Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1759

Search results for: relationships

1759 Challenging Heteronormativity and Mononormativity in Academia: Incorporating Consensual Non-Monogamy into Psychological Romantic Relationship Research

Authors: Jessica Wood, Serge Desmarais

Abstract:

There has been recent resurgence in the popular and academic interest of consensual non-monogamous (CNM) relationships- an umbrella term that defines relationships in which each partner has openly agreed to engage in additional romantic and/or sexual relationships outside of their primary partnership. Despite an increase in the academic study of CNM, little psychological attention has been paid to the study of CNM, with the consideration of these relationships commonly occurring within related social science disciplines such as sociology or anthropology. As a discipline, psychology has a history of conducting research in the area of intimate relationships, and psychologists have amassed a wealth of theoretical knowledge in this field. However, historically individuals who engage in "alternative" sexual and romantic behaviours, such as non-heterosexual sex or sex with multiple partners have been pathologized within psychological research. Individuals in CNM relationships or individuals identifying as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans or queer have often been excluded from research or “othered” in psychological interpretations of what healthy relationships entail. Thus, our current theoretical understandings of romantic relationships are limited to heterosexual, monogamous relationships. The goal of this presentation is to examine commonly cited components of relationship satisfaction (e.g., commitment, communication) and to critically assess how CNM experiences are presented in, or missing from, the psychological literature on romantic relationships. Additionally, the presentation will also consider how CNM relationships may add to our understanding or enhancement of traditional psychological theories and address issues related to heteronormativity and mononormativity within the discipline. Finally, we will close with a consideration of additional theoretical perspectives that may aid in our understanding of CNM relationships and suggest directions for future research.

Keywords: heteronormativity, mononormativity, psychological research, diverse relationships, gender, sexuality, feminism, queer theory

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1758 Individuals’ Inner Wellbeing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Quantitative Comparison of Social Connections and Close Relationships between the UK and India

Authors: Pauldy C. J. Otermans, Maria Spanoudaki

Abstract:

Relationships form an integral part of everyday wellbeing. This study focuses on Inner Wellbeing, which can be described as individuals' thoughts and feelings about what they can do and be, and the purpose is to compare the Social Connections and Close Relationship dimensions of Inner Wellbeing during COVID-19 between the UK and India. 392 UK and 205 Indian participants completed the Inner Wellbeing scale. Results showed that Social Connections were significantly lower during COVID-19 in the UK compared to India, whereas there is no significant difference for Close Relationships.

Keywords: close relationships, COVID-19 pandemic, social connections, wellbeing

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1757 A Study on Relationships between Authenticity of Transactions, Quality of Relationships, and Transaction Performances

Authors: Chan Kwon Park, Chae-Bogk Kim, Sung-Min Park

Abstract:

This study is a research on the authenticity of transactions between corporations and quality of their relationships and transaction performances. As the factors of authenticity of transactions, honesty, transparency, customer orientation and consistency were selected; as the factors of quality of relationships, trust and commitment were selected, and as the factors of transactions performances, intention of repeat transactions and switching intention were selected, and on these relationships a hypothesis was established, and verification was conducted. First, the factors of the authenticity of transactions positively influenced the factors of quality of relationships. Thus, a higher level of authenticity of transactions can lead to higher level of trust and commitment. Second, the factors of quality of relationships made a positive influence on the intention of repeat transactions, while a negative influence in the switching intention. Third, it showed that trust and commitment as the factors of quality of relationships functioned partly as the parameter between the authenticity of transactions and transaction performances. Finally, it proved that the factors of the authenticity of transactions improved trust and commitment in transactions between corporations and further improved the intention of repeat transactions while they decreased the switching intention.

Keywords: authenticity of transactions, trust, commitment, intention of repeat transactions, switching intention

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1756 Associations between Parental Divorce Process Variables and Parent-Child Relationships Quality in Young Adulthood

Authors: Klara Smith-Etxeberria

Abstract:

main goal of this study was to analyze the predictive ability of some variables associated with the parental divorce process alongside attachment history with parents on both, mother-child and father-child relationship quality. Our sample consisted of 173 undergraduate and vocational school students from the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. All of them belonged to a divorced family. Results showed that adequate maternal strategies during the divorce process (e.g.: stable, continuous and positive role as a mother) was the variable with greater predictive ability on mother-child relationships quality. In addition, secure attachment history with mother also predicted positive mother-child relationships. On the other hand, father-child relationship quality was predicted by adequate paternal strategies during the divorce process, such as his stable, continuous and positive role as a father, along with not badmouthing the mother and promoting good mother-child relationships. Furthermore, paternal negative emotional state due to divorce was positively associated with father-child relationships quality, and both, history of attachment with mother and with father predicted father-child relationships quality. In conclusion, our data indicate that both, paternal and maternal strategies for children´s adequate adjustment during the divorce process influence on mother-child and father-child relationships quality. However, these results suggest that paternal strategies during the divorce process have a greater predictive ability on father-child relationships quality, whereas maternal positive strategies during divorce determine positive mother-child relationships among young adults.

