Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: berberine

11 Green Synthesis of Nano Liposomes Containing Berberine Chlorideagainst Leishmania major

Authors: Ali Fattahi Bafghi, Abolghasem Siyadatpanah, Farzaneh Mirzaei, Fahimeh Pournasir, Roghayeh Norouzi, Maria De Lourdes Pereira

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major is one of the main infectious diseases that affect populations in developing countries around the world. We assessed the effectiveness of berberine chloride nano-liposome (BcNLs) against L. major promastigotes in vitro. Nano-liposomal berberine chloride was prepared using the thin-film hydration method and characterized based on encapsulation efficiency, size, and zeta potential. Anti-Leishmania effect of different concentrations (0.05-60 µg/ml) of BcNLs as studied in L. major [MRHO/IR/75/ER] at 24, 48, and 72 h using the hemocytometer technique. Berberine chloride was successfully loaded into nano-liposomes with an encapsulation efficiency of 85.54%. The surface charge of nanoparticles is neutral, and the morphology of nano-liposomal berberine chloride is spherical without any agglomeration. Cell viability assay was performed on the HFF cell line to show the biocompatibility of liposome nanoparticles. IC50 of BcNPs at 24, 48, and 72 h against L. major were found to be 7.6, 5.96, and 3.19 µg/ml, respectively. BcNLs showed a significant anti-Leishmania effect and induced a better and more tangible effect on the survival of L. major promastigotes and could be suitable candidates for further investigation. The results showed that the BcNLs agent is effective against L. major promastigotes and may be a promising alternative to current treatments.

Keywords: Leishmania major, berberine chloride, nano-liposomes, cutaneous leishmaniasis

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10 Optimizing Microwave Assisted Extraction of Anti-Diabetic Plant Tinospora cordifolia Used in Ayush System for Estimation of Berberine Using Taguchi L-9 Orthogonal Design

Authors: Saurabh Satija, Munish Garg

Abstract:

Present work reports an efficient extraction method using microwaves based solvent–sample duo-heating mechanism, for the extraction of an important anti-diabetic plant Tinospora cordifolia from AYUSH system for estimation of berberine content. The process is based on simultaneous heating of sample matrix and extracting solvent under microwave energy. Methanol was used as the extracting solvent, which has excellent berberine solubilizing power and warms up under microwave attributable to its great dispersal factor. Extraction conditions like time of irradition, microwave power, solute-solvent ratio and temperature were optimized using Taguchi design and berberine was quantified using high performance thin layer chromatography. The ranked optimized parameters were microwave power (rank 1), irradiation time (rank 2) and temperature (rank 3). This kind of extraction mechanism under dual heating provided choice of extraction parameters for better precision and higher yield with significant reduction in extraction time under optimum extraction conditions. This developed extraction protocol will lead to extract higher amounts of berberine which is a major anti-diabetic moiety in Tinospora cordifolia which can lead to development of cheaper formulations of the plant Tinospora cordifolia and can help in rapid prevention of diabetes in the world.

Keywords: berberine, microwave, optimization, Taguchi

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9 Fabricating Anti-Counterfeiting Films by Grafting Cationic Dye on Cellulose Nanofiber

Authors: Mohammadreza Biabani, Mohammad Azadfallah

Abstract:

A facile and robust strategy is required to fabricate films with high special optical properties for application in the field of anti-counterfeit marking. Nanocellulose, derived from bioresources, is a renewable material with broad application prospects. In this paper, a method for grafting the eco-friendly Berberine cationic dye on cellulose nanofiber is proposed. A functional modification was carried out by in-situ polymerization along with a grafting approach with acrylic acid(AA) in order to develop cationic dyeability of the cellulose nanofiber (CNF). The Berberine grafting on nanocellulose was significantly influenced by the reaction time and temperature during the dyeing process. The dyed CNF-films exhibited appropriate characteristics like appearance, color strength, and fastness for anti-counterfeiting application.

