Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3365

Search results for: children's rights

3365 The Impact of Customary Law on Children's Rights in Botswana

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

Abstract:

Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.

Keywords: custody, marital power, children's best interest, customary law

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3364 The Deprivation of Human Rights Experienced by African Children with Disabilities

Authors: Anna Wiltshire, Rebecca Markham

Abstract:

Over the last decade, a growing body of evidence has indicated that children with disabilities are often amongst the most excluded and vulnerable in society. The World Bank estimates that 20% of those living in poverty in developing countries are disabled which means that those with the least bear the greatest burden. Furthermore, children with disabilities in Africa have to face a multitude of difficulties ranging from the physical to the psychological. Misconceptions and cultural beliefs are used to justify violence against, or complete shunning of these individuals and their families. In addition, discrimination can prevent access to both education and health services, further compromising these individuals. All children, irrespective of their disability should be able to enjoy human rights without discrimination, but this is often not the case. This poster explores how and why children with disabilities in Africa are subject to violations of their human rights, and suggests ways of addressing these problems.

Keywords: Africa, children, disability, discrimination, human rights

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3363 Commercial Surrogacy and Rights of the Children Born

Authors: Neha Tiwari

Abstract:

Rights are prerequisite for individuals to pursue their aims and enrich themselves. Laski has said rights are, ‘conditions of social life without which no man can seek himself at his best.’ However with superior technology, rights of many individuals are at stake as well. One such sufferer is the babies born out of the practice of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy has emerged as the most viable option for the childless couples. The practice has garnered lot of debate in both academia and media. Some argue for a complete ban and some for strict rules and regulation. Most of the time the debate is regarding the rights of the surrogate, something which we cannot ignore. Equally important are the rights of the children born out of such arrangements. However, not much attention is being paid to them. Recently, a controversy emerged when a surrogate gave birth to twins. One of the babies, Gammy born with down syndrome was left behind by the couple. Gammy could die because his poor Thai surrogate mother may not be able to pay for his treatment. Even if he survives, he will never know his twin sister as her identity would never be disclosed. This is just one of many such cases where the future of such babies is being played with. If the rights of these children are not taken care of many of them will have to bear the brunt of society's ignorance and perhaps live with a scar which won't heal in their lifetime.

Keywords: babies, commercial surrogacy, rights, technology

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3362 Stop Forced Child Marriage: A Comparative Global Law Analysis

Authors: Michelle J. Miller

Abstract:

Millions of girls are forcibly married during the transitional period between puberty and adulthood. At a stage of vulnerability; cultural practices, religious rights, and social standards place girls in a position where they are catapult into womanhood. An advocate against forced child marriage could argue that child rights, cultural rights, religious rights, right to marry, right to life, right to health, right to education, right to be free from slavery, right to be free from torture, right to consent to marriage are all violated by the practice of child marriage. This paper will present how some of these rights are violated and how they establish the need for change.

Keywords: child marriage, forced child marriage, children's rights, religious rights, cultural rights

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3361 Trafficking in Children as a Qualified Form of the Crime of Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

Trafficking in children, especially vulnerable victims, is a qualified form of committing the crime of human trafficking, and a special form of abuse and violation of children's rights. Given that trafficking in children is dangerous, but also a specific form of crime in relation to trafficking in human beings, this paper will in the first part indicate the forms of trafficking in children (trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, child pornography, and pedophilia, exploitation of labor, begging, performance of criminal acts, adoption, marriage and participation in armed conflicts). The second part references the international documents which regulate this matter as well as the solutions in national criminal legislations of Republic of Croatia and Republic of Serbia. It points to the essential features and characteristics of the victims, according to sex, age, and citizenship, as well as the age of children at the stage of solicitation and recruitment and the status of the family from which the child comes from. The work includes a special emphasis on international police cooperation in the fight against trafficking in children. Concluding remarks set out proposals de lege ferenda that can be of significant impact, particularly on prevention, and then also on repression in combating this serious crime.

Keywords: trafficking in children, trafficking in human beings, child as a victim of human trafficking, children’s rights

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3360 Ethical Issues around Online Marketing to Children

Authors: Chris Preston

Abstract:

As we devise ever more sophisticated methods of on-line marketing, devising systems that are able to reach into the everyday lives of consumers, we are confronted by a generation of children who face unprecedented intervention by commercial organisations into young minds, via electronic devices, and whether by computer, tablet or phone, such children have been somehow reduced to the status of their devices, with little regard for their well being as individuals. This discussion paper seeks to draw attention to such practice and questions the ethics of digital marketing methods.