Keywords: father-child relationships quality, mother-child relationships quality, parental divorce process, young adulthood

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1755 Human Relationships in the Virtual Classrooms as Predictors of Students Academic Resilience and Performance

Authors: Eddiebal P. Layco

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to describe students' virtual classroom relationships in terms of their relationship to their peers and teachers; academic resilience; and performance. Further, the researcher wants to examine if these virtual classroom relations predict students' resilience and performance in their academics. The data were collected from 720 junior and senior high school or grade 7 to 12 students in selected state universities and colleges (SUCs) in Region III offering online or virtual classes during S.Y. 2020-2021. Results revealed that virtual classroom relationships such as teacher-student and peer relationships predict academic resilience and performance. This implies that students' academic relations with their teachers and peers have something to do with their ability to bounce back and beat the odds amidst challenges they faced in the online or virtual learning environment. These virtual relationships significantly influence also their academic performance. Adequate teacher support and positive peer relations may lead to enhanced academic resilience, which may also promote a meaningful and fulfilled life academically. Result suggests that teachers should develop their students' academic resiliency and maintain good relationships in the classroom since these results in academic success.

Keywords: virtual classroom relationships, teacher-pupil relationship, peer-relationship, academic resilience, academic performance

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1754 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships for 14 Sparidae Species, from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea Coast of Turkey

Authors: Hacer Yeldan, Erhan Akamca, Sedat Gündogdu

Abstract:

Length-Weight and Length-length relationship were estimated of 14 species Sparidae (Boops boops, Diplodus annularis, Diplodus cervinus, Dipladus puntazzo, Diplodus sargus, Diplodus vulgaris, Lithognathus mormyrus, Oblada melanura, Pagellus acarne, Pagellus erythrinus, Pagrus auriga, Pagrus caeruleostictus, Sarpa salpa, Sparus aurata) sampled from in the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea coast of Turkey, Iskenderun Bay. Samples were collected from July 2014 to June 2015, using bottom trawl and trammel net into three different depth; 0-10 m, 10-20 m, 20-50m. Length-length relationships were determined size measurements: standard length (SL) and fork length (FL) to total length (TL) for fish species. The relationships between TL, FL and TL, SL were all linear. The values of the exponent b of the length-weight relationships ranged between 2.685 and 3.473. The type of growth for fish species was algometric growth.

Keywords: Sparidae, Iskenderun bay, length-length, length-weight relationships

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1753 Teachers’ Personal and Professional Characteristics: How They Relate to Teacher-Student Relationships and Students’ Behavior

Authors: Maria Poulou

Abstract:

The study investigated how teachers’ self-rated Emotional Intelligence (EI), competence in implementing Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) skills and teaching efficacy relate to teacher-student relationships and students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Participants were 98 elementary teachers from public schools in central Greece. They completed the Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale (SREIS), the Teacher SEL Beliefs Scale, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES), the Student-Teacher Relationships Scale-Short Form (STRS-SF) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for 617 of their students, aged 6-11 years old. Structural equation modeling was used to examine an exploratory model of the variables. It was demonstrated that teachers’ emotional intelligence, SEL beliefs and teaching efficacy were significantly related to teacher-student relationships, but they were not related to students’ emotional and behavioral difficulties. Rather, teachers’ perceptions of teacher-students relationships were significantly related to these difficulties. These findings and their implications for research and practice are discussed.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, social and emotional learning, teacher-student relationships, teaching efficacy

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1752 The Relationship between Romantic Relationship Beliefs and Ego Identity Process

Authors: Betül Demirbağ, Nesrin Demir

Abstract:

As a developmental period, early adulthood has a vital role in romantic relationships in young adult's life. lt's known that in this period, satisfaction of individual needs such as affiliation is essential for well-functioning and to be succeeded in sequent developmental task. Romantic relationships have an expected association with attachment style. But it's needed to get more information about indicators of romantic relationships in different cultural backgrounds. in this research it's aimed to investigate whether there is a relationship between romantic relationship beliefs and Ego identity status and also other possible indicators such as gender, age, socioeconomic status. Participants were undergraduate students training in various programs in Education Faculty in Adiyaman University. As data collection tool, Romantic Relationship Beliefs scale and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire which was adapted into Turkish were used. Results were discussed in the relevant literature.

