Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 79

Search results for: professionalism

79 Influence of Principal's Professionalism on Overall Development of the Institution

Authors: Hamesh Babu Nanvala, Madhuri Malhal Rao


The overall development of the Institution is dependent on the approach and attitude of the principal. Influence of principal’s professionalism on overall development of the Institution is the aim of this paper. Professionalism means conducting oneself with responsibility, integrity, accountability and excellence. The predominant characteristic of professionalism is the temperament of oneself to work in the public interest. By summarizing the observations based on authors’ experience regarding professionalism of principals towards the development of their respective institutions and correlating these observations with the findings in the literature and opinion of other principals and staff, the authors conceived a conceptual approach with its attributes by practicing suggested approach principals that can achieve overall development of their institutions.

Keywords: achiever, development, institution, principal, professionalism, student, teacher

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78 University Arabic/Foreign Language Teacher's Competences, Professionalism and the Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Abeer Heider


The article considers the definitions of teacher’s competences and professionalism from different perspectives of Arab and foreign scientists. A special attention is paid to the definition, classification of the stages and components of University Arabic /foreign language teacher’s professionalism. The results of the survey are offered and recommendations are given. In this paper, only some of the problems of defining professional competence and professionalism of the university Arabic/ foreign language teacher have been mentioned. It needs much more analysis and discussion, because the quality of training today’s competitive and mobile students with a good knowledge of foreign languages depends directly on the teachers’ professional level.

Keywords: teacher’s professional competences, Arabic/ foreign language teacher’s professionalism, teacher evaluation, teacher quality

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77 Affectness of Emotional Intelligence on Employee Profesionalism

Authors: Vanisa Damayanti Yuningsih


Employee professionalism is certainly the hope for every company to create a good working environment. Emotional intelligence is one of the factors that determine the success of professionalism, for, in emotional intelligence, an employee can control his ego and can understand and understand his coworkers and thus create a dynamic environment in which to work. Each employee is encouraged to have professionalism in order to optimize his resources. This professionalism is shown by employees being able to do their work and taking responsibility in their profession by involving controlled feelings and emotions. The problem which is drawn from this research is how emotional intelligence can affect the professional attitudes of employees. The purpose of this research is to find out how far emotional intelligence goes in the professional manner of employees.

Keywords: professionalism, emotional intelligence, work environment, company

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76 Teacher Professionalisation and Professionalism Discourses in Teacher Unions: A Case Study of New Zealand

Authors: Huidan Niu


Existing research has focused extensively on teachers’ professional experience in education reforms. However, there is a lack of research on the role and influence of teacher unions in education policy. This study aimed to examine how teacher unions frame teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses. Critical education policy scholarship study was adopted. This study positioned teacher professionalisation and professionalism discourses within their socio-political contexts to explore how the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism are constructed, as well as how teacher unions, as collective actors, shape these discourses. This study examined the development of professionalisation and professionalism discourses in the two main teacher unions in Aotearoa, New Zealand, the New Zealand Educational Institute, TeRiuRoa (NZEI), and the New Zealand Post-Primary Teachers’ Association, TeWehengarua (PPTA). The data were collected from documents and archival material, as well as elite interviews. Twenty-four union leaders, including national presidents, secretaries, executives, and senior union officials, participated in the study. The data analysis followed a grounded theory method: from codes to themes. The findings of the study suggest that the teacher unions, as teachers’ collective (powerful) voices, appeared to highlight tension and confrontation between the teaching profession and governments with respect to the meanings of teacher professionalisation and professionalism.

Keywords: critical education policy scholarship, governments, teacher professionalisation, teacher professionalism, teacher unions

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75 Concept Analysis of Professionalism in Teachers and Faculty Members

Authors: Taiebe Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Leila Afshar, Soleiman Ahmadi


Introduction: The importance of professionalism in higher education not only determines the appropriate and inappropriate behaviors and guides faculty members in the implementation of professional responsibilities, but also guarantees faculty members' adherence to professional principles and values, ensures the quality of teaching and facilitator will be the teaching-learning process in universities and will increase the commitment to meet the needs of students as well as the development of an ethical culture based on ethics. Therefore, considering the important role of medical education teachers to prepare teachers and students in the future, the need to determine the concept of professional teacher and teacher, and the characteristics of teacher professionalism, we have explained the concept of professionalism in teachers in this study. Methods: The concept analysis method used in this study was Walker and Avant method which has eight steps. Walker and Avant state the purpose of concept analysis as follows: The process of distinguishing between the defining features of a concept and its unrelated features. The process of concept analysis includes selecting a concept, determining the purpose of the analysis, identifying the uses of the concept, determining the defining features of the concept, identifying a model, identifying boundary and adversarial items, identifying the precedents and consequences of the concept, and defining empirical references. is. Results: Professionalism in its general sense, requires deep knowledge, insight, creating a healthy and safe environment, honesty and trust, impartiality, commitment to the profession and continuous improvement, punctuality, criticism, professional competence, responsibility, and Individual accountability, especially in social interactions, is an effort for continuous improvement, the acquisition of these characteristics is not easily possible and requires education, especially continuous learning. Professionalism is a set of values, behaviors, and relationships that underpin public trust in teachers.

