Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4259

Search results for: Societal Issues

4259 Societal Stakes for Small Cruise Ships: A Recurrent Issue of Our Time

Authors: Maud Tixier

Abstract:

Societal issues are at stake for cruises anywhere, whatever the size of the ships and their destinations are. However, the Mediterranean sea is the main region where many operate and the challenges are both social and environmental. The presentation focuses on small ships, accounting for market niches, aimed at more specific cruise passengers and calling at less visited areas. How they cope with the benefit of all stakeholders is a persistent issue of our time.

Keywords: environment, management, social, societal, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4258 The Concept and Practice of Good Governance in the European Union

Authors: Robert Grzeszczak

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The article deals with one of the most significant issues concerning the functioning of the public sector in the European Union. The objectives of good governance were formulated by the EU itself and also the Scholars in reaction to the discussion that started a decade ago and concerned the role of the government in 21st century, the future of integration processes and globalization challenges in Europe. Currently, the concept of good governance is mainly associated with the improvement of management of public policies in the European Union, concerning both domestic and EU policies. However, it goes beyond the issues of state capacity and effectiveness of management. Good governance relates also to societal participation in the public administration and verification of decisions made in public authorities’ (including public administration). Indirectly, the concept and practice of good governance are connected to societal legitimisation of public bodies in the European Union.

Keywords: good governance, government, European law, European Union

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
4257 Behavior of Engineering Students in Kuwait University

Authors: Mohammed A. Al-Ajmi, Reem S. Al-Kandari

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This study is concerned with the behavior of engineering students in Kuwait University which became a concern due to the global issues of education in all levels. A survey has been conducted to identify academic and societal issues that affect the engineering student performance through. The study is drawing major conclusions with regard to private tutoring and the online availability of textbooks’ solution manuals.

Keywords: solution manual, engineering, textbook, ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
4256 Scenarios of Societal Security and Business Continuity Cycles

Authors: Jiří F. Urbánek, Jiří Barta

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Societal security, continuity scenarios, and methodological cycling approach understands in this article. Namely, societal security organizational challenges ask implementation of international standards BS 25999-2 and global ISO 22300 which is a family of standards for business continuity management system. Efficient global organization system is distinguished of high entity´s complexity, connectivity, and interoperability, having not only cooperative relations in a fact. Competing business have numerous participating ´enemies´, which are in apparent or hidden opponent and antagonistic roles with prosperous organization systems, resulting to a crisis scene or even to a battle theater. Organization business continuity scenarios are necessary for such ´a play´ preparedness, planning, management, and overmastering in real environments.

Keywords: business continuity, societal security, crisis scenarios cycles, interoperability

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
4255 Issues and Challenges in Social Work Field Education: The Field Coordinator's Perspective

Authors: Tracy B.E. Omorogiuwa

Abstract:

Understanding the role of social work in improving societal well-being cannot be separated from the place of field education, which is an integral aspect of social work education. Field learning provides students with knowledge and opportunities to experience solving issues in the field and giving them a clue of the practice situation. Despite being a crucial component in social work curriculum, field education occupies a large space in learning outcome, given the issues and challenges pertaining to its purpose and significance in the society. The drive of this paper is to provide insight on the specific ways in which field education has been conceived, realized and valued in the society. Emphasis is on the significance of field instruction; the link with classroom learning; and the structure of field experience in social work education. Given documented analysis and experience, this study intends to contribute to the development of social work curriculum, by analyzing the pattern, issues and challenges fronting the social work field education in the University of Benin, Nigeria.