Keywords: ego identity, romantic relationships, university counseling

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1751 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

Abstract:

The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: language, literature, English, civilisation

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1750 Effects of Handheld Video Games on Interpersonal Relationships: A Two-Wave Panel Study on Elementary School Students

Authors: Kanae Suzuki

Abstract:

Handheld video games are popular communication tools among Japanese elementary school students today. This study aims to examine the effects of the use of handheld video games on interpersonal relationships of the students in real and virtual worlds. A two-wave panel survey was conducted for students of ten elementary schools at an interval of approximately six months. The survey questionnaire included questions about the average amount of time spent playing a handheld video game during the past one month, the frequency of communication with players during game play, and the interpersonal relationships, such as the number of real and virtual friends the students have. A multiple regression model was constructed for 324 students to examine causal relationships. The results indicated that the more frequently the students communicated with other players while playing games, the number of the real friends tended to increase. In contrast, no significant effect of the total time spent playing games was found on interpersonal relationships. The findings suggested that communication during game play is an important factor for improving interpersonal relationships of this age group.

Keywords: communication, real friend, social adjustment, virtual friend

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1749 A Smart CAD Program for Custom Hand Orthosis Generation Based on Anthropometric Relationships

Authors: Elissa D. Ledoux, Eric J. Barth

Abstract:

Producing custom orthotic devices is a time-consuming and iterative process. Efficiency could be increased with a smart CAD program to rapidly generate custom part files for 3D printing, reducing the need for a skilled orthosis technician as well as the hands-on time required. Anthropometric data for the hand was analyzed in order to determine dimensional relationships and reduce the number of measurements needed to parameterize the hand. Using these relationships, a smart CAD package was developed to produce custom sized hand orthosis parts downloadable for 3D printing. Results showed that the number of anatomical parameters required could be reduced from 8 to 3, and the relationships hold for 5th to 95th percentile male hands. CAD parts regenerate correctly for the same range. This package could significantly impact the orthotics industry in terms of expedited production and reduction of required human resources and patient contact.

Keywords: CAD, hand, orthosis, orthotic, rehabilitation robotics, upper limb

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1748 Drama Education: Towards Building Multicultural Adolescent Peer Relationships

Authors: Tahnee West

Abstract:

Drama education is increasingly understood as a useful tool in promoting positive social change and cultural awareness. The effects of both positive and negative peer relationships are also a researched facet of education systems. Despite this, very little research has been conducted in the intersection of these two areas, even given current, significant public interest surrounding multicultural relationships. This research addresses a problem faced by educators and students: facilitating meaningful multicultural relationships. The research explores the following question in an Australian context: in what ways does Drama education affect peer relationships between culturally diverse students? In doing so, the study explores the various challenges and experiences of a multicultural group of adolescents, in terms of forming and maintaining effective intercultural friendships, while participating in a series of drama workshops. The project presents a starting point for providing educators with strategies for inclusivity and relationship development amongst diverse student populations. Findings show that Drama education can positively affect culturally diverse young people’s peer relationships; interactions between participants and data collected in focus groups throughout the eight-week Drama program show a steady improvement in sense of trust, support, tolerance, empathy, familiarity with other participants, and enjoyment. Data also points to a positive correlation between the Drama activities and improved conflict resolution and communication skills, as well as an improved understanding of the other participants’ cultures. Diversities and commonalities within the group were explored, with similarities encouraging social cohesion, and decreasing cultural ‘cliques’.