Keywords: concept analysis, medical education, professionalism, faculty members

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74 Professionalism Developments Programs in Faculty Members of Medical Universities

Authors: Tayebeh Shokri, Shahram Yazdani, Soleiman Ahmadi, Leila Afshar


Introduction: In recent years, the importance of the progress of faculty members in teaching professionalism has increased and many empowerment programs have been carried out in this regard. This study was conducted by reviewing studies and faculty developments programs that have been conducted with the aim of reviewing and promoting professionalism in medical universities. Methodology: In this narrative review, Databases that were selected included: PubMed, Springer, Index, Emerald, Google scholar, Eric, Copernicus, Web of sciences, Science Direct, and articles published in medical education journals, including: medical teacher, medical education and Finally, 36 articles were included in the study. Results: Faculty members have multiple roles in universities, and their progress leads to the improvement of the culture within the organization, the creation of support and the desire to implement programs, we must provide opportunities to achieve these advances. Achieving these goals will be possible by implementing empowerment programs that are done from appropriate training strategies and with various training methods. Conclusion: Examining successful faculty developments programs in world-renowned universities will help us to extract the highlights and experiences of these programs and use their experiences to improve our empowerment programs. Identify appropriate learning opportunities and outcomes in our other universities It will avoid reworking and wasting resources. Using the principles of adult learning and a variety of appropriate learning methods and strategies will lead to the improvement of professionalism developments programs.

Keywords: professionalism, faculty members, professional ethics, developments programs

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73 Аnalysis of the Perception of Medical Professionalism by Specialists of Family Medicine in Kazakhstan

Authors: Nurgul A. Abenova, Gaukhar S. Dilmagambetova, Lazzat M. Zhamaliyeva


Professionalism is a core competency that all medical students must achieve throughout their studies. Clinical knowledge, good communication skills and an understanding of ethics form the basis of professionalism. Patients, medical societies and accrediting organizations expect future specialists to be professionals in their field, which in turn leads to the best clinical results. Currently, there are no studies devoted to the study of medical professionalism in the Republic of Kazakhstan. As a result, medical education in the Kazakhstani system has a limited perception of the concept of professionalism compared to many Western medical schools. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to analyze the perception of medical professionalism among residents and teachers of family medicine at the West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov Medical University. А qualitative research method was used based on the content analysis methodology. A focus group discussion was held with 60 residents and 12 family medicine teachers to gather participants' views and experiences in the field of medical professionalism. The received information was processed using the MAXQDA-2020 software package. Respondents were selected for the study based on their age, gender, and educational level. The results of the conducted survey confirmed the respondents’ acknowledgment of the basic attributes of professionalism, such as medical knowledge and skills (more than 40% of the answers), personal and moral qualities of the doctor (more than 25% of the answers), respect for the interests of the patient (15% of the answers), the relationship between the doctor and the patient and among professionals themselves (15% of responses). Another important discovery of the survey was that residents are five times more likely to define the relationship between a doctor and a patient in a model “respect for the interests of the patient” in comparison with teachers of family medicine, who primarily reported responsibility and collegiality to be the basis for the development of professionalism and traditionally view doctor-patient relationship to be formed on the basis of paternalism defined by a high degree of control over patients. This significant difference demonstrates a rift among specialists in the field of family medicine, which causes a lot of problems. For example, nowadays, professional family doctors regularly face burnout problem due to many reasons and factors that force them to abandon their jobs. In addition to that, elements of professionalism such as reflective skills, time management and feedback collection were presented to the least extent (less than 1%) by both groups, which differs from the perception of the Western medical school and is a significant issue that needs to be solved. The qualitative nature of our study provides a detailed understanding of medical professionalism in the context of the Central Asian healthcare system, revealing many aspects that are inferior to the Western medical school counterparts and provides a solution, which is to teach the attributes and skills required for medical professionalism at all stages of medical education of family doctors.

Keywords: family medicine, family doctors, medical professionalism, medical education

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72 The Construct of Assessment Instrument for Value, Attitude and Professionalism among Students Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching

Authors: Ahmad Hashim, Thariq Khan Azizuddin Khan, Zulakbal Abd Karim, Nohazira Abdul Karim


This research aims to obtain the validity and reliability of a survey instrument to evaluate the values, attitudes, and professionalism of sports science students, from the Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI). It is a survey which is divided into two components namely first; moral, self-esteem, proactive, self-reliant and voluntary and second; ethics and professionalism. Development of the survey instrument is based on the Malaysian Education Development Plan, Higher Education Malaysia. There are 50 items prepared based on the five-point Likert scale which were tested at the pilot test level. It involved 212 research subjects selected based on random sampling. In addition, the research method applied is in the form of pre-experimental one group pre-test-post-test. Results of the analysis showed that overall field expert validity is r = .89, while the Cronbach alpha reliability correlation value of outdoor education instrument evaluation survey is r = .85. Next, this survey was tested again for construct validity using the factor analysis method for statistical analysis which would validate each item tested was supposed to be in the right component. From the analysis, results show that Bartlett's test is significant p < .05 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index range is r = .87. The result showed 39 survey items are produced out of 50 items of the survey based on this factor analysis method. Research has shown that the survey instrument developed is valid and reliable to be used for the Faculty of Sports Sciences and Coaching, UPSI.

Keywords: values, attitudes, professionalism, ethics, professionalism

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71 A Theoretical Analysis on the Controversial Issue of Teaching Professional in the Institutionalized Perspective

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang, Q. Zhou


For structural-functionalism, one set of the common traits of traditional professionals, such as medical practitioners and engineers, can be viewed as the criteria for evaluating whether a given occupation has the right of claiming its professional status or not. Under the influence of this professionalism, teaching practitioners have devoted themselves to acquiring this right as evidenced by the fact that initial training has been extended to even the level of postgraduate. However, for interactionalists, professionalism adopts a predetermined assumption so that it ignores the dynamic nature of social development, which is able to regulate the professional status of a given occupation. Such an interactive approach highlights the concept of professionalization. Furthermore, Marxists argue that structural-functionalists have ignored the impact of proletarianization on the white collar. While professionals gradually lose their control over their practices, the title of profession functions as a self-regulated icon that prevents them from collaborating with the working class and, in turn, creates the ideology of de-politicization sustaining the interests of the ruling class. This article adopts a theoretical analysis on these contradictory arguments. It argues that these criticisms neglect the influence of the institutionalized value system on social operation, which is the core element in sustaining the notion of the profession.