Keywords: online marketing to children, online research of children, online targeting of children, consumer rights, ethics

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3359 Moving Forward to Stand Still: Social Experiences of Children with a Parent in Prison in Ireland

Authors: Aisling Parkes, Fiona Donson

Abstract:

There is no doubt that parental imprisonment directly alters the social experiences of childhood for many children worldwide today. Indeed, the extent to which meaningful contact with a parent in prison can positively impact on the life of a child is well documented as are the benefits for the prisoner, particularly in the long term and post-release. However, despite the growing acceptance of children’s rights in Ireland over the past decade in particular, it appears that children’s rights have not yet succeeded in breaking through the walls of Irish prisons when children are visiting an incarcerated parent. In a prison system that continues to prioritise security over all other considerations, little attention has been given to the importance of recognising and protecting the rights of children affected by parental imprisonment in Ireland for children, families and society in the long term. This paper will present the findings which have emerged from a national qualitative research project (the first of its kind to be conducted in Ireland) which examines the current visiting conditions for children and families, and the related culture of visitation within the Irish Prison system. This study investigated, through semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the unique and specialist perspectives of senior prison management, prison governors, prison officers, support organisations, prison child care workers, as well as those with a family member in prison who have direct experience of prison visits in Ireland which involve children and young people. The reality of the current system of visitation that operates in Irish prisons and its impact on children’s rights is presented from a variety of perspectives. The idea of what meaningful contact means from a children’s rights based perspective is interrogated as are the benefits long term for both the child and the offender. The current system is benchmarked against well-accepted international children’s rights norms as reflected under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. The dissonance that continues to exist between the theory of children’s rights which includes the right to maintain meaningful contact with a parent in prison and current practice and procedure in Irish Prisons will be explored. In adopting a children’s rights based perspective combined with socio-legal research, this paper will explore the added value that this approach to prison visiting might offer in responding to this particularly marginalised group of children in terms of their social experience of childhood. Finally, the question will be raised as to whether or not there is a responsibility on prisons to view children as independent rights holders when they come to visit the prison or is the prison entitled to focus solely on the prisoner with their children being viewed as a circumstance of the offender? Do the interests of the child and the prisoner have to be exclusive or is there any way of marrying the two?

Keywords: children’s rights, prisoners, sociology, visitation

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3358 Religious Beliefs versus Child’s Rights: Anti-Vaccine Movement in Indonesia

Authors: Ni Luh Bayu PurwaEka Payani, Destin Ristanti

Abstract:

Every child has the right to be healthy, and it is a parents’ obligation to fulfill their rights. In order to be healthy and prevented from the outbreak of infectious diseases, some vaccines are required. However, there are groups of people, who consider that vaccines consist of religiously forbidden ingredients. The government of Indonesia legally set the rule that all children must be vaccinated. However, merely based on religious beliefs and not supported by scientific evidence, these people ignore the vaccination. As a result, this anti-vaccine movement caused diphtheria outbreak in 2017. Categorized as a vulnerable group, child`s rights must be fulfilled in any forms. This paper tries to analyze the contradiction between religious beliefs and the fulfillment of child`s rights. Furthermore, it tries to identify the anti-vaccine movement as a form of human rights violation, especially regarding child's rights. This has been done by examining the event of the outbreak of diphtheria in 20 provinces of Indonesia. Furthermore, interview and literature reviews have been done to support the analysis. Through this process, it becomes clear that the anti-vaccine movements driven by religious beliefs did influence the outbreak of diphtheria. Hence, the anti-vaccine movements ignore the long-term effects not only on their own children’s health but also others.