Keywords: cultural diversity, drama education, friendship, multicultural, peer relationships

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1747 Interorganizational Relationships in the Brazilian Milk Production Chain

Authors: Marcelo T. Okano, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, Osmildo S. Santos, Marcelo E. Fernandes, Heide Landi

Abstract:

The literature on the interorganizational relationship between companies and organizations has increased in recent years, but there are still doubts about the various settings. The interorganizational networks are important in economic life, the fact facilitate the complex interdependence between transactional and cooperative organizations. A need identified in the literature is the lack of indicators to measure and identify the types of existing networks. The objective of this research is to examine the interorganizational relationships of two milk chains through indicators proposed by the theories of the four authors, characterizing them as network or not and what the benefits obtained by the chain organization. To achieve the objective of this work was carried out a survey of milk producers in two regions of the state of São Paulo. To collect the information needed for the analysis, exploratory research, qualitative nature was used. The research instrument of this work consists of a roadmap of semistructured interviews with open questions. Some of the answers were directed by the interviewer in the form of performance notes aimed at detecting the degree of importance, according to the perception of intensity to that regard. The results showed that interorganizational relationships are small and largely limited to the sale of milk or dairy cooperatives. These relationships relate only to trade relations between the owner and purchaser of milk. But when the producers are organized in associations or networks, interorganizational relationships and increase benefits for all participants in the network. The various visits and interviews in several dairy farms in the regions of São Pau-lo (indicated that the inter-relationships are small and largely limited to the sale of milk to cooperatives or dairy. These relationships refer only to trade relations between the owner and the purchaser of milk. But when the producers are organized in associations or networks, interorganizational relationships increase and bring benefits to all participants in the network.

Keywords: interorganizational networks, dairy chain, interorganizational system, São Pau-lo

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1746 Discussion of Leadership Styles and Performance Management in MNEs

Authors: Yin-Tsuo Huang

Abstract:

Most leadership theories focus on leader's development. However, in reality, the led is also very important in the leadership process. Development relates to ensure the individual to grow in the skills, knowledge, and abilities to perform at leaders’ highest possible level now and for the future. The topic area of the relationships among leadership styles, subordinate maturity, and information distinction was identified because it is a practical problem and personal experiences occurring in multinational enterprises. Some questions to be answered through this critical analysis of the literature are: (1) What are the effective leadership styles in the leader-member and member-member relationships? (2) How do the subordinates react to leaders’ managerial style? (3) What are the relationships among leadership styles, subordinate maturity, and resulting information distinction? (4) What kinds of information distinction effects the relationships between leadership styles and subordinate maturity? (5) Where do leaders and subordinates can get information, and how? (6) In what areas are leaders’ or subordinates’ knowledge weakest, and how can they get others to prove the information they need? (7) How important is that information to the subordinates? (8) Do the leaders keep too much information for their subordinates because it is inconvenient? The main purpose of this review is to explore the theoretical and empirical literature about the relationships among leadership style, subordinates maturity, and information distinction implications in multinational Taiwanese organizations to identify areas of future scholarly inquiry.

Keywords: leadership style, subordinate maturity, information distinction, multinational organization

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1745 Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits: Assessing Differences in Interpersonal Relationships through Friendship, Emotional Contagion, and Social Rewards

Authors: Silene Ten Seldam, Kiara Margarita Lu, Melina Nicole Kyranides

Abstract:

Psychopathic traits are marked by a lack of empathy and an inability to maintain meaningful relationships. Yet little research has investigated differences in interpersonal relationships between primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion, the tendency to automatically mimic others’ facial expressions and movements, is a type of empathy contributing to relationship quality. Additionally, the motivating and pleasurable aspects of social interaction, social reward is integral to understanding relationships. Therefore, the current research investigated interpersonal relationships through relationship status, the quality of friendships, the susceptibility to positive (happiness, love) and negative (sadness, fear, anger) emotional contagion, and social reward. Recruited online, 389 participants between 18 and 76 years old (M = 33.61; of which 241 were female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing primary and secondary psychopathic traits, friendship, emotional contagion, and social rewards. Hierarchical multiple regression showed relationship status as a protective factor and that individuals with secondary psychopathic traits are less likely to be in a relationship. This study is the first to investigate emotional contagion with primary and secondary psychopathic traits. Emotional contagion for sadness predicted secondary psychopathic traits. Negative social potency (enjoying being cruel and antagonistic to others) predicted both primary and secondary traits. However, admiration and prosocial interactions only predicted primary psychopathic traits. Findings infer differences in maintaining relationships, regulating emotions, empathising with others through emotional contagion, and motivation to socially engage, perhaps due to each dimensions’distinct origins and manifestations.