Keywords: teaching profession, professionalism, professionalization, proletarianialization, institutionalized value system

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70 Expectation for Professionalism Effects Reality Shock: A Qualitative And Quantitative Study of Reality Shock among New Human Service Professionals

Authors: Hiromi Takafuji


It is a well-known fact that health care and welfare are the foundation of human activities, and human service professionals such as nurses and child care workers support these activities. COVID-19 pandemic has made the severity of the working environment in these fields even more known. It is high time to discuss the work of human service workers for the sustainable development of the human environment. Early turnover has been recognized as a long-standing issue in these fields. In Japan, the attrition rate within three years of graduation for these occupations has remained high at about 40% for more than 20 years. One of the reasons for this is Reality Shock: RS, which refers to the stress caused by the gap between pre-employment expectations and the post-employment reality experienced by new workers. The purpose of this study was to academically elucidate the mechanism of RS among human service professionals and to contribute to countermeasures against it. Firstly, to explore the structure of the relationship between professionalism and workers' RS, an exploratory interview survey was conducted and analyzed by text mining and content analysis. The results showed that the expectation of professionalism influences RS as a pre-employment job expectation. Next, the expectations of professionalism were quantified and categorized, and the responses of a total of 282 human service work professionals, nurses, child care workers, and caregivers; were finalized for data analysis. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, multiple regression analysis, and structural equation modeling techniques. The results revealed that self-control orientation and authority orientation by qualification had a direct positive significant impact on RS. On the other hand, interpersonal helping orientation and altruistic orientation were found to have a direct negative significant impact and an indirect positive significant impact on RS.; we were able to clarify the structure of work expectations that affect the RS of welfare professionals, which had not been clarified in previous studies. We also explained the limitations, practical implications, and directions for future research.

Keywords: human service professional, new hire turnover, SEM, reality shock

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69 Reality Shock Affecting the Motivation to Work of New Flight Attendants: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Flight Attendants Who Left Their Jobs Early

Authors: Hiromi Takafuji


Flight attendant:FA is one of popular occupation, especially in Asian countries, and the decision to be hired is made after clearing a high multiplier. On the other hand, immediately after joining the company, they experience unique stress due to the fact that the organization requires them to perform security and customer service duties in a highly specialized and limited space and time. As a result, despite the high level of difficulty in joining the company, many new recruits retire early at a high rate. It is commonly said that 30% of new graduates leave the company within three years in Japan and speculated that Reality Shock:RS is one of the causes of this. RS is that newcomers experience refers to the stress caused by the difference between pre-employment expectations and post-employment reality. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which the expertise required of new FA and the expectation of expertise held by each of them cause reality shock, which affects motivation and the decision to leave. This study identified the professionalism required of new FA and the impact of that expectation for professionalism on RS through an exploratory study of the experiences and psychological processes of FA who left within three years. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with five FA who left a major Japanese airline at an early stage, and their experiences were categorized, integrated, and classified by qualitative content analysis. They were chosen under a number of controlled conditions. Then two major findings emerged: first, that pre-employment expectations defining RS were hierarchical, and second, that training amplified expectations of professionalism, which strongly influenced early turnover. From these, this study generated a model of RS generative process model of FA that expectations are hierarchical and influential. This could contribute to the prevention of mental health deterioration by reality shock among new FA.

Keywords: reality shock, flight attendant, early turnover, qualitative study

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68 Assessing Professionalism, Communication, and Collaboration among Emergency Physicians by Implementing a 360-Degree Evaluation

Authors: Ahmed Al Ansari, Khalid Al Khalifa


Objective: Multisource feedback (MSF), also called the 360-Degree evaluation is an evaluation process by which questionnaires are distributed amongst medical peers and colleagues to assess physician performance from different sources other than the attending or the supervising physicians. The aim of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a 360-Degree process in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: The study was undertaken in Bahrain Defense Force Hospital which is a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Thirty emergency physicians (who represent the total population of the emergency physicians in our hospital) were assessed in this study. We developed an instrument modified from the Physician achievement review instrument PAR which was used to assess Physician in Alberta. We focused in our instrument to assess professionalism, communication skills and collaboration only. To achieve face and content validity, table of specification was constructed and a working group was involved in constructing the instrument. Expert opinion was considered as well. The instrument consisted of 39 items; were 15 items to assess professionalism, 13 items to assess communication skills, and 11 items to assess collaboration. Each emergency physicians was evaluated with 3 groups of raters, 4 Medical colleague emergency physicians, 4 medical colleague who are considered referral physicians from different departments, and 4 Coworkers from the emergency department. Independent administrative team was formed to carry on the responsibility of distributing the instruments and collecting them in closed envelopes. Each envelope was consisted of that instrument and a guide for the implementation of the MSF and the purpose of the study. Results: A total of 30 emergency physicians 16 males and 14 females who represent the total number of the emergency physicians in our hospital were assessed. The total collected forms is 269, were 105 surveys from coworkers working in emergency department, 93 surveys from medical colleague emergency physicians, and 116 surveys from referral physicians from different departments. The total mean response rates were 71.2%. The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.967; Bartlett test significant, p<0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into three factors which counted for 72.6% of the total variance: professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the instrument full scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients (Ep2) were 0.71 for the surveys. Conclusions: Based on the present results, the current instruments and procedures have high reliability, validity, and feasibility in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the emergency room.