Keywords: anti-vaccine movement, child rights, religious beliefs, right to health

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3357 The Exercise of Choice by Children and Young People in the British Public Care System

Authors: Siobhan Laird

Abstract:

Under article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which extends human rights in their application to those under the age of 18 years, children must be consulted ‘in all matters affecting the child’. The Office of the Children’s Commissioner for England is responsible for improving the welfare of children and young people by ensuring that their Convention rights are respected and realised and their views taken seriously. In 2014 the Children’s Commissioner engaged a team of researchers at the Centre for Social Work, University of Nottingham to develop and roll out an online survey to gather information from children and young people about their exercise of choice within the public care system. Approximately 3,000 children responded to this survey, which comprised both closed and open-ended questions. SPSS was used to analyse the numerical data and a thematic analysis of textual data was conducted on answers to open-ended questions. Findings revealed that children exercised considerable choice over personal space and their spare time, but had much less choice in relation to contact with their birth families, where they lived, or the timings of moves from one placement into another. The majority of children described how they were supported to express their opinions and believed that these were taken seriously. However, a significant number reported problems and explained how specific behaviours by professionals and carers made it difficult for them to express their opinion or to feel that they had influenced decisions which affected them. In open-ended questions eliciting information about their experiences, children and young people were asked to describe how they could be better supported to make choices and what changes would assist for these to be better acknowledged and acted upon by professionals and carers. This paper concludes by presenting the ideas and suggestions of children and young people for improving the public care system in Britain in relation to their exercise of choice.

Keywords: children, choice, participation, public care

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3356 The Special Testimony as a Methodology for Social Workers to Ensure the Rights of Children and Adolescents Who Are Victims of Sexual Violence

Authors: Natany Rodrigues De Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the Special Testimony as a methodology for social workers to ensure the rights of children and adolescents who are victims of sexual violence. The specific objectives are: a) to contextualize, through the specialized literature, the social history of childhood and adolescence; b) to investigate, in the scientific literature, the sexual violence against children and adolescents as an analytical category; c) identify, with the social workers, if there is any defense of children and adolescents in the special testimony. To answer the research objectives we use qualitative research, in three axes that complement each other: a) participant observation through the insertion in the research field (supervised internship I and II); b) survey of literature on the subject; c) semi-structured interviews with social workers of the TJDFT. We used content analysis to systematize and interpret the collected data. The results of the research were organized into three chapters with the following contents: a) literature review, contextualizing the social history of childhood and adolescence to the present; b) sexual violence against children and adolescents and their categories of analysis; c) understanding of the special testimony in the Federal District and Territories in guaranteeing the rights of children and adolescents, identifying their main points from the perspective of social workers. The results showed how the lack of interdisciplinarity in the Special Testimony can lead to the non-integral protection of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence.

Keywords: childhood and adolescence, sexual violence, special testimony, social work

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3355 Using the Family Justice System to Respond to ISIS Returnees: The UK Experience

Authors: Fatima Ahdash

Abstract:

Over the last 6-7 years, the UK has resorted to using the family courts and the family justice system more generally as a way of dealing with children and young people either traveling to or returning from ISIS territories in the Middle East. This is an important innovation in counter-terrorism laws and practices in the UK: never before have the family courts been used for the purpose of preventing and countering terrorism anywhere in the world. This paper will examine this innovation; it will explore how, why, and the implications of the interaction between family law and counter-terrorism, particularly on the human rights of the parents and children involved. It will question whether the use of the family courts provides a more useful, and perhaps human rights compliant, method of tackling terrorism and extremism when compared to other more Draconian legal and administrative methods.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, family justice, law, human rights

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3354 Causes of Institutionalization of Children and Adolescents in a Shelter in Brazil

Authors: Eduardo Guilherme, Sabrina Duarte

Abstract:

Shelters or orphanages are institutions responsible for ensuring the physical and mental integrity of children and adolescents who had their rights violated or neglected, whether from a social-leavers, is at personal risk to which they were exposed or the negligence of its parents; in Brazil about twenty thousand children and adolescents living in about five hundred registered shelters that receive funds from the federal government. We evaluated the records of institutionalized children and adolescents from the foundation of municipal shelter in Rio Negro/Parana State, Brazil since June/2000 to February/2015. Institutionalization of the causes cited were: lack of family/guardian material resources, abandonment by parents/guardians, domestic violence, substance abuse of parents/guardians, street experience, orphans and others. In Brazil, poverty and extreme poverty are closely related to the institutionalization of causes of children and adolescents. Census data in 2010, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) indicate that 40% of Brazilians living in poverty are girls and boys up to 14 years in a total of approximately 23 million individuals. Poverty denies children and adolescents their rights, representing a vulnerability which predisposes to some causes of shelter.