Keywords: primary psychopathic traits, secondary psychopathic traits, interpersonal relationships, friendship, emotional contagion, social reward

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1744 Family Relationships and Coping with the Stress of Young People from Migrant Families with Cerebral Palsy

Authors: A. Gagat-Matuła

Abstract:

The aim of this article is to present a relation between family relationships and styles of approach to coping with stress among young people from migrant families with cerebral palsy. The study involved 70 persons (with cerebral palsy in the standard intellectual capacity) from families, in which at least one of parents is a migrant. To measure the level of communication in the family, the Family Relationships Questionnaire (FRQ) was employed, while the styles of coping with stress was investigated with the CISS Questionnaire. The relation between family relationships and styles of coping with stressful situations of the respondents was investigated. It was shown that there is an affiliation between the emotion-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “communication in my family”. Moreover, it was demonstrated that there is a linkage between the task-oriented style of coping with the stress and the variable of “maternal control in mother-child relationship”. Young people with CP subjected to overprotection and control from their mothers in problem situations tend to focus on their own emotions instead of trying to undertake constructive actions. Excessive control in daily life by mothers results in passivity and a lack of motivation to cope with difficult situations.

Keywords: young people with cerebral palsy, family relationships, styles of coping with stress, migration

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1743 The Role of Smartphones on Iranian Couples' Relationship: An Analysis

Authors: Niloofar Hooman

Abstract:

The present study aims at investigating the positive and negative effects of using Smartphones on couples committed relationships. Despite the fact that many couples may benefit from the positive aspects of Smartphones, it is not clear how their feeling of trust, intimacy and connection in their relationships get affected by Smartphones. This is important as it highlights the ambivalent influences of Smartphones on couple’s relationships. On the one hand, Smartphones can enhance their social and emotional interactions and on the other hand, they can cause mistrust and isolation between them. Trust, intimacy and honesty are of important factors through which a stable relationship can be constructed. Nevertheless, some characteristics of Smartphones such as being fluid and personalized can harm the relationship and consequently destroy it. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how Iranian couples in committed relationships use Smartphone to manage their relationship and how couples feel Smartphone have enhanced or detracted a sense of trust, intimacy and connection with their partner? In the first phase of the study, in-depth-interview will be conducted with 30 couples and data will be analyzed using NVIVO software. In the next phase of the study, 1500 participants aged 20 and above will be selected based on cluster sampling. Data will be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: couple, family, internet, intimacy, Smartphone, trust

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1742 The Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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1741 Using Athletics to Mitigate the Negative Relational Outcomes Bullying Has On Youth with Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee Bills

Abstract:

Studies have demonstrated that middle and high school students with disabilities are more likely to experience bullying than other student groups. The high rates of bullying victimization observed among youth with disabilities can result in severe socio-emotional consequences. These socio-emotional consequences often manifest in detrimental impacts on the students’ personal relationships. Past studies have indicated that participating in extracurricular athletic activities can have several socio-emotional benefits for students with disabilities. Given the findings of past studies demonstrating the positive relationship between mental health and participation in sports among students with disabilities, it is possible that participating in athletics could have a moderating relationship on the severity of the impact that bullying has on a student’s relationships with family and friends. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey/School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS), this study employs an ordinal logistic regression to determine if participation in extracurricular athletic activities mitigates the damaging impact bullying has on the personal relationships with friends and family among students who have disabilities. This study identified statistically significant results suggesting that students with disabilities who participate in athletics reported reduced levels of negative personal relationships resulting from bullying compared to their peers who did not participate in athletics.

Keywords: disability, inclusion, bullying, relationships

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1740 Love and Loss: The Emergence of Shame in Romantic Information Communication Technology

Authors: C. Caudwell, R. Syed, C. Lacey

Abstract:

While the development and advancement of information communication technologies (ICTs) offers powerful opportunities for meaningful connections and relationships, shame is a significant barrier to social and cultural acceptance. In particular, artificial intelligence and socially oriented robots are increasingly becoming partners in romantic relationships with people, offering bonding, support, comfort, growth, and reciprocity. However, these relationships suffer hierarchical, anthropocentric shame that is a significant barrier to their success and longevity. This paper will present case studies of human and artificially intelligent agent relationships, in the context of internal and external shame, as cultivated, propagated, and communicated through ICT. Using an interdisciplinary methodology we aim to present a framework for technological shame, building on the experimental and emergent psychoanalytical theories of emotions. Our study finds principally that socialization is a powerful factor in the vectors of shame as experienced by humans. On a wider scale, we contribute understanding of social emotion and the phenomenon of shame proliferated through ICTs, which is at present under-explored, but vital, as society and culture is increasingly mediated through this medium.