Keywords: MSF system, emergency, validity, generalizability

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67 Social Work Profession in a Mirror of the Russian Immigrant Media in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Nelly Elias


The present study seeks to analyze representation of social work in immigrant media, focusing on the case of online newspapers established by immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. This immigrant population is particularly interesting because social work did not exist as a profession practiced in the USSR and hence most FSU immigrants arrive in Israel without a basic knowledge of the essence of social work, the services it provides and the logic behind its treatment methods. The sample of 37 items was built through a Google search of the Russian online newspapers and portals originated in Israel by using keywords such as “social worker,” “social work services” and the like. All items were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Principal analytical categories used for the analysis were: Assessment of social work services (negative, positive, neutral); social workers’ professionalism and effectiveness; goals and motives underlying their activity; cross-cultural contact with immigrants and methods used in working with immigrants. On this basis, four dominant images used to portray Israeli social work services and social workers were identified: Lack of professionalism, cultural gaps between FSU immigrants and Israeli social workers, repressive character of social work services and social workers’ involvement in corruption and crime.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, immigrant media, media images, social workers

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66 An Eastern Philosophical Dimension of an English Language Teacher's Professionalism: A Narrative Analysis

Authors: Siddhartha Dhungana


This article primarily explores dimensions in English language teacher's professionalism so that a teacher could reflect and make a strategic professional devotion to implement effective educational programs for the present and the future. The paper substantially incorporates the eastern Hindu practices, especially life values from the Bhagavad Gita, as a basis of teacher’s professional enrichment. Basically, it applies three categorical practices, i.e., Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga, in teachers’ professionality to illustrate, ignite further ahead and sharpen academic journey, professional journey, and professional devotion reflecting common practices. In this journey, a teacher comes to a stage of professional essence as s/he surpasses Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, and Bhakti Yoga with their basic quality formation. To illustrate their essence-making process, the three narrative stories for each category mentioned above are analyzed. The data collected from a research participant who has a high level of professional success and who inspires all English Language teachers in Nepal to develop stories for narrative analysis. The narrative analysis is based on eastern themes that are supported by Vygotsky's concept of developmental psychology. Moreover, the structural analysis is based on Gary Barkhuizen's narrative analysis.

Keywords: Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Vygotsky's concepts, narrative analysis

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65 Transforming Professional Learning Communities and Centers: A Case Study of Luck Now District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Authors: Sarvada Nand


Teacher quality is directly proportional to the achievement level of students. Recent researches reveal that the teacher learning communities enhance the quality of teacher. It is a proven fact that community does help in enhancing teachers’ self-esteem as professionals, their teaching skills and enhancing classroom transaction that results in the higher achievement of students. The purpose of this study is to develop TLC and provide them platform where they share their views and ideas on various academic issues. The study examines how teachers conceptualize TLCs, up to what extent TLC help in developing professionalism among teachers and how they prepare themselves for the days to come. In this study, pre-test in five subjects, Hindi, English, Mathematics, Science and Social Studies was conducted and a questionnaire was designed to judge the teachers' attitude towards teaching practice. After completion of the project duration of three and a half-month, an exercise of post-test was conducted in all the above subjects. The post tests show tremendous improvements in achievement level of those students who were regular in their classes and were attended through this new method. A visible shift in teacher’s attitude is seen for the better. They were able to realize their own potentials. There was a group of Facilitators formed to perform continuously supervision and monitor in regular intervals so that they could easily handle the challenges, and factors much important for the attainment towards the fulfillment of the objectives.

Keywords: teacher learning communities, best practice, teacher professionalism, student achievement

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64 Competency-Based Social Work Practice and Challenges in Child Case Management: Studies in the Districts Social Welfare Services, Malaysia

Authors: Sopian Brahim, Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, Ezarina Zakaria, Norulhuda Sarnon


This study aims to explore the practical experience of child welfare case workers and professionalism in the child case management in Malaysia. This paper discusses the specific social work practice competency and challenges faced by child caseworkers in the fieldwork. This research is qualitative with Grounded Theory approach. Four sessions of Focused Group Discussion (FGD) have been conducted involving a total of 27 caseworkers (child protector and probation officers) in the Klang Valley. The study found that the four basic principles of knowledge in child case management namely: 1. Knowledge in child case management, 2. Professional values of caseworkers towards children, 3. skills in managing cases, and 4. Culturally competence practice in child case managemenr. In addition, major challenges faced in the child case management are the capacity and commitment of the family in children's rehabilitation program, the credibility of the case worker are being challenge and challenges in support system from intra and inter-agency. This study is important for policy makers to take into account the capacity and needs of the child's case worker in accordance with national social work competency framework thereby improving case management services for children more systematically in line with national standards.

Keywords: social work practice, child case management, competency-based knowledge, professionalism

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63 Motivation of Doctors and its Impact on the Quality of Working Life

Authors: E. V. Fakhrutdinova, K. R. Maksimova, P. B. Chursin


At the present stage of the society progress the health care is an integral part of both the economic system and social, while in the second case the medicine is a major component of a number of basic and necessary social programs. Since the foundation of the health system are highly qualified health professionals, it is logical proposition that increase of doctor`s professionalism improves the effectiveness of the system as a whole. Professionalism of the doctor is a collection of many components, essential role played by such personal-psychological factors as honesty, willingness and desire to help people, and motivation. A number of researchers consider motivation as an expression of basic human needs that have passed through the “filter” which is a worldview and values learned in the process of socialization by the individual, to commit certain actions designed to achieve the expected result. From this point of view a number of researchers propose the following classification of highly skilled employee’s needs: 1. the need for confirmation the competence (setting goals that meet the professionalism and receipt of positive emotions in their decision), 2. The need for independence (the ability to make their own choices in contentious situations arising in the process carry out specialist functions), 3. The need for ownership (in the case of health care workers, to the profession and accordingly, high in the eyes of the public status of the doctor). Nevertheless, it is important to understand that in a market economy a significant motivator for physicians (both legal and natural persons) is to maximize its own profits. In the case of health professionals duality motivational structure creates an additional contrast, as in the public mind the image of the ideal physician; usually a altruistically minded person thinking is not primarily about their own benefit, and to assist others. In this context, the question of the real motivation of health workers deserves special attention. The survey conducted by the American researcher Harrison Terni for the magazine "Med Tech" in 2010 revealed the opinion of more than 200 medical students starting courses, and the primary motivation in a profession choice is "desire to help people", only 15% said that they want become a doctor, "to earn a lot". From the point of view of most of the classical theories of motivation this trend can be called positive, as intangible incentives are more effective. However, it is likely that over time the opinion of the respondents may change in the direction of mercantile motives. Thus, it is logical to assume that well-designed system of motivation of doctor`s labor should be based on motivational foundations laid during training in higher education.