Keywords: challenges, curriculum, field education, social work education

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4254 Ethical, Legal, and Societal Aspects of Unmanned Aircraft in Defence

Authors: Benjamyn I. Scott, Bart Custers

Abstract:

Suboptimal adoption of AI in defence organisations carries risks for the protection of the freedom, safety, and security of society. Despite the vast opportunities that defence AI technology presents, there are also a variety of ethical, legal, and societal concerns. To ensure the successful use of AI technology by the military, ethical, legal, and societal aspects (ELSA) need to be considered, and their concerns continuously addressed at all levels. This includes ELSA considerations during the design, manufacturing, and maintenance of AI-based systems, as well as its utilisation via appropriate military doctrine and training. This raises the question of how defence organisations can remain strategically competitive and at the edge of military innovation while respecting the values of their citizens. This paper will explain the set-up and share preliminary results of a 4-year research project commissioned by the National Research Council in the Netherlands on the ethical, legal, and societal aspects of AI in defence. The project plans to develop a future-proof, independent, and consultative ecosystem for the responsible use of AI in the defence domain. In order to achieve this, the lab shall devise a context-dependent methodology that focuses on the ‘analysis’, ‘design’, and ‘evaluation’ of ELSA of AI-based applications within the military context, which include inter alia unmanned aircraft. This is bolstered as the Lab also recognises and complements the existing methods in regards to human-machine teaming, explainable algorithms, and value-sensitive design. Such methods will be modified for the military context and applied to pertinent case studies. These case studies include, among others, the application of autonomous robots (incl. semi-autonomous) and AI-based methods against cognitive warfare. As the perception of the application of AI in the military context, by both society and defence personnel, is important, the Lab will study how these perceptions evolve and vary in different contexts. Furthermore, the Lab will monitor -as they may influence people’s perception- developments in the global technological, military and societal spheres. Although the emphasis of the research project is on different forms of AI in defence, it focuses on several case studies. One of these case studies is on unmanned aircraft, which will also be the focus of the paper. Hence, ethical, legal, and societal aspects of unmanned aircraft in the defence domain will be discussed in detail, including but not limited to privacy issues. Typical other issues concern security (for people, objects, data, or other aircraft), privacy (sensitive data, hindrance, annoyance, data collection, function creep), chilling effects, PlayStation mentality, and PTSD.

Keywords: autonomous weapon systems, unmanned aircraft, human-machine teaming, meaningful human control, value-sensitive design

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4253 Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Community: Societal Culture Considerations

Authors: Shahnaz Bashir, Abel Usoro, Imran Khan

Abstract:

Hofstede’s culture model is an important model to study culture between different societies. He collected data from world-wide and performed a comprehensive study. Hofstede’s cultural model is widely accepted and has been used to study cross cultural influences in different areas like cross-cultural psychology, cross cultural management, information technology, and intercultural communication. This study investigates the societal cultural aspects of knowledge sharing in virtual communities.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, societal culture, virtual communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
4252 Welfare beyond the State: a Conceptual Discursive of an ‘Ihsani’ Societal-Based Welfare

Authors: Maszlee Malik

Abstract:

If the contemporary notion of welfare arises from the horizontal material needs and to be structured by the vertical framework of the state, Islamic societal-based welfare is to be shaped by moral based and faith inspired ihsan (benevolence) culture in producing the ‘Ihsani’ version of the enhancement of the political participation, democratic culture, good governance and self-realisation, which eventually culminating towards the bigger picture of ‘development’. This paper will analytically investigate on how the over-arching principle of ‘ihsan’ could be an essential tool in harmonizing the social-based welfare instrument as another conceptual framework to formulate a conceptual approach towards development and poverty elevation beyond the state. Essentially, this research will employ the inductive method of exploration on Islamic epistemological sources and historical evidence, to formulate the discursive concept of non-state societal-based welfare based on the ‘ihsani’ framework.