Keywords: shame, artificial intelligence, romance, society

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1739 The Friendship Network Stability of Preschool Children during One Pedagogical Season

Authors: Yili Wang, Jarmo Kinos, Tuire Palonen, Tarja-Riitta Hurme

Abstract:

This longitudinal study aims to examine how five- and six-year-old children’s peer relationships are formed and fostered during one preschool year in a southwestern Finnish preschool. All 16 kindergarteners participated in the study (at dyad level N=240; i.e., 16 x 15 relationships among the children). The children were divided into four daily groups, based on the table order during the daily routines, and four intervention groups, based on the teachers’ pedagogical plan. During the intervention, one iPad was given to each group in order to stimulate interaction among peers and, thus, enable the children to form new peer relationships. In the data gathering, sociometric nomination techniques were used to investigate the nature (i.e., stability and mutuality) of the peer relationships. The data was collected five times during the year to see what kind of peer relationship changes occurred at the dyad level and the group level, i.e., in establishing and losing friendship ties among the children. Social network analyses were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the children’s preference for gender segregation was strong compared to age preference and intervention. In all, the number of reciprocal friendship ties and the mutual absence of friendship ties increased towards the end of the year, whereas the number of unilateral friendship ties decreased. This indicates that children’s nominations narrow down; thus, the group structure becomes more crystalized. Instead of extending their friendship networks, children seek stable and mutual relationships with their peers in their middle childhood years. The intervention only had a slightly negative influence on children’s peer relationships.

Keywords: intervention study, peer relationship, preschool education, social network analysis, sociometric ratings

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1738 Wave Velocity-Rock Property Relationships in Shallow Marine Libyan Carbonate Reservoir

Authors: Tarek S. Duzan, Abdulaziz F. Ettir

Abstract:

Wave velocities, Core and Log petrophysical data were collected from recently drilled four new wells scattered through-out the Dahra/Jofra (PL-5) Reservoir. The collected data were analyzed for the relationships of Wave Velocities with rock property such as Porosity, permeability and Bulk Density. Lots of Literature review reveals a number of differing results and conclusions regarding wave velocities (Compressional Waves (Vp) and Shear Waves (Vs)) versus rock petrophysical property relationships, especially in carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we focused on the relationships between wave velocities (Vp , Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs with rock properties for shallow marine libyan carbonate reservoir (Real Case). Upon data analysis, a relationship between petrophysical properties and wave velocities (Vp, Vs) and the ratio Vp/Vs has been found. Porosity and bulk density properties have shown exponential relationship with wave velocities, while permeability has shown a power relationship in the interested zone. It is also clear that wave velocities (Vp , Vs) seems to be a good indicator for the lithology change with true vertical depth. Therefore, it is highly recommended to use the output relationships to predict porosity, bulk density and permeability of the similar reservoir type utilizing the most recent seismic data.

Keywords: conventional core analysis (porosity, permeability bulk density) data, VS wave and P-wave velocities, shallow carbonate reservoir in D/J field

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1737 Emotion Regulation in Young Adult Relationships in Relation to Parenting Styles

Authors: Taylor Brown

Abstract:

The parent-child attachment bond begins early, often before the birth of the child. Both father and mother begin to form a bond with their child by selecting a name, preparing for the birth, etc. The biological mother carries the child and often breastfeeds the infant after birth. While fathers play an important role in caring for the child as well, the mother is traditionally seen as the caregiver with the primary role of caring for her baby. These core ideas could include how to form bonds, how to communicate emotions, and even how to create and maintain relationships. Mothers tend to shape their children’s minds based on their own. Studies have even shown that when mothers stroke their children’s bodies with their fingers, the child does calm down more than most other methods. The bond between mother and child is one that happens immediately and strengthens over time. This attachment affects the child’s overall development. The mother-child attachment style is directly linked to a multitude of patterns in adolescents, and later on, adults. The researcher believes that the subsequent patterns of communication in romantic relationships are included in the multitude. Awareness of these patterns and their effects could improve experiences in romantic relationships during young adulthood.

