for priorities of CBR programmes in Jordan was offered where efforts need to be directed at promoting livelihood and the empowerment components, in order to actualize the main three principles of CBR mainly by promoting multispectral collaboration as a way of operation.

Keywords: community based rehabilitation (CBR), people with disabilities (PWDS), CBR centres, rehabilitation services, Jordan, mixed-methods, evaluative study

Procedia PDF Downloads 174