Keywords: motivation, quality of working life, health system, personal-psychological factors, motivational structure

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62 Selecting Graduates for the Interns’ Award by Using Multisource Feedback Process: Does It Work?

Authors: Kathryn Strachan, Sameer Otoom, Amal AL-Gallaf, Ahmed Al Ansari


Introduction: Introducing a reliable method to select graduates for an award in higher education can be challenging but is not impossible. Multisource feedback (MSF) is a popular assessment tool that relies on evaluations of different groups of people, including physicians and non-physicians. It is useful for assessing several domains, including professionalism, communication and collaboration and may be useful for selecting the best interns to receive a University award. Methods: 16 graduates responded to an invitation to participate in the student award, which was conducted by the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland-Bahrain Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) using the MSF process. Five individuals from the following categories rated each participant: physicians, nurses, and fellow students. RCSI Bahrain graduates were assessed in the following domains; professionalism, communication, and collaboration. Mean and standard deviation were calculated and the award was given to the graduate who scored the highest among his/her colleagues. Cronbach’s coefficient was used to determine the questionnaire’s internal consistency and reliability. Factor analysis was conducted to examine for the construct validity. Results: 16 graduates participated in the RCSI-Bahrain interns’ award based on the MSF process, giving us a 16.5% response rate. The instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis and showed 3 factor solutions representing 79.3% of the total variance. Reliability analysis using Cronbach’s α reliability of internal consistency indicated that the full scale of the instrument had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). Conclusion: This study found the MSF process to be reliable and valid for selecting the best graduates for the interns’ awards. However, the low response rates may suggest that the process is not feasible for allowing the majority of the students to participate in the selection process. Further research studies may be required to support the feasibility of the MSF process in selecting graduates for the university award.

Keywords: MSF, RCSI, validity, Bahrain

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61 Self-Image of Police Officers

Authors: Leo Carlo B. Rondina


Self-image is an important factor to improve the self-esteem of the personnel. The purpose of the study is to determine the self-image of the police. The respondents were the 503 policemen assigned in different Police Station in Davao City, and they were chosen with the used of random sampling. With the used of Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), latent construct variables of police image were identified as follows; professionalism, obedience, morality and justice and fairness. Further, ordinal regression indicates statistical characteristics on ages 21-40 which means the age of the respondent statistically improves self-image.

Keywords: police image, exploratory factor analysis, ordinal regression, Galatea effect

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60 Organizational Culture of a Public and a Private Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Thamiris Cavazzani Vegro, Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Andrea Bernardes


Introduction: Organizations are cultural, symbolic and imaginary systems composed by values and norms. These values and norms represent the organizational culture, which determines the behavior of the workers, guides the work practices and impacts the quality of care and the safety culture of health services worldwide. Objective: To analyze the organizational culture of a public and a private hospital in Brazil. Method: Descriptive study with quantitative approach developed in a public and in a private hospital of Brazil. Sample was composed by 281 nursing workers, of which 73 nurses and 208 nursing auxiliaries and technicians. The data collection instrument comprised the Brazilian Instrument for Assessing Organizational Culture. Data were collected from March to December 2013. Results: At the public hospital, the results showed an average score of 2.85 for the values concerning cooperative professionalism (CP); 3.02 for values related to hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power (HR); 2.23 for individualistic professionalism and competition at work (IP); 2.22 for values related to satisfaction, well-being and motivation of workers (SW); 3.47 for external integration (EI); 2.03 for rewarding and training practices (RT); 2.75 for practices related to the promotion of interpersonal relationships (IR) About the private hospital, the results showed an average score of 3.24 for the CP; 2.83 for HR; 2.69 for IP; 2.71 for SW; 3.73 for EI; 2.56 for RT; 2.83 for IR at the hospital. Discussion: The analysis of organizational values of the studied hospitals shows that workers find the existence of hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power in the institutions; believed there was cooperation at workplace, though they perceived individualism and competition; believed that values associated with the workers’ well-being, satisfaction and motivation were seldom acknowledged by the hospital; believed in the adoption of strategic planning actions within the institution, but considered interpersonal relationship promotion, continuous education and the rewarding of workers to be little valued by the institution. Conclusion: This work context can lead to professional dissatisfaction, compromising the quality of care and contributing to the occurrence of occupational diseases.