Keywords: benevolent society, development, Hisbah, HomoIslamicus, Ihsani, islamic epistemology, state, social capital, societal-based welfare, zakat

Procedia PDF Downloads 578
4251 Societal Resilience Assessment in the Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection

Authors: Hannah Rosenqvist, Fanny Guay

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Critical infrastructure protection has been an important topic for several years. Programmes such as the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP), Critical Infrastructure Warning Information Network (CIWIN) and the European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection (ENR-CIP) have been the pillars to the work done since 2006. However, measuring critical infrastructure resilience has not been an easy task. This has to do with the fact that the concept of resilience has several definitions and is applied in different domains such as engineering and social sciences. Since June 2015, the EU project IMPROVER has been focusing on developing a methodology for implementing a combination of societal, organizational and technological resilience concepts, in the hope to increase critical infrastructure resilience. For this paper, we performed research on how to include societal resilience as a form of measurement of the context of critical infrastructure resilience. Because one of the main purposes of critical infrastructure (CI) is to deliver services to the society, we believe that societal resilience is an important factor that should be considered when assessing the overall CI resilience. We found that existing methods for CI resilience assessment focus mainly on technical aspects and therefore that is was necessary to develop a resilience model that take social factors into account. The model developed within the project IMPROVER aims to include the community’s expectations of infrastructure operators as well as information sharing with the public and planning processes. By considering such aspects, the IMPROVER framework not only helps operators to increase the resilience of their infrastructures on the technical or organizational side, but aims to strengthen community resilience as a whole. This will further be achieved by taking interdependencies between critical infrastructures into consideration. The knowledge gained during this project will enrich current European policies and practices for improved disaster risk management. The framework for societal resilience analysis is based on three dimensions for societal resilience; coping capacity, adaptive capacity and transformative capacity which are capacities that have been recognized throughout a widespread literature review in the field. A set of indicators have been defined that describe a community’s maturity within these resilience dimensions. Further, the indicators are categorized into six community assets that need to be accessible and utilized in such a way that they allow responding to changes and unforeseen circumstances. We conclude that the societal resilience model developed within the project IMPROVER can give a good indication of the level of societal resilience to critical infrastructure operators.

Keywords: community resilience, critical infrastructure protection, critical infrastructure resilience, societal resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
4250 Corporate Societal Disclosure and Corporate Governance: A By-Contextual Analysis

Authors: Zineb Meniaoui, Fatma Zehri, Kamoussi Halioui

Abstract:

The amplified awareness of companies towards the social and environmental concerns has nowadays become a challenge for firms around the globe. Our study investigates the effects of corporate governance mechanisms on voluntarily social and environmental information disclosure in Canada and France. The study use the content analysis approach, applied on a total of 245 year-observation for the Canadian sample and 245 year-observation for the French sample from 2005 to 2011. Our results show a significant correlation between the board's independence, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) committee and expertise as well as the audit quality along with the extent of the social and environmental disclosure. The French firms are found disclosing more societal information than Canadian firms, which might be due to the stakeholders' pressure put on French companies to disclose such societal information.

Keywords: Canada, corporate governance, disclosure determinants , France, social and environmental disclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4249 Critical Design - Concepts, Methods and Practices for Innovative Societal Relationships

Authors: Martina Maria Keitsch

Abstract:

Critical Design (CD) confronts traditional design practice. Instead of reproducing and reinforcing contemporary perceptions of products and services, CD seeks to challenge them with the goal to stimulate debates and visions on societal innovation. CD methods comprise, among other narratives and design of critical objects. The oral presentation is based on a study that discusses concepts, methods, and applications of CD links CD to traditional design, and identifies CD benefits and challenges for design research and practice. The objective of the study is to introduce CD as an alternative for design researchers and practitioners supplementing commercially oriented design approaches. The study utilizes a literature review on CD concepts and methods based on current publications and online documents and illustrates CD practice with help of selected case studies. Findings of the study indicate that CD contribute, among others, to create new societal roles for designers, foster innovative relationships between designers and users, and encourage creativity through imaginative aesthetics.