Keywords: Brazil, shelter, orphanages, institutionalization

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3353 Child Rights in the Context of Psychiatric Power

Authors: Dmytro D. Buiadzhy

Abstract:

The modern psychiatric discourse proves the existence of the direct ties between the children's mental health and their success in life as adults. The unresolved mental health problems in childhood are likely to lead individuals to poverty, isolation, and social exclusion as stated by Marcus Richards. Such an approach justifies the involvement of children in the view of supervision and control of power. The discourse, related to the mental health of children, provides a tight impact of family, educational institutions and medical authorities on the child through any manifestations of his psychic, having signs of "abnormality.” Throughout the adult life, the individual continues to feel the pressure of power through legal, political, and economic institutions that also appeal to the mental health regulation. The juvenile law declares the equality of a child and an adult, but in fact simply delegates the powers of parents to impersonal social institutions of the guardianship, education, and social protection. The psychiatric power in this study is considered in accordance with the Michel Foucault’s concept of power as a manifestation of "positive" technologies of power, which include various manifestations of subjectivity, in particular children’s one, in a view of supervision and control of the state power. The main issue disclosed in this paper is how weakening of the parental authority, in the context of legislative ratification of the child rights, strengthens the other forms of power over children, especially the psychiatric power, which justifies and affects the children mancipation.

Keywords: child rights, psychiatric power, discourse, parental authority

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3352 Marginalized Children's Drawings Speak for Themselves: Self Advocacy for Protecting Their Rights

Authors: Bhavneet Bharti, Prahbhjot Malhi, Vandana Thakur

Abstract:

Introduction: Children of the urban migrant laborers have great difficulty in accessing government programs which are otherwise routinely available in rural settings. These include programs for child care, nutrition, health and education. There are major communicative fault-lines preventing advocacy for these marginalized children. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate the role of an innovative strategy of children’s drawings in supporting communication between children, social workers, pediatricians and other child advocates to fulfil their fundamental child rights. Materials and Methods: The data was collected over a period of one-year April 2015 to April 2016 during the routine visits by the members of the Social Pediatrics team including a social worker, pediatricians and an artist to the makeshift colony of migrant laborers. Once a week a drawing session was organized where the children including adolescents were asked to any drawing and provide a narrative thereafter. 5-30 children attended these weekly sessions for one year. All these drawings were then classified into various themes and exhibited on 16th April 2016 in the Govt. College of Art Museum. The forum was used for advocacy of Child Rights of these underprivileged children to Secretary social welfare. Results: Mean (SD) age of children in present observational study was 8.5 (2.5) years, with 60% of the boys. Majority of children demonstrated themes which were local and contextualized to their daily needs, threats and festivals which clearly underscored their fundamental right to basic services and equality of opportunities to achieve their full development Drawings of tap with flowing water, queues of people collecting water from hand pumps reflect the local problem of water availability for these children. Young children talking about fear of rape and murder following their drawings indicate the looming threat of potential abuse and neglect. Besides reality driven drawing, children also echoed supernatural beliefs, dangers and festivities in their drawings. Anyone who watched these children at work with art materials was able to see the intense level of absorption, clearly indicating the enjoyment they received, making it a meaningful activity. Indeed, this self-advocacy through art exhibition led to the successful establishment of mobile Anganwadi (A social safety net programme of the government) in their area of stay. Conclusions: This observational study is an example of how children were able to do self-advocacy to protect their rights. Of particular importance, these drawings address how psychologists and other child advocates can ensure in a child-centered manner that the voice of children is heard and represented in all assessments of their well-being and future care options.

Keywords: child advocacy, children drawings, child rights, marginalized children

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3351 Child-Friendly Cities: A Child's Participation in the Local Government to Improve the Status of Rights of the Child

Authors: Asma Khalid

Abstract:

Children’s drawings are unique as children are. Children manifest their happiness, sadness, future dreams, likes, dislikes through drawings. Research with children aged 8-12 was conducted in 2017 in which it was asked to them ‘what they think about child-friendly cities?’ The focus was to get ideas from children about the cities in which they live and what they want in their cities. The research was conducted in different private schools. Children were accessed through teachers and principals of the schools (the gatekeepers). Consent forms were developed for children which contained information about the research project and their consent was taken on paper. It was ensured that children are not forced to take part in the research and they can leave the research whenever they want, without informing anyone. The qualitative participatory approach was taken where children were given papers and colors to draw their ideas. During the research, it was found that children are interested in showing their emotions and liking through drawing as this medium seems easy and comfortable to them as compared to have the individual face to face interviews or participate in surveys. However, the clarity of the ideas presented in the drawings was discussed at length with children in their school’s premises. Results of the research show that children like to live in clean, green places which are also safe for them. Furthermore, they want to live with their families and want to have recreational activities including parks in their nearby vicinity.