Keywords: nursing management, organizational culture, quality of care, interpersonal relationships

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59 Attitude to the Types of Organizational Change

Authors: O. Y. Yurieva, O. V. Yurieva, O. V. Kiselkina, A. V. Kamaseva


Since the early 2000s, there are some innovative changes in the civil service in Russia due to administrative reform. Perspectives of the reform of the civil service include a fundamental change in the personnel component, increasing the level of professionalism of officials, increasing their capacity for self-organization and self-regulation. In order to achieve this, the civil service must be able to continuously change. Organizational changes have long become the subject of scientific understanding; problems of research in the field of organizational change is presented by topics focused on the study of the methodological aspects of the implementation of the changes, the specifics of changes in different types of organizations (business, government, and so on), design changes in the organization, including based on the change in organizational culture. In this case, the organizational changes in the civil service are the least studied areas; research of problems of its transformation is carried out in fragments. According to the theory of resistance of Herbert Simon, the root of the opposition and rejection of change is in the person who will resist any change, if it threatens to undermine the degree of satisfaction as a member of the organization (regardless of the reasons for this change). Thus, the condition for successful adaptation to changes in the organization is the ability of its staff to perceive innovation. As part of the problem, the study sought to identify the innovation civil servants, to determine readiness for the development of proposals for the implementation of organizational change in the public service. To identify the relationship to organizational changes case study carried out by the method of "Attitudes to organizational change" of I. Motovilina, which allowed predicting the type of resistance to changes, to reveal the contradictions and hidden results. The advantage of the method of I. Motovilina is its brevity, simplicity, the analysis of the responses to each question, the use of "overlapping" issues potentially conflicting factors. Based on the study made by the authors, it was found that respondents have a positive attitude to change more local than those that take place in reality, such as "increase opportunities for professional growth", "increase the requirements for the level of professionalism of", "the emergence of possible manifestations initiatives from below". Implemented by the authors diagnostics related to organizational changes in the public service showed the presence of specific problem areas, with roots in the lack of understanding of the importance of innovation personnel in the process of bureaucratization of innovation in public service organizations.

Keywords: innovative changes, self-organization, self-regulation, civil service

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58 Professional Development in EFL Classroom: Motivation and Reflection

Authors: Iman Jabbar


Within the scope of professionalism and in order to compete with the modern world, teachers, are expected to develop their teaching skills and activities in addition to their professional knowledge. At the college level, the teacher should be able to face classroom challenges through his engagement with the learning situation to understand the students and their needs. In our field of TESOL, the role of the English teacher is no longer restricted to teaching English texts, but rather he should endeavor to enhance the students’ skills such as communication and critical analysis. Within the literature of professionalism, there are certain strategies and tools that an English teacher should adopt to develop his competence and performance. Reflective practice, which is an exploratory process, is one of these strategies. Another strategy contributing to classroom development is motivation. It is crucial in students’ learning as it affects the quality of learning English in the classroom in addition to determining success or failure as well as language achievement. This is a qualitative study grounded on interpretive perspectives of teachers and students regarding the process of professional development. This study aims at (a) understanding how teachers at the college level conceptualize reflective practice and motivation inside EFL classroom, and (b) exploring the methods and strategies that they implement to practice reflection and motivation. This study and is based on two questions: 1. How do EFL teachers perceive and view reflection and motivation in relation to their teaching and professional development? 2. How can reflective practice and motivation be developed into practical strategies and actions in EFL teachers’ professional context? The study is organized into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part reviews the literature on the concept of reflective practice and motivation in relation to professional development through providing certain definitions, theoretical models, and strategies. The practical part draws on the theoretical one, however; it is the core of the study since it deals with two issues. It involves the research design, methodology, and methods of data collection, sampling, and data analysis. It ends up with an overall discussion of findings and the researcher's reflections on the investigated topic. In terms of significance, the study is intended to contribute to the field of TESOL at the academic level through the selection of the topic and investigating it from theoretical and practical perspectives. Professional development is the path that leads to enhancing the quality of teaching English as a foreign or second language in a way that suits the modern trends of globalization and advanced technology.

Keywords: professional development, motivation, reflection, learning

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57 Critical Analysis of the Level of Subjectivity and Objectivity While Reporting Kashmir Conflict

Authors: Pardeep Singh, N. S. Johal


In this research paper the level of subjectivity and objectivity adopted by journalists of different newspapers of the two provinces of the Jammu and Kashmir state has been analysed. This research paper emphasized upon the professionalism of the journalists of two provinces in catering to readers of particular province. In this study it was found that Kashmir based reporters are subjective in their reporting while covering Kashmir sentiments and use hard language against New Delhi, whereas Jammu based reporters are subjective only when it comes to defend security forces and are also bitterly critical of Pakistan, accusing it of being a sponsor of violence in Kashmir.

Keywords: conflict, Jammu and Kashmir, print media, reporter, critical, violence

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56 Appearance-Based Discrimination in a Workplace: An Emerging Problem for Labor Law Relationships

Authors: Irmina Miernicka


Nowadays, dress codes and widely understood appearance are becoming more important in the workplace. They are often used in the workplace to standardize image of an employer, to communicate a corporate image and ensure that customers can easily identify it. It is also a way to build professionalism of employer. Additionally, in many cases, an employer will introduce a dress code for health and safety reasons. Employers more often oblige employees to follow certain rules concerning their clothing, grooming, make-up, body art or even weight. An important research problem is to find the limits of the employer's interference with the external appearance of employees. They are primarily determined by the two main obligations of the employer, i. e. the obligation to respect the employee's personal rights and the principle of equal treatment and non-discrimination in employment. It should also be remembered that the limits of the employer's interference will be different when certain rules concerning the employee's appearance result directly from the provisions of laws and other acts of universally binding law (workwear, official clothing, and uniform). The analysis of this issue was based on literature and jurisprudence, both domestic and foreign, including the U.S. and European case law, and led the author to put forward a thesis that there are four main principles, which will protect the employer from the allegation of discrimination. First, it is the principle of adequacy - the means requirements regarding dress code must be appropriate to the position and type of work performed by the employee. Secondly, in accordance with the purpose limitation principle, an employer may introduce certain requirements regarding the appearance of employees if there is a legitimate, objective justification for this (such as work safety or type of work performed), not dictated by the employer's subjective feelings and preferences. Thirdly, these requirements must not place an excessive burden on workers and be disproportionate in relation to the employer's objective (principle of proportionality). Fourthly, the employer should also ensure that the requirements imposed in the workplace are equally burdensome and enforceable from all groups of employees. Otherwise, it may expose itself to grounds of discrimination based on sex or age. At the same time, it is also possible to differentiate the situation of some employees if these differences are small and reflect established habits and traditions and if employees are obliged to maintain the same level of professionalism in their positions. Although this subject may seem to be insignificant, frequent application of dress codes and increasing awareness of both employees and employers indicate that its legal aspects need to be thoroughly analyzed. Many legal cases brought before U.S. and European courts show that employees look for legal protection when they consider that their rights are violated by dress code introduced in a workplace.