Keywords: critical design, postmodern design theories, narratives, rhizome

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
4248 Impact of Crime on Women and Their Families in Rural Areas of Haryana State in India

Authors: Rashmi Tyagi, Savita Vermani

Abstract:

Violence against women is the result of long-standing power imbalance between men and women and thus seriously compromises the well-being, productivity and contribution of one half the population. The costs incurred to the family especially children and society at large in terms of physical, psychological, social and financial losses are huge. The communities’ native to the state of Haryana in India is primarily patriarchal, burdened with age old regressive mindset under the socio-cultural and religious structures which discriminates against women. Therefore it was important to bring to light the issues affecting women in this region. Therefore this study focused on studying the consequences of crime on victim women and their families. Two hundred women were randomly selected and out of those one hundred twenty, who were affected with some kind of violence were interviewed. Data was collected and statistically analyzed for physical, psychological, inter-family and societal consequences of violence on these women. Women reported physical injuries, gynecological problems, unwanted pregnancies, frigidity, phobia and sexual dysfunction. 58.9% women felt decreased work efficiency. Psychological problems encountered were anxiety, isolation, depression, suicidal tendencies. 66.7% respondents suffered from anxiety followed by 65.0% faced depression symptoms. At family levels, 40.0% respondents felt the atmosphere was unsuitable for children while 39.2% reported lack of interaction. The societal consequences reported were breakdown of interaction with friends and family (44.2%) and resulting humiliation and demeaning remarks from others (38.3%). The impact of violence on women had an adverse effect on children. 36.7% children felt responsible for abuse and powerless to stop it, 29.2% reported living with fear. Concerted efforts are required to curb violence against women in Haryana.

Keywords: impact of violence against women on children, patriarchal society, physical psychological and societal consequences, violence against women

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4247 Human Factors Issues and Measures in Advanced NPPs

Authors: Jun Su Ha

Abstract:

Various advanced technologies will be adopted in Advanced Control Rooms (ACRs) of advanced Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which is thought to increase operators’ performance. However, potential human factors issues coupled with digital technologies might be troublesome. Human factors issues in ACRs are identified and strategies (or countermeasures) for evaluating and analyzing each of issues are addressed in this study.

Keywords: advanced control room, human factor issues, human performance, human error, nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
4246 Cloud Computing: Major Issues and Solutions

Authors: S. Adhirai Subramaniyam, Paramjit Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents major issues in cloud computing. The paper describes different cloud computing deployment models and cloud service models available in the field of cloud computing. The paper then concentrates on various issues in the field. The issues such as cloud compatibility, compliance of the cloud, standardizing cloud technology, monitoring while on the cloud and cloud security are described. The paper suggests solutions for these issues and concludes that hybrid cloud infrastructure is a real boon for organizations.

Keywords: cloud, cloud computing, mobile cloud computing, private cloud, public cloud, hybrid cloud, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, cloud security

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4245 'Utopian Performatives' for Peace: A Radical Approach to Evaluating the Value of Documentary Theatre in Northern Ireland

Authors: Harry Mccallum

Abstract:

In the last decade, there has been an upsurge in documentary theatre projects that seek to address issues arising from ‘the Troubles’ by theatre and community organisations such as The Playhouse, Kabosh, and The Verbal Arts Centre. This movement has been supported by a variety of funding agencies who have identified the importance of the instrumental use of theatre for generating societal development. However, with this upsurge in interest comes complications surrounding the subjectivity of evaluations and an understanding of their empirical impact on society. This largely theoretical led-discussion promotes the engagement of Jill Dolan’s ‘utopian performatives’ (2005) within the remit of documentary theatre for peacebuilding practices in Northern Ireland.‘Utopian Performatives’ are described as being profound moments in a theatre production that transforms audience members into a state of ‘hopeful feeling’.As a concept, they are situated within the discourse surrounding audience reception and the ‘affective turn’ (Brennan, 2004; Clough and Halley, 2007; Ahmed, 2014), which indicates its persistence on a short-term ephemeral outlook. It is therefore important to understand how this short-term ‘affect’ can expand into a longer-term ‘effect.’ Through this interdisciplinary study between ‘peace’ and ‘theatre’ studies, I am proposinga theoretical framework that examines how these individual ‘utopian performatives’ at the personal level can lead to a change at the societal level. The framework understands that ‘utopian performatives’ have the capacity to generate discussion and empower audience members to actively strive for a ‘positive peace’; something which is evidently absent in a contemporary Northern Ireland.