Keywords: emotion regulation, parenting, maternal, attachment, romantic

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1736 The Quality of Business Relationships in the Tourism System: An Imaginary Organisation Approach

Authors: Armando Luis Vieira, Carlos Costa, Arthur Araújo

Abstract:

The tourism system is viewable as a network of relationships amongst business partners where the success of each actor will ultimately be determined by the success of the whole network. Especially since the publication of Gümmesson’s (1996) ‘theory of imaginary organisations’, which suggests that organisational effectiveness largely depends on managing relationships and sharing resources and activities, relationship quality (RQ) has been increasingly recognised as a main source of value creation and competitive advantage. However, there is still ambiguity around this topic, and managers and researchers have been recurrently reporting the need to better understand and capitalise on the quality of interactions with business partners. This research aims at testing an RQ model from a relational, imaginary organisation’s approach. Two mail surveys provide the perceptions of 725 hotel representatives about their business relationships with tour operators, and 1,224 corporate client representatives about their business relationships with hotels (21.9 % and 38.8 % response rate, respectively). The analysis contributes to enhance our understanding on the linkages between RQ and its determinants, and identifies the role of their dimensions. Structural equation modelling results highlight trust as the dominant dimension, the crucial role of commitment and satisfaction, and suggest customer orientation as complementary building block. Findings also emphasise problem solving behaviour and selling orientation as the most relevant dimensions of customer orientation. The comparison of the two ‘dyads’ deepens the discussion and enriches the suggested theoretical and managerial guidelines concerning the contribution of quality relationships to business performance.

Keywords: corporate clients, destination competitiveness, hotels, relationship quality, structural equations modelling, tour operators

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1735 Behavioral Experiments of Small Societies in Social Media: Facebook Expressions of Anchored Relationships

Authors: Nuran Öze

Abstract:

Communities and societies have been changing towards computer mediated communication. This paper explores online and offline identities and how relationships are formed and negotiated within internet environments which offer opportunities for people who know each other offline and move into relationships online. The expectations and norms of behavior within everyday life cause people to be embodied self. According to the age categories of Turkish Cypriots, their measurements of attitudes in Facebook will be investigated. Face-to-face field research and semi-structured interview methods are used in the study. Face-to-face interview has been done with Turkish Cypriots who are using Facebook already. According to the study, in constructing a linkage between real and virtual identities mostly affected from societal relations serves as a societal grooming tool for Turkish Cypriots.

Keywords: facebook, identity, social media, virtual reality

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1734 The Causal Relationships between Educational Environments and Rule-Breaking Behavior Issues in Early Adolescence

Authors: Zhidong Zhang, Zhi-Chao Zhang

Abstract:

This study focused on early adolescent rule-breaking behavioral problems using the instrument of Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). The purpose was to analyze the relationships between the rule-breaking behavioral problems and relevant background variables such as sports activities, hobbies, chores and the number of close friends. The stratified sampling method was used to collect data from 2532 participants. The results indicated that several background variables as predictors could significantly predict rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior. Further, a path analysis method was used to explore the correlational and causal relationships among background variables and breaking behavior variables.

Keywords: ASEBA, rule-breaking, path analysis, early adolescent

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1733 Mediation Models in Triadic Relationships: Illness Narratives and Medical Education

Authors: Yoko Yamada, Chizumi Yamada

Abstract:

Narrative psychology is based on the dialogical relationship between self and other. The dialogue can consist of divided, competitive, or opposite communication between self and other. We constructed models of coexistent dialogue in which self and other were positioned side by side and communicated sympathetically. We propose new mediation models for narrative relationships. The mediation models are based on triadic relationships that incorporate a medium or a mediator along with self and other. We constructed three types of mediation model. In the first type, called the “Joint Attention Model”, self and other are positioned side by side and share attention with the medium. In the second type, the “Triangle Model”, an agent mediates between self and other. In the third type, the “Caring Model”, a caregiver stands beside the communication between self and other. We apply the three models to the illness narratives of medical professionals and patients. As these groups have different views and experiences of disease or illness, triadic mediation facilitates the ability to see things from the other person’s perspective and to bridge differences in people’s experiences and feelings. These models would be useful for medical education in various situations, such as in considering the relationships between senior and junior doctors and between old and young patients.