Keywords: Cellulose nanofiber, Berberine, Grafting, anti-counterfeiting, film

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8 Drug Design Modelling and Molecular Virtual Simulation of an Optimized BSA-Based Nanoparticle Formulation Loaded with Di-Berberine Sulfate Acid Salt

Authors: Eman M. Sarhan, Doaa A. Ghareeb, Gabriella Ortore, Amr A. Amara, Mohamed M. El-Sayed

Abstract:

Drug salting and nanoparticle-based drug delivery formulations are considered to be an effective means for rendering the hydrophobic drugs’ nano-scale dispersion in aqueous media, and thus circumventing the pitfalls of their poor solubility as well as enhancing their membrane permeability. The current study aims to increase the bioavailability of quaternary ammonium berberine through acid salting and biodegradable bovine serum albumin (BSA)-based nanoparticulate drug formulation. Berberine hydroxide (BBR-OH) that was chemically synthesized by alkalization of the commercially available berberine hydrochloride (BBR-HCl) was then acidified to get Di-berberine sulfate (BBR)₂SO₄. The purified crystals were spectrally characterized. The desolvation technique was optimized for the preparation of size-controlled BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, and BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄ nanoparticles. Particle size, zeta potential, drug release, encapsulation efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), tandem MS-MS spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning and transmitting electron microscopic examination (SEM, TEM), in vitro bioactivity, and in silico drug-polymer interaction were determined. BSA (PDB ID; 4OR0) protonation state at different pH values was predicted using Amber12 molecular dynamic simulation. Then blind docking was performed using Lamarkian genetic algorithm (LGA) through AutoDock4.2 software. Results proved the purity and the size-controlled synthesis of berberine-BSA-nanoparticles. The possible binding poses, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions of berberine on BSA at different pH values were predicted. Antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, and cell differentiated ability of tested drugs and their nano-formulations were evaluated. Thus, drug salting and the potentially effective albumin berberine nanoparticle formulations can be successfully developed using a well-optimized desolvation technique and exhibiting better in vitro cellular bioavailability.

Keywords: berberine, BSA, BBR-OH, BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-HCl, BSA-BBR-OH, (BBR)₂SO₄, BSA-(BBR)₂SO₄, FTIR, AutoDock4.2 Software, Lamarkian genetic algorithm, SEM, TEM, EDX

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7 In vitro Effects of Berberine on the Vitality and Oxidative Profile of Bovine Spermatozoa

Authors: Eva Tvrdá, Hana Greifová, Peter Ivanič, Norbert Lukáč

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent in vitro effects of berberine (BER), a natural alkaloid with numerous biological properties on bovine spermatozoa during three time periods (0 h, 2 h, 24 h). Bovine semen samples were diluted and cultivated in physiological saline solution containing 0.5% DMSO together with 200, 100, 50, 10, 5, and 1 μmol/L BER. Spermatozoa motility was assessed using the computer assisted semen analyzer. The viability of spermatozoa was assessed by the metabolic (MTT) assay, production of superoxide radicals was quantified using the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, and chemiluminescence was used to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell lysates were prepared and the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was evaluated using the TBARS assay. The results of the movement activity showed a significant increase in the motility during long term cultivation in case of concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 μmol/L BER (P < 0.01; P < 0.001; 24 h). At the same time, supplementation of 1, 5 and 10 μmol/L BER led to a significant preservation of the cell viability (P < 0.001; 24 h). BER addition at a range of 1-50 μmol/L also provided a significantly higher protection against superoxide (P < 0.05) and ROS (P < 0.001; P < 0.01) overgeneration as well as LPO (P < 0.01; P<0.05) after a 24 h cultivation. We may suggest that supplementation of BER to bovine spermatozoa, particularly at concentrations ranging between 1 and 50 μmol/L, may offer protection to the motility, viability and oxidative status of the spermatozoa, particularly notable at 24 h.