Keywords: theatre, peacebuilding, conflict transformation, northern Ireland

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
4244 Socioeconomic Values and Administration in Northern Nigeria: An Examination of the Impacts of Dearth of Values

Authors: Hassan Alhaji Hassan, Inuwa Abdu Ibrahim

Abstract:

The research looks at the decaying socioeconomic values in northern Nigeria, which is directly affecting the administration of service at different levels. The aim is to establish the consequence of a valueless society on individual and public life at different levels. The result of governments’ continued neglect of education, societal values, which have negatively affected societal development and indeed development in general. Therefore, focus is on governments’ poor performance in Nigeria, using secondary sources of data. In conclusion, the research asserts the need for the application of the values of some traditional values as personal principles and good governance as the way out of the present deteriorating conditions.

Keywords: socioeconomic, values, education, Northern Nigeria, good governance

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
4243 Issue Reorganization Using the Measure of Relevance

Authors: William Wong Xiu Shun, Yoonjin Hyun, Mingyu Kim, Seongi Choi, Namgyu Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the demand of extracting the R&D keywords from the issues and using them in retrieving R&D information is increasing rapidly. But it is hard to identify the related issues or to distinguish them. Although the similarity between the issues cannot be identified, but with the R&D lexicon, the issues that always shared the same R&D keywords can be determined. In details, the R&D keywords that associated with particular issue is implied the key technology elements that needed to solve the problem of the particular issue. Furthermore, the related issues that sharing the same R&D keywords can be showed in a more systematic way through the issue clustering constructed from the perspective of R&D. Thus, sharing of the R&D result and reusable of the R&D technology can be facilitated. Indirectly, the redundancy of investment on the same R&D can be reduce as the R&D information can be shared between those corresponding issues and reusability of the related R&D can be improved. Therefore, a methodology of constructing an issue clustering from the perspective of common R&D keywords is proposed to satisfy the demands mentioned.

Keywords: clustering, social network analysis, text mining, topic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
4242 Motivation for Higher Education: An Exploration of Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

Abstract:

The social construction of disability in a Ghanaian society has created a restriction on the development of the academic potentials of persons with disabilities. Ghanaian societal perceptions position persons with disabilities as needy, evil, feeble and 'abnormal' that a person with disability cannot contribute anything meaningful to their own development, society, and the nation as well. Almost all Ghanaian cultures believe the Gods visit evil people with disability as such they erect barriers that limit them to select and enroll in education. The few people with disabilities who gain admission to schools drop out due to these barriers erected by the society and institutions. However, there are very few of these students who are able to pursue their education at the higher education level despite these challenges. This qualitative study explores the motivation of students with disabilities to select and enroll in a Ghanaian university. The study used semi-structured interview to solicit information from students with disabilities in a Ghanaian university. Although the quality of students with disabilities experience was affected by culture, discrimination, marginalisation, and lack of support, the prospect of using themselves as role models, employment opportunities and family impingement were among others that pushed them to embark on their educational journey. The findings of this study have implications for societal and institutional levels for restructuring and refining societal perception and institutional policies on disabilities.

Keywords: beliefs, Ghanaian university, social construction, students with disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
4241 Maintaining Discipline in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria

Authors: Ipenyi Peter

Abstract:

Discipline is an issue that tends to undermine the provision of quality education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This is because the overall goals of tertiary institutions, as enunciated in the National Policy of Education, can hardly be achieved by all the stakeholders without strict conformity and adherence to the rules and regulations and the ideals of the entire society. The adherence is essential for the general welfare of the society. This paper critically X-rayed the causes of indiscipline in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Such courses include laxity in home control and parental supervision, school, teacher and societal factors as well as government influence. The paper recommended among others such strategies as enculturation, acculturation as well as the acquisition of a certain number of generic skills for dealing with discipline and ethical issues in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: discipline, education, tertiary institutions, society