Keywords: qualitative participative research clean, children, drawing, clean, green and protected place, family

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3350 Child Marriages in Africa: Using a Rights-Based Approach to Protect the Girl-Child in Nigeria

Authors: Foluke Abimbola

Abstract:

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child has been signed and ratified by several countries due to the concern about various abuses and crimes committed against children both locally and internationally. It is a shame that in view of the peculiar hardships being experienced by children today, the natural right to childhood has to be protected by a vast array of laws and international conventions. 194 countries have so far acceded to and ratified the convention on the Rights of a Child while some countries such as Nigeria have enacted the convention as a domestic law, yet child abuse is still rampant not only in Nigeria but all over the world. In Nigeria, the Child Rights Act was passed into law in 2003, with its provisions similar to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child. Despite the age of marriage provided in the Nigerian Child’s Rights Act 2003, many communities still practice child marriages to the detriment of the girl-child. Cases where these children have to withdraw from school as a result of these unripe marriages abound. Unfortunately, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 appears to indirectly support early marriages for girls in section 29 (4) where it states that a woman who is married is deemed to be of full age whereas ‘full age’ as a general term in the Constitution is from 18 years old and above. Section 29 (4) may thus be interpreted to mean that a girl of 12 years old, if married, is deemed to be of ‘full-age.’ In view of these discrepancies which continue to justify this unwholesome practice, this paper shall proffer solutions to this unlawful act and make recommendations to existing institutions, using a rights-based approach, on how to prevent and/or substantially reduce this practice. A comparative analysis with other African countries will be adopted in order to conduct a research for effective policies that may be implemented for the protection of these girls. Thus, this paper will further examine the issue of child marriage which is still quite rampant in African countries particularly in Nigeria which also affects the girl-child’s right to an education. Such children are in need of special protection and this paper will recommend ways in which state institutions, particularly in Nigeria, may be able to introduce policies to curb incidences of child marriage and child sexual abuse while proffering strategies for the prevention of these crimes.

Keywords: child abuse, child marriages, child rights, constitutions, child rights, the girl-child

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3349 Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century: Promising Approaches in Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid Ferdousi

Abstract:

Juvenile justice is a key component of the child rights to keep the best interest and completely different from criminal justice. After independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Children Act 1974 and the Children Rules 1976 were considered as the basic law for juvenile justice which written before many international instruments on children’s rights came into existence, did not align with the international mandate set by those instruments. These Acts were not really child rights-based and modern concept such as diversion, restorative justice and community-based rehabilitation has not developed accordingly. In this backdrop, government has enacted the new Children Act 2013 and introduced extensive reforms to the juvenile justice system in Bangladesh. The Act has been adopted with the provisions for child-friendly juvenile courts in each district and different kinds of child-oriented practices in a number of settings, such as, child affairs police officer, probation officer, national child welfare board, diversion, alternative preventive measures on the basis of international principles. Prior to the Act, there had been a number of High Court rulings which considered the international standards for juvenile justice. But the recent reforms to juvenile justice system hail a new commitment to the country’s international obligations to its children and a change in the philosophy guiding the treatment of offender children. This is high time to create an effective juvenile justice system for the 21st century in Bangladesh by the proper implementation of the Children Act 2013. Additionally, the new Children Rules should be enacted and juvenile courts along with correctional institutions should be established in each district in Bangladesh. This study assesses the juvenile justice reforms in Bangladesh over the five decades (1974-2014) and focuses on changes that will improve the system as a whole and enable us to better achieve the ends of fair juvenile justice.

Keywords: Juvenile justice reforms, international obligations, child-oriented practices, commitment of the state

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3348 Implied Fundamental Rights under Article 21 of the Constitution of India: Effects and Applicability

Authors: N. Sathish Gowda

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A constitution without fundamental rights will become zero. The very object of constitution of three organs viz, legislature, executive and judiciary under the constitution of India is to protect, preserve and promote fundamental rights guaranteed under part-III. In India, along with express fundamental rights, Supreme Court has also recognized implied fundamental rights. But, unfortunately State has not been implementing these implied fundamental rights. In this regard, this research paper discusses the catalogue of implied fundamental rights evolved by the judiciary in interpreting Article 21 of the Constitution of India and seeks to examine the effects and applicability of these rights in India.