Keywords: illness narrative, mediation, psychology, model, medical education

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1732 Examining the Mediating and Moderating Role of Relationships in the Association between Poverty and Children’s Subjective Well-Being

Authors: Esther Yin-Nei Cho

Abstract:

There is inconsistency among studies about whether there is an association between poverty and the subjective wellbeing of children. Some have found a positive association, though its magnitude could be limited, others have shown no association. One possible explanation for this inconsistency is that household income, an often-adopted measure of child poverty, may not accurately and stably reflect the actual life experience of children. Some studies have suggested, however, that material deprivation covering various dimensions of children’s lives could be a better measure of child poverty. Another possible explanation for the inconsistency is that the link between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children may not be that straightforward, as there could be underlying mechanisms, such as mediation and moderation, influencing its direction or strength. While a mediator refers to the mechanism through which an independent variable affects a dependent variable, a moderator changes the direction or strength of the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable. As suggested by empirical evidence, family relationships and friendships could be potential mediators or moderators of the link between poverty and subjective well-being: poverty affects relationships; relationships are an important element in children’s subjective well-being; and economic status affects child outcomes, though not necessarily subjective wellbeing, through relationships. Since the potential links have not been adequately understood, this study fills this gap by examining the possible role of family relationships and friendships as mediators or moderators between poverty (using child-derived material deprivation as measure) and the subjective wellbeing of children. Improving subjective wellbeing is increasingly considered as a policy goal. The finding of no or a limited association between poverty and subjective wellbeing of children could be a justification for less effort to improve poverty in this regard. But if the observed magnitude of that association is due to some underlying mechanisms at work, the effect of poverty may be underestimated and the potentially useful strategies that take into account both poverty and other mediators or moderators for improving children’s subjective well-being may be overlooked. Multiple mediation, and multiple moderation models, based on regression analyses, are performed to a sample of approximately 1,600 children, who are aged 10 to 15, from the wellbeing survey conducted by The Children’s Society in England from 2010 to 2011. Results show that the effect of children’s material deprivation on their subjective well-being is mediated by their family relationships and friendships. Moreover, family relationships are a significant moderator. It is found that the negative impact of child deprivation on subjective wellbeing could be exacerbated if family relationships are not going well, while good family relationships may prevent the further decline in subjective well-being. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. In particular, policy measures that focus on strengthening the family relationships or nurturing home environment through supporting household’s economic security and parental time with children could promote the subjective wellbeing of children.

Keywords: child poverty, mediation, moderation, subjective well-being of children

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1731 The Effect of Psychosomatic Aspects of Endometriosis on Marital Relationships and Quality of Life: A Review Study

Authors: Farzaneh Askari, Jila Ganji, Sedigheh Hasani Moghadam

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Endometriosis has been reported as one of the most common chronic gynecological conditions characterized by physical and psychological complications. Given that the impact of this disease on marital relationships and quality of life is multidimensional, the present review study aimed to reflect on the effect of psychosomatic aspects of endometriosis on marital relationships and quality of life. Materials and Methods: A narrative review methodology using keywords determined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus was adopted in this study. For this purpose, the databases of ScienceDirect, Scientific Information Database (SID), Google Scholar, and PubMed were searched by means of key terms including endometriosis, marital relationships, physical complications, psychological complications, and quality of life in English and Persian from 2005 to 2020. At the end of the search, 38 articles were retrieved, and ultimately a total number of 16 studies were recruited for this review. Results: A review of the selected articles demonstrated that endometriosis could affect marital relationships and quality of life among couples featuring in three different categories, i.e. “category I: physical health dimension” (chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, cramps but not period, reduction and loss of fertility), “category II: sexual health dimension” (no sexual intercourse, dyspareunia, lack of sexual satisfaction), and “category III: psychosocial health dimension” (negative self-esteem, low energy, sense of loneliness, depression, social isolation, insufficient sleep, marital distress, divorce and marriage breakdown, inability to work and socialize). Conclusion: In general, it is suggested to pay particular attention to psychosomatic aspects of marital problems in patients affected with endometriosis. Accordingly, implementing educational and counseling strategies to minimize the complications of this disease can provide the grounds for improving marital relationships and maintaining the quality of life in these patients.

Keywords: Endometriosis, marital relationships, psychosomatic complications, quality of life

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1730 Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Iranian Purslane (Portulaca Oleracea L.) Accessions Using ISSR Makers

Authors: Mehdi Mohebodini, Iman Khalili-Baseri, Mehdi Behnamian, Sara Dezhsetan

Abstract:

Diversity analysis at the molecular level using PCR-based markers is the efficient and rapid method of identifying the relationships and differences among the genotypes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships among 20 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among the collected accessions and identify genetically diverse purslane accessions. The 25 primers gave a total of 92 bands, of which 62 were polymorphic (67.4%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon’s information index was 0.55, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of an observed allele, effective allele, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei’s index were 2, 1.65, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively.

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea L., genetic diversity, ISSR, germplasm

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