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
4240 The confluence of Societal Dogmas and Extremist (Religious) Ideologies: A Case Study of Male Youth Involved in Violent Extremism in Sargodha and Jhang, Punjab

Authors: Tehmina Aslam

Abstract:

South-Asian societies elicit a male-dominant hierarchy, socio-economically and politico-religiously. The aim of the study was to examine the contribution of gender to violent extremism in order to devise means for its control in Pakistan. A qualitative case study based on interviews was conducted of de-radicalized former militants who were affiliated to militant organizations such as Sipahe Sahaba Pakistan, Lashkare Jhangvi, Laskhare Taibah, and Jaishe Mohammad, and who resided in Sargodha and Jhang, cities of the Punjab. The study exuded three main findings: first, gender alone was insufficient to motivate a male youth to resort to violent extremism; second, gender segregation made a male youth more vulnerable to an extremist ideology; and third, male gender was more prone to the influence of an extremist misguided religious ideology that pandered to male chauvinistic (societal dogmas constructing a male identity) needs and offered a male youth an opportunity to reinforce male dominance in society. The conclusion drawn was that the confluence of societal dogmas and extremist (religious) ideologies offered the major resistance against preventing violent extremism and, without dealing with both of them simultaneously, the tendency in male youth to resorting to violent extremism could not be dissipated.

Keywords: violent extremism, countering violent extremism, preventing violent extremism, youth

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4239 Internet Memes as Meaning-Making Tools within Subcultures: A Case Study of Lolita Fashion

Authors: Victoria Esteves

Abstract:

Online memes have not only impacted different aspects of culture, but they have also left their mark on particular subcultures, where memes have reflected issues and debates surrounding specific spheres of interest. This is the first study that outlines how memes can address cultural intersections within the Lolita fashion community, which are much more specific and which fall outside of the broad focus of politics and/or social commentary. This is done by looking at the way online memes are used in this particular subculture as a form of meaning-making and group identity reinforcement, demonstrating not only the adaptability of online memes to specific cultural groups but also how subcultures tailor these digital objects to discuss both community-centered topics and more broad societal aspects. As part of an online ethnography, this study focuses on qualitative content analysis by taking a look at some of the meme communication that has permeated Lolita fashion communities. Examples of memes used in this context are picked apart in order to understand this specific layered phenomenon of communication, as well as to gain insights into how memes can operate as visual shorthand for the remix of meaning-making. There are existing parallels between internet culture and cultural behaviors surrounding Lolita fashion: not only is the latter strongly influenced by the former (due to its highly globalized dispersion and lack of physical shops, Lolita fashion is almost entirely reliant on the internet for its existence), both also emphasize curatorial roles through a careful collaborative process of documenting significant aspects of their culture (e.g., Know Your Meme and Lolibrary). Further similarities appear when looking at ideas of inclusion and exclusion that permeate both cultures, where memes and language are used in order to both solidify group identity and to police those who do not ascribe to these cultural tropes correctly, creating a feedback loop that reinforces subcultural ideals. Memes function as excellent forms of communication within the Lolita community because they reinforce its coded ideas and allows a kind of participation that echoes other cultural groups that are online-heavy such as fandoms. Furthermore, whilst the international Lolita community was mostly self-contained within its LiveJournal birthplace, it has become increasingly dispersed through an array of different social media groups that have fragmented this subculture significantly. The use of memes is key in maintaining a sense of connection throughout this now fragmentary experience of fashion. Memes are also used in the Lolita fashion community to bridge the gap between Lolita fashion related community issues and wider global topics; these reflect not only an ability to make use of a broader online language to address specific issues of the community (which in turn provide a very community-specific engagement with remix practices) but also memes’ ability to be tailored to accommodate overlapping cultural and political concerns and discussions between subcultures and broader societal groups. Ultimately, online memes provide the necessary elasticity to allow their adaption and adoption by subcultural groups, who in turn use memes to extend their meaning-making processes.