Keywords: fundamental rights, nuances of Article 21, express fundamental rights, implied fundamental rights, procedure established by law

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3347 Child Marriage and the Law in Nigeria

Authors: Kolawole-Amao, Grace Titilayo

Abstract:

Children are the most vulnerable members of the society. The child is a foundation of the society and he/she assures its continuity. Thus, the survival, continuity and the standard of development of human society depends upon the protection, preservation, nurture and development of the child. In other words, the rights of a child must be protected and guaranteed for the assurance of a healthy society. The law is an instrument of social change in any society as well as a potent weapon to combat crime, achieve justice for the people and protect their rights. In Nigeria, child marriage still occurs, though its prevalence varies from one region to another. This paper shall Centre on child rights under the law in Nigeria, child marriage and its impact on the child, obstacles in eliminating child marriages and measures that have been adopted as well as the role of the law and its effect in deterring child marriage in Nigeria.

Keywords: child rights, child marriage, law, Nigeria

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3346 Children in Opera: Sociological and Musicological Trends

Authors: Andrew Sutherland

Abstract:

In many ways, opera is not a natural domain for children. It is hardly surprising that from the thousands of works, comparatively few include roles for children. There are several possibilities for this, the dramatic themes in opera are often about the human condition from the adult perspective; the need for developed voices to project in large, theatrical spaces underpinned by orchestral accompaniment does not naturally suit the child’s voice, and enabling children to cope with long runs of performances on top of their education requires vocal and physical stamina. In more recent times, the involvement of children contributes another layer of difficulty in terms of having access to young singers while adhering to laws that protect their working rights. Despite these points, children have been in opera since its inception in a variety of ways, but their contribution is often undervalued or ignored by musicologists and even the industry itself. In this paper, the phenomenon of children in opera from the late 16th century to the present day is explored through empirical, socio-musicological observations with reference to score analysis. Conclusions are drawn regarding the changing attitudes of composers when scoring for children’s voices in relation to societal developments. From the use of ‘kindertruppen’ in the pre-enlightenment period to Handel’s virtuosic writing for William Savage, to the darkness of the inter-war eras which saw a proliferation of operatic characters for children and the post-war era which saw children as the new frontier of building audiences for opera, the links between changes in society and the inclusion, portrayal and scoring for children in opera are largely congruent.

Keywords: children, musical analysis, opera, sociology

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3345 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

Abstract:

According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: aboriginal, audience, Australia, children, culture, drama, home, human rights, identity, Indigenous, Jane Harrison, memory, scenic effects, setting, stage, stage directions, Stolen, trauma

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3344 Fathers’ Rights to Contact and Care: Moving Beyond the Adversarial Approach

Authors: Wesahl Domingo, Prinslean Mahery

Abstract:

Our paper focuses on the rights’ to contact and care of fathers in the heterosexual context, despite the reality of same sex parenting in South Africa. We argue that despite the new South African Children’s Act framework creating a shift from the idea of parental power over a child to the notion that parents have parental responsibilities and rights in respect of a child. This shift has however not fundamentally changed the constant battle that parents and other interested parties have over children. In most cases it is fathers who must battle to either maintain contact with their child/ren or fight to have care (which includes custody) of their child/ren. This is the case whether or not the father was married to the mother of the child in question. In part one of the paper, we deal with the historical development of rights to care and contact and describe the current system in the context of case law and legislation in South Africa. Part two provides a critical analysis of a few anthologies of “what fathers are complaining about.” In conclusion, in part three, we outline the way forward –“moving beyond the adversarial approach” through the “care of ethics approach.” So what is the care perspective? The care perspective is a relational ethic which views the primary moral concern as of creating and sustaining responsive connection to others. We apply the care of ethics approach to parenting plans and family law mediation in the context of fathers’ rights to care and contact. We argue by avoiding the adversarial system and engaging in a problem solving process focused on finding solutions for the future, divorcing parents can turn their attention to their children rather than battling each other.

Keywords: fathers' right to care, contact, custody, family law

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3343 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

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Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

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3342 Defending the Right to Send Children with Disabilities to the Local School in New Zealand

Authors: Barbara A. Fogarty-Perry

Abstract:

This paper draws on one to one interviews with parents of children with high and complex needs conducted in 2019. Those interviewed were asked questions around various areas of well-being, and these were transcribed and then thematically analysed. Results were plotted to identify strategies that enhance resilience in parents of children with physical disabilities. The parents were asked to highlight challenges in the support systems they utilized, and all of those interviewed identified difficulties in the New Zealand education system. Legally in New Zealand, children have the right to attend their local primary school, but for 100% of those interviewed, this was an issue. This paper will discuss the way these parents navigated the New Zealand education system in order to defend this right for their children. The New Zealand education system is having to become more inclusive through parental actions despite precarious times of counter-movement by the New Zealand government.