Keywords: labor law, the appearance of an employee, discrimination in the workplace, dress code in a workplace

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55 Using the World Cafe Discussion Method to Practice Professional Ethics Courses: Taking Life Education as an Example

Authors: Li-Jia Chiu


The purpose of this study is to integrate the content of professional ethics curriculum into life education. This course is a required course for the third-year students of the university. The curriculum is based on professional ethics, which can help students gain insights into a conceptual understanding of professional theory, learning the meaning and the value of life. This study enhances students' attitude toward learning through multi-teaching methods. It takes ‘professionalism’ as the subject of discussion. Additionally, the course combines the connotation and issues of the student's career development. Using the world cafe discussion method, students can think about the role of the future career, and inspire students to integrate their career development and life value reflection and connection. This study recruited the third-year undergraduate students as samples to collect data. This study was conducted in the course of the fall semester in 2016 for thematic discussions, classroom observations, course study forms, coursework, and results in publication reports, etc. The researcher conducted induction data analysis to reflect the practice and reflection of the course. The subjects included 117 students from two classes, including 54 male and 63 female students. The findings of this study comprised the following two parts: the student’s learning and teacher’s teaching reflection. The students’ gains were that: 1) The curriculum design is different from that of other subjects; 2) The curriculum is highly interactive with teachers and classmates; 3) These students are willing to actively participate and share ideas in group discussions; 4 ) They thought the possibility of further discussions with other groups of students through table-to-table discussions; 5) They experienced the respect from other students in the learning process and their appreciation of other students in the same group. The instruction reflections were as follows: 1) Students learned to get link to the value of life and future development through topical discussions; 2) After the main course design guided through gradual guidance, the students’ psychology reached a certain degree of cognition, and further themes then added would cause more sensuous learning effects; 3) Combining students’ expertise in drawing in this department (digital media design department) into curriculum design is effective in stimulating learning motivation and sense of accomplishment; 4) In order to compare and explore learning benefits, future researches are recommended to conduct the similar studies with different departments. Finally, the researcher looks forward to providing research results and findings to the related curriculum teachers as a reference for practical curriculum planning and teaching methods.

Keywords: life education, World Cafe, professional ethics, professionalism

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54 A Model for a Continuous Professional Development Program for Early Childhood Teachers in Villages: Insights from the Coaching Pilot in Indonesia

Authors: Ellen Patricia, Marilou Hyson


Coaching has been showing great potential to strengthen the impact of brief group trainings and help early childhood teachers solve specific problems at work with the goal of raising the quality of early childhood services. However, there have been some doubts about the benefits that village teachers can receive from coaching. It is perceived that village teachers may struggle with the thinking skills needed to make coaching beneficial. Furthermore, there are reservations about whether principals and supervisors in villages are open to coaching’s facilitative approach, as opposed to the directive approach they have been using. As such, the use of coaching to develop the professionalism of early childhood teachers in the villages needs to be examined. The Coaching Pilot for early childhood teachers in Indonesia villages provides insights for the above issues. The Coaching Pilot is part of the ECED Frontline Pilot, which is a collaboration project between the Government of Indonesia and the World Bank with the support from the Australian Government (DFAT). The Pilot started with coordinated efforts with the local government in two districts to select principals and supervisors who have been equipped with basic knowledge about early childhood education to take part in 2-days coaching training. Afterwards, the participants were asked to collect 25 hours of coaching early childhood teachers who have participated in the Enhanced Basic Training for village teachers. The participants who completed this requirement were then invited to come for an assessment of their coaching skills. Following that, a qualitative evaluation was conducted using in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion techniques. The evaluation focuses on the impact of the coaching pilot in helping the village teachers to develop in their professionalism, as well as on the sustainability of the intervention. Results from the evaluation indicated that although their low education may limit their thinking skills, village teachers benefited from the coaching that they received. Moreover, the evaluation results also suggested that with enough training and support, principals and supervisors in the villages were able to provide an adequate coaching service for the teachers. On top of that, beyond this small start, interest is growing, both within the pilot districts and even beyond, due to word of mouth of the benefits that the Coaching Pilot has created. The districts where coaching was piloted have planned to continue the coaching program, since a number of early childhood teachers have requested to be coached, and a number of principals and supervisors have also requested to be trained as a coach. Furthermore, the Association for Early Childhood Educators in Indonesia has started to adopt coaching into their program. Although further research is needed, the Coaching Pilot suggests that coaching can positively impact early childhood teachers in villages, and village principals and supervisors can become a promising source of future coaches. As such, coaching has a significant potential to become a sustainable model for a continuous professional development program for early childhood teachers in villages.

Keywords: coaching, coaching pilot, early childhood teachers, principals and supervisors, village teachers

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53 Teacher’s Self-Efficacy and Self-Perception of Teaching Professional Competences

Authors: V. Biasi, A. M. Ciraci, G. Domenici, N. Patrizi


We present two studies centered on the teacher’s perception of self-efficacy and professional competences. The first study aims to evaluate the levels of self-efficacy as attitude in 200 teachers of primary and secondary schools. Teacher self-efficacy is related to many educational outcomes: such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior. High level of teacher self-efficacy beliefs enhance student motivation and pupil’s learning level. On this theoretical and empirical basis we are planning a second study oriented to assess teacher self-perception of competences that are linked to teacher self-efficacy. With the CDVR Questionnaire, 287 teachers graduated in Education Sciences in e-learning mode, showed an increase in their self-perception of didactic-evaluation and relational competences and an increased confidence also in their own professionalism.