Keywords: internet culture, Lolita fashion, memes, online community, remix

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4238 Projection of Health Issues in Contemporary Indian Cinema: A Study on Selected Bollywood Movies

Authors: Sananda Mukherjee, Nandini Lakshmikantha

Abstract:

Films are considered as the most influential form of mass media. To attract audience films are made on various themes and issues which are assumed to have an impact on the behavioural pattern of the society. Among the various issues that have been bothering Indian society, health is primary. Thus it is important and interesting to study how health is being projected in Bollywood which is largely considered by the world as Indian cinema. This study tries to focus its attention on some select popular movies made in the recent decade and will try to analyse its content and significance of the same with the contemporary Indian society. It is evident that some of the movies made projecting health issues have earned good box office revenues, but have they been successful in making the public understand the significance of health issues they have been trying to project, is an interesting area to understand.

Keywords: box office, health issues, Indian cinema, social awareness

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
4237 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

Abstract:

The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: early childhood, ECCE, education, emerging issues

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4236 School Counseling in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the past Recommending a Way Forward

Authors: Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana

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Despite a rapid increase in the number of school counselors in the recent past; procuring the service of school counselors is a luxury that many Sri Lankan schools cannot afford. In addition, school counseling in Sri Lanka also faces new challenges in implementation due to the fact that a generally agreed consensus on training, ethical standards, role identity, counseling model, and structures for school counselors has not been reached. Therefore, this paper has several objectives. First, it reviews a brief history of school counseling in Sri Lanka and describes its current status. Second, it describes current trends/ problems specific to Sri Lankan school counseling milieu which have limited the progress of school counseling as a practice. Third, it discusses societal and cultural issues that are important to consider when implementing school counseling as a practices in Sri Lanka and provides recommendations to improve it.

Keywords: school counseling, Sri Lanka, current situation, recommendations

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
4235 Behavioral Experiments of Small Societies in Social Media: Facebook Expressions of Anchored Relationships

Authors: Nuran Öze

Abstract:

Communities and societies have been changing towards computer mediated communication. This paper explores online and offline identities and how relationships are formed and negotiated within internet environments which offer opportunities for people who know each other offline and move into relationships online. The expectations and norms of behavior within everyday life cause people to be embodied self. According to the age categories of Turkish Cypriots, their measurements of attitudes in Facebook will be investigated. Face-to-face field research and semi-structured interview methods are used in the study. Face-to-face interview has been done with Turkish Cypriots who are using Facebook already. According to the study, in constructing a linkage between real and virtual identities mostly affected from societal relations serves as a societal grooming tool for Turkish Cypriots.

Keywords: facebook, identity, social media, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4234 Chest Pain as a Predictor for Heart Issues in Geriatrics

Authors: Leila Kargar, Homa Abri, Golsa Safai

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The occurrence of chest pain among geriatrics could be considered as a predictor of heart issues. There is a need for attention to this pain among this population. This review paper has tried to collect the recent data with attention to the chest pain among geriatrics. This review paper has focused on specific keywords, including chest pain, heart issues, and geriatrics, among published papers from 2015 till 2020. To collect data for this purpose, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and PubMed were used. After inserting related papers to the Endnote, an independent researcher checked the abstract, and papers with unclear methods or non-English language were excluded. Finally, 7-papers were included in this review paper. The findings of those papers showed that chest pain could be a predictor for heart issues, and also, there is a direct relationship between chest pain and heart issues among geriatrics. So, early detection and an accurate decision could be helpful to prevent heart issues in this population.