Keywords: berberine, bulls, motility, oxidative profile, spermatozoa, viability

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6 DNA Intercalating Alkaloids Isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae)

Authors: Mohamed Tamer, Wink Michael

Abstract:

DNA intercalating agents increase the stability of DNA which can be demonstrated by measuring the melting temperature Tm. Tm can be determined in a spectrophotometer in which the cell temperature is increased gradually. The resulting absorption data comes as a sigmoidal curve from which melting temperature can be determined when half of the DNA has denatured. The current study aims to assess DNA intercalating activities of four pure bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids: sanguinarine, berberine, allocryptopine, and chelerythrine which were isolated from Chelidonium majus (Papaveraceae) by repeated silica gel column chromatography, recrystallization and preparative TLC. The isolated compounds were identified by comparing their physical properties and mass spectra with those of the published data. The results showed that sanguiarine is the most active intercalating agent with Tm value of 83.55 ± 0.49 followed by berberine, chelerythrine, and allocryptopine with Tm values 62.58 ± 0.47, 51.38 ± 0.37 and 50.94 ± 0.65, respectively, relative to 49.78 ± 1.05 of bacteriophage DNA alone and 86.09 ± 0.5 for ethidium bromide as a positive control.

Keywords: alkaloids, Chelidonium majus, DNA intercalation, Tm

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5 Antiangiogenic Potential of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Observed on Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Ľudmila Ballová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Eva Petrovová, Jarmila Eftimová

Abstract:

Angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in pathologic processes such as the growth and metastasis of tumours. Tumours cannot grow beyond a few millimetres without blood supply from the newly formed blood vessels from the host tissue, a process called tumour-induced angiogenesis. The successful research of antiangiogenic treatment of cancer has focused on nutraceuticals with angiogenesis-modulating properties. Berberine, as a major active component of the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., has shown antitumour activity by intervening into different steps of carcinogenesis. The influence of ethanolic extract of Phellodendron amurese bark on the angiogenesis was tested in vivo on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The irritancy of the CAM after the application of the crude bark extract dissolved in normal saline (10 mg/mL) was investigated on embryonic day 7. No significant signs of the irritancy, such as vasoconstriction, hyperaemia, haemorrhage or coagulation were observed which indicates the harmless character of the extract. A significant reduction in vessel sprouting and higher percentage of avascular zone was observed in the case of CAM treated with the extract in comparison with non-treated CAM (control), which is a proof of the antiangiogenic potential of the extract. These results could contribute to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of cancer or other diseases, in which angiogenesis plays a significant role.

Keywords: angiogenesis, berberine, chorioallantoic membrane, irritancy, phellodendron amurense

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4 Studies on Effect of Nano Size and Surface Coating on Enhancement of Bioavailability and Toxicity of Berberine Chloride; A p-gp Substrate

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Parameswara Rao Vuddanda

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is study the factual benefit of nano size and surface coating of p-gp efflux inhibitor on enhancement of bioavailability of Berberine chloride (BBR); a p-gp substrate. In addition, 28 days sub acute oral toxicity study was also conducted to assess the toxicity of the formulation on chronic administration. BBR loaded polymeric nanoparticles (BBR-NP) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. BBR NP were surface coated (BBR-SCNP) with the 1 % w/v of vitamin E TPGS. For bioavailability study, total five groups (n=6) of rat were treated as follows first; pure BBR, second; physical mixture of BBR, carrier and vitamin E TPGS, third; BBR-NP, fourth; BBR-SCNP and fifth; BBR and verapamil (widely used p-gp inhibitor). Blood was withdrawn at pre-set timing points in 24 hrs study and drug was quantified by HPLC method. In oral chronic toxicity study, total four groups (n=6) were treated as follows first (control); water, second; pure BBR, third; BBR surface coated nanoparticles and fourth; placebo BBR surface coated nanoparticles. Biochemical levels of liver (AST, ALP and ALT) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) along with their histopathological studies were also examined (0-28 days). The AUC of BBR-SCNP was significantly 3.5 folds higher compared to all other groups. The AUC of BBR-NP was 3.23 and 1.52 folds higher compared to BBR solution and BBR with verapamil group, respectively. The physical mixture treated group showed slightly higher AUC than BBR solution treated group but significantly low compared to other groups. It indicates that encapsulation of BBR in nanosize form can circumvent P-gp efflux effect. BBR-NP showed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) which are near to BBR-SCNP. However, the difference in values of T1/2 and clearance indicate that surface coating with vitamin E TPGS not only avoids the P-gp efflux at its absorption site (intestine) but also at organs which are responsible for metabolism and excretion (kidney and liver). It may be the reason for observed decrease in clearance of BBR-SCNP. No toxicity signs were observed either in biochemical or histopathological examination of liver and kidney during toxicity studies. The results indicate that administration of BBR in surface coated nanoformulation would be beneficial for enhancement of its bioavailability and longer retention in systemic circulation. Further, sub acute oral dose toxicity studies for 28 days such as evaluation of intestine, liver and kidney histopathology and biochemical estimations indicated that BBR-SCNP developed were safe for long use.