Keywords: teacher competence, teacher self-efficacy, selfperception, self-report evaluation

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52 Kiira EV Project Transition from Student to Professional Team through Project-Based Skills Development

Authors: Doreen Orishaba, Paul Isaac Musasizi, Richard Madanda, Sandy Stevens Tickodri-Togboa


The world of academia tends to be a very insular place. Consequently, scholars who successfully completed their undergraduate and graduate studies are unpleasantly surprised at how challenging the transition to corporate life can get. This is a global trend even as the students who juggle work with attending some of the most demanding and best graduate programs may not easily adjust to and confirm to the professionalism required for corporate management of the industry. This paper explores the trends in the transition of Kiira EV Project from a predominantly student team to a professional team of a national pride program through mentorship and apprenticeship. The core disciplines within the Kiira EV Project include Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Industrial Design.

Keywords: mentorship, apprenticeship, professional, development

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51 A Multi-Case Study on Interdisciplinary Nature of Academic Developers’ Professional Identity

Authors: Yoko Mori, Tony Harland, Navé Wald


This paper explores how connections between the field of academic development (AD) and other disciplines support formation and growth of academic developers’ professional identity. Individuals entering the AD field from different pathways and disciplines are positioned in a liminal space between ‘service’ and ‘academia’, which often results in an uncertain professional identity. While some AD units have central roles in their institutions, others have marginal roles with connections varying between disciplines. Focusing on the association between disciplines is important because a sense of connectedness to knowledge and the nature of a discipline impacts on identity. Unlike established fields such as medicine, where students cultivate their identity as they study, pass qualification exams, receive professional training, and wear their whitecoats, AD does not have equivalent antecedents to professional identity. However, in the process of building a strong knowledge base, academic developers need to both foster their own knowledge and connect to knowledge of other disciplines. There is a developing and independent, or even universal group of theories that could be described as a general form of AD that applies to all disciplines. This is the field of ‘higher education’, and it forms the core of academic developers’ identity. However, when working in a service capacity, any theory or principle must take into account the client’s knowledge, their discipline, and professional status so that ‘knowing’ supports practical transformation. AD knowledge is thus, relational and practical, though, often viewed as non-scientific. Compared with a strong profession such as medicine, it appears diffused or general, non-exclusive (because it is relational), and of less worth in the hierarchy of disciplinary knowledge and professions. A related idea is that professional identity develops by acquiring the professional skills of the field, as well as internalizing community values, norms, and ways of thinking. So, despite having an emergent theoretical base as a core, this is partial in AD, and it may not have the necessary conditions for professionalism. This situation can be seen between educational systems, universities, or even within a single institution. The study from which this paper stems focuses on professional identity of academic developers in New Zealand and Japanese higher education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 academics. The results showed that whatever field academic developers come from, they have to maintain a sense of self-doubt in order to work with academics from other disciplines. Without this, it is likely that an academic developer will be confined to a narrow area of expertise without the ability to be able to reflect on knowledge from other fields. In addition, bringing AD to other disciplines opens up the disciplinary academic to new ways of thinking. The implications are that academic developers' professional identity is situated as an agent of epistemological change for both the academic developer and for those they work with. In addition, self-doubt can be embraced as a form of professionalism which is not usually the case for more established disciplines.

Keywords: academic development, academic developers, higher education, interdisciplinary connections, professional identity

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50 Determining the Distance Consumers Are Willing to Travel to a Store: A Structural Equation Model Approach

Authors: Fuseina Mahama, Lieselot Vanhaverbeke


This research investigates the impact of patronage determinants on the distance consumers are willing to travel to patronize a tire shop. Although store patronage has been acknowledged as an important domain and has received substantial research interest, most of the studies so far conducted focus on grocery retail, leaving other categories of goods widely unexplored. In this study, we focus on car tires and provide a new perspective to the specific factors that influence tire shop patronage. An online survey of consumers’ tyre purchasing behaviour was conducted among private car owners in Belgium. A sample of 864 respondents was used in the study, with almost four out of five of them being male. 84% of the respondents had purchased a car tyre in the last 24 months and on average travelled 22.4kms to patronise a tyre shop. We tested the direct and mediated effects of store choice determinants on distance consumers are willing to travel. All hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Our findings show that with an increase in the consumer’s age the distance they were willing to travel to a tire shop decreased. Similarly, consumers who deemed proximity an important determinant of a tire shop our findings confirmed a negative effect on willingness to travel. On the other hand, the determinants price, personal contact and professionalism all had a positive effect on distance. This means that consumers actively sought out tire shops with these characteristics and were willing to travel longer distances in order to visit them. The indirect effects of the determinants flexible opening hours, family recommendation, dealer reputation, receiving auto service at home and availability of preferred brand on distance are mediated by dealer trust. Gender had a minimal effect on distance, with females exhibiting a stronger relation in terms of dealer trust as compared to males. Overall, we found that market relevant factors were better predictors of distance; and proximity, dealer trust and professionalism have the most profound effects on distance that consumers are willing to travel. This is related to the fact that the nature of shopping goods (among which are car tires) typically reinforces consumers to be more engaged in the shopping process, therefore factors that have to do with the store (e.g. location) and shopping process play a key role in store choice decision. These findings are very specific to shopping goods and cannot be generalized to other categories of goods. For marketers and retailers these findings can have direct implications on their location strategies. The factors found to be relevant to tire shop patronage will be used in our next study to calibrate a location model to be utilised to identify the optimum location for siting new tyre shop outlets and service centres.

Keywords: dealer trust, distance to store, tire store patronage, willingness to travel

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