Keywords: pain, heart issue, geriatrics, health

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4233 Creating Shared Value: A Paradigm Shift from Corporate Social Responsibility to Creating Shared Value

Authors: Bolanle Deborah Motilewa, E.K. Rowland Worlu, Gbenga Mayowa Agboola, Marvellous Aghogho Chidinma Gberevbie

Abstract:

Businesses operating in the modern business world are faced with varying challenges; amongst which is the need to ensure that they are performing their societal function of being responsible in the society in which they operate. This responsibility to society is generally termed as corporate social responsibility. For many years, the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) was solely philanthropic, where organizations gave ‘charity’ or ‘alms’ to society, without any link to the organization’s mission and objectives. However, there has arisen a shift in the application of CSR from an act of philanthropy to a strategy with a business model engaged in by organizations to create a win-win situation of performing their societal obligation, whilst simultaneously performing their economic obligation. In more recent times, the term has moved from CSR to creating shared value, which is simply corporate policies and practices that enhance the competitiveness of a business organization while simultaneously advancing social and economic conditions in the communities in which the company operates. Creating shared value has in more recent light found more meaning in underdeveloped countries, faced with deep societal challenges that businesses can solve whilst creating economic value. This study thus reviews literature on CSR, conceptualizing the shift to creating shared value and finally viewing its potential significance in Africa’s development.

Keywords: africapitalism, corporate social responsibility, development, shared value

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
4232 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

Abstract:

Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

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4231 Comparative Analysis of Political Parties and Political Behavior: The Trend for Democratic Principles

Authors: Mary Edokpa Fadal, Frances Agweda

Abstract:

Considering the volatile and evolving nature of the political environment in the developing countries, it is important that the subject of effective leadership practices that focus on transformational and systematic political development and values be reviewed. If the attitude towards partisan politics and the played politics by political parties is relatively deviated from expected adherence to acceptance, safe, efficient and practical standard, the political parties will continue to struggle endlessly in an effort to maintain a system that works. The analysis is situated in the context of political parties and partisan political behavior in contemporary societies and developing nations. Recent research of empirical evidence shows that most of the political parties are more or less, not too active in playing their instrumental role in the political system, such as unifying, simplifying and stabilizing the political process. This is however traced to the problem of ethnic politics that have been dominated by tribalism. The rising clamor for political development needs re-structuring and correcting the abnormalities in the center of the polity to address the flaws in our political system. The paper argues that political parties and political actors are some of the vital instrument of attaining societal goals of democratic principles for peace and durability. Issues of ethnic and partisan politics are also discussed, as it relates to question pertaining to political ideologies. It is in the findings that this paper examines some of the issues that have been seen revolving the true practice of political parties and its activities towards the democratic trend of a society, that help to resolve questions surrounding the issues of politics and governance in developing countries. These issues are seen as an aberration that have characterized politics and political behavior especially in the aspect of transparency and fulfilling its purpose of existence. The paper argues that the transition of the developing nature of states largely depends on the political structures and party politics and the nature of constitutionalism following the democratic awakening. The paper concludes that politics and political behavior are all human factors that play a vital role in the development of contemporary societies. They drive the wheel of nations towards its goal attainment. This paper relies on documentary, primary sources of data collection and empirical analysis.

Keywords: development, ethnicity, partisan politics, political behavior, political parties

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4230 Water Supply and Utility Management to Address Urban Sanitation Issues

Authors: Akshaya P., Priyanjali Prabhkaran

Abstract:

The paper examines the formulation of strategies to develop a comprehensive model of city level water utility management to addressing urban sanitation issues. The water is prime life sustaining natural resources and nature’s gifts to all living beings on the earth multiple urban sanitation issues are addressed in the supply of water in a city. Many of these urban sanitation issues are linked to population expansion and economic inequity. Increased usage of water and the development caused water scarcity. The lack of water supply results increases the chance of unhygienic situations in the cities. In this study, the urban sanitation issues are identified with respect to water supply and utility management. The study compared based on their best practices and initiatives. From this, best practices and initiatives identify suitable sustainable measures to address water supply issues in the city level. The paper concludes with the listed provision that should be considered suitable measures for water supply and utility management in city level to address the urban sanitation issues.

Keywords: water, benchmarking water supply, water supply networks, water supply management

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