Keywords: autoethnography, human rights, inclusion, parents voice in disability

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3341 Empowering Children through Co-creation: Writing a Book with and for Children about Their First Steps Towards Urban Independence

Authors: Beata Patuszynska

Abstract:

Children are largely absent from Polish social discourse, a fact which is mirrored in urban planning processes. Their absence creates a vicious circle – an unfriendly urban space discourages children from going outside on their own, meaning adults do not see a need to make spaces more friendly for a group, not present. The pandemic and lockdown, with their closed schools and temporary ban on unaccompanied minors on the streets, have only reinforced this. The project – co-writing with children a book concerning their first steps into urban independence - aims at empowering children, enabling them to find their voice when it comes to urban space. The foundation for the book was data collected during research and workshops with children from Warsaw primary schools, aged 7-10 - the age they begin independent travel in the city. The project was carried out with the participation and involvement of children at each creative step. Children were (1) models: the narrator is an 7-year-old boy getting ready for urban independence. He shares his experience as well as the experience of his school friends and his 10-year-old sister, who already travels on her own. Children were (2) teachers: the book is based on authentic children’s stories and experience, along with the author’s findings from research undertaken with children. The material was extended by observations and conclusions made during the pandemic. Children were (3) reviewers: a series of draft chapters from the book underwent review by children during workshops performed in a school. The process demonstrated that all children experience similar pleasures and worries when it comes to interaction with urban space. Furthermore, they also have similar needs that need satisfying. In my article, I will discuss; (1) the advantages of creating together with children; (2) my conclusions on how to work with children in participatory processes; (3) research results: perceptions of urban space by children age 7-10, when they begin their independent travel in the city; the barriers to and pleasures derived from independent urban travel; the influence of the pandemic on children’s feelings and their behaviour in urban spaces.

Keywords: children, urban space, co-creation, participation, human rights

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3340 Unfolding Prison Crisis in India: An Evaluation from a Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Sharmila Sakravarthy

Abstract:

Prison administration in India, even though an important limb of the criminal justice system are worse off in terms of overcrowding, prolonged detention of under-trial prisoners, and a host of other problems. Considering the statistics of the prison population, over a thousand three hundred prisons across the country were overcrowded, even to the extent of more than six hundred percent. A total of eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight female prisoners were in India, out of which thirteen thousand hundred and sixty-five were under trials and five thousand and sixty-three convicts. A total of around one thousand seven hundred thirty-five children are residing in prisons along with their mothers. District prisons are more overcrowded than the other prisons, and their practices are at odd with human rights standards. This article examines a range of issues in prisons throughout India including pretrial detention, overcrowding, resources and governance, women and children in prison and rehabilitation. A substantial amount of space is devoted to the reforms that are occurring across the nation, and recommendations are made with regard to what further reforms are necessary.

Keywords: human rights, overcrowding, prisons, rehabilitation

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3339 Phenomenology of Child Labour in Estates, Farms and Plantations in Zimbabwe: A Comparative Analysis of Tanganda and Eastern Highlands Tea Estates

Authors: Chupicai Manuel

Abstract:

The global efforts to end child labour have been increasingly challenged by adages of global capitalism, inequalities and poverty affecting the global south. In the face the of rising inequalities whose origin can be explained from historical and political economy analysis between the poor and the rich countries, child labour is also on the rise particularly on the global south. The socio-economic and political context of Zimbabwe has undergone serious transition from colonial times through the post-independence normally referred to as the transition period up to the present day. These transitions have aided companies and entities in the business and agriculture sector to exploit child labour while country provided conditions that enhance child labour due to vulnerability of children and anomic child welfare system that plagued the country. Children from marginalised communities dominated by plantations and farms are affected most. This paper explores the experiences and perceptions of children working in tea estates, plantations and farms, and the adults who formerly worked in these plantations during their childhood to share their experiences and perceptions on child labour in Zimbabwe. Childhood theories that view children as apprentices and a human rights perspectives were employed to interrogate the concept of childhood, child labour and poverty alleviation strategies. Phenomenological research design was adopted to describe the experiences of children working in plantations and interpret the meanings they have on their work and livelihoods. The paper drew form 30 children from two plantations through semi-structured interviews and 15 key informant interviews from civil society organisations, international labour organisation, adults who formerly worked in the plantations and the personnel of the plantations. The findings of the study revealed that children work on the farms as an alternative model for survival against economic challenges while the majority cited that poverty compel them to work and get their fees and food paid for. Civil society organisations were of the view that child rights are violated and the welfare system of the country is malfunctional. The perceptions of the majority of the children interviewed are that the system on the plantations is better and this confirmed the socio-constructivist theory that views children as apprentices. The study recommended child sensitive policies and welfare regime that protects children from exploitation together with policing and legal measures that secure child rights.

Keywords: child labour, child rights, phenomenology, poverty reduction

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3338 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

Abstract:

The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literatures based on the literatures on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together was analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment, and behaviors of teachers and parents, and the society as a whole.

Keywords: children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education, disabled children

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3337 Unaccompanied Children: An Overview on National and European Law

Authors: Cinzia Valente

Abstract:

Over the last few years, national legislators have been forced to deal with social changes that have had important repercussions in family law and children’s law. This growing focus on minors has provoked important reforms, specifically on issues relating to the welfare and protection of children. My presentation focuses on the issue of migrant children in particular I refer to unaccompanied children, or ‘children on the move’, or separate children or any other term defining migrant minors who cross national borders seeking protection or better opportunities. They arrive often illegally, on the European territory without a responsible adult who take care of them. There is a common assumption that migrants are running away from conflicts, poverty and human rights abuse and they arrive in a foreign country hoping a better life; children without persons who takes care of them encounter some difficulties in their integration in the host country. The migration flows recorded in recent decades towards EU countries, and Italy in particular, have imposed an intense pressure to modernize institutions, services and specific legal frameworks, with the aim of responding adequately to the needs of foreign individuals, as well as ensuring a good level of living standards and facilitating integration, especially for migrant children. The object of my paper is the analysis of the Italian rules, practices and services existing in favor of unaccompanied children (foster care, reunification, acquisition of citizenship and other) in comparison with other European legal systems on the same thematic with a comparative method. Highlighting European standards to find common principles for the best solution to children's problems is the conclusive aim of my presentation.

Keywords: Children , Family Law, Migration , Uniform Law

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3336 Assessment of Nigerian Newspapers' Reportage of Violence against Children: Case Study of Daily Sun and Punch National Newspapers

Authors: Adline Nkwam-Uwaoma, Mishack Ndukwu

Abstract:

Traditionally, child rearing in Nigeria closely reflects the ‘spare the rod and spoil the child’ maxim and as such spanking, flogging, slapping, beating and even starving a child as a form of punishment for wrongdoing and as a method of behaviour modification are common. These are not necessarily considered as maltreatment or abuse of the child. Despite the adoption and implementation of the child rights act in Nigeria, violence against children seems to be on a steady increase. Stories of sexual molestation, rape, child labour, infliction of physical injuries and use of children for rituals by parents, guardians or other members of the society abound. Violence against children is considered as those acts by other persons especially adults that undermine and threaten the healthy life and existence of children or those that violet their rights as humans. In Nigeria newspapers are a major source of News, second only to radio and television in coverage, currency and content. National dailies are newspapers with daily publications and national spread or coverage. This study analysed the frequency, length, prominence level, direction and sources of information reported on violence against children in the selected national daily newspapers. It then provided information on the role of the newspapers in Nigeria in the fight against child violence and public awareness of the impact of violence against children on the development of the nation and the attempts to curtail such violence. The composite week sampling technique in which the four weeks of the month are reduced to one and a sample is randomly selected from each day of the week was used. As such 168 editions of Daily Sun and Punch newspapers published from January to December of 2016 were selected. Data were collected using code sheet and analyzed via content analysis. The result showed that the frequency of the newspapers’ reportage of violence against children in Nigeria was low. Again, it was found that the length or space given to reports on violence against children was inadequate, the direction of the few reports on violence against children was in favour of the course or fight against child violence, and these newspapers gave no prominence to reports on violence against children. Finally, it was found that a major source of News about violence against children was through journalism; government and individual sources provided only minimal information.

Keywords: children, newspapers' reportage, Nigeria, violence

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