Keywords: bioavailability, berberine nanoparticles, p-gp efflux inhibitor, nanoprecipitation method

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3 Gene Expression Signature-Based Chemical Genomic to Identify Potential Therapeutic Compounds for Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Yen-Hao Su, Wan-Chun Tang, Ya-Wen Cheng, Peik Sia, Chi-Chen Huang, Yi-Chao Lee, Hsin-Yi Jiang, Ming-Heng Wu, I-Lu Lai, Jun-Wei Lee, Kuen-Haur Lee

Abstract:

There is a wide range of drugs and combinations under investigation and/or approved over the last decade to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), but the 5-year survival rate remains poor at stages II–IV. Therefore, new, more efficient drugs still need to be developed that will hopefully be included in first-line therapy or overcome resistance when it appears, as part of second- or third-line treatments in the near future. In this study, we revealed that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have high therapeutic potential in CRC according to combinative analysis of NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository and chemical genomic database of Connectivity Map (CMap). We found that second generation Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, significantly down regulated the activities of a broad spectrum of kinases involved in regulating cell growth arrest and death of NVPAUY922-sensitive CRC cells. To overcome NVP-AUY922-induced upregulation of survivin expression which causes drug insensitivity, we found that combining berberine (BBR), a herbal medicine with potency in inhibiting survivin expression, with NVP-AUY922 resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects for NVP-AUY922-sensitive and -insensitive CRC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that treatment of NVP-AUY922-insensitive CRC cells with the combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR caused cell growth arrest through inhibiting CDK4 expression and induction of microRNA-296-5p (miR-296-5p)-mediated suppression of Pin1–β-catenin–cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that the expression level of Hsp90 in tumor tissues of CRC was positively correlated with CDK4 and Pin1 expression levels. Taken together, these results indicate that combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR therapy can inhibit multiple oncogenic signaling pathways of CRC.

Keywords: berberine, colorectal cancer, connectivity map, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor

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2 Characterization of Herberine Hydrochloride Nanoparticles

Authors: Bao-Fang Wen, Meng-Na Dai, Gao-Pei Zhu, Chen-Xi Zhang, Jing Sun, Xun-Bao Yin, Yu-Han Zhao, Hong-Wei Sun, Wei-Fen Zhang

Abstract:

A drug-loaded nanoparticles containing berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS-NPs) was prepared. The physicochemical characterizations of BH/FA-CTS-NPs and the inhibitory effect on the HeLa cells were investigated. Folic acid-conjugated chitosan (FA-CTS) was prepared by amino reaction of folic acid active ester and chitosan molecules; BH/FA-CTS-NPs were prepared using ionic cross-linking technique with BH as a model drug. The morphology and particle size were determined by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The average diameters and polydispersity index (PDI) were evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The interaction between various components and the nanocomplex were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The entrapment efficiency (EE), drug-loading (DL) and in vitro release were studied by UV spectrophotometer. The effect of cell anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions of BH/FA-CTS-NPs were investigated using MTT assays, wound healing assays, Annexin-V-FITC single staining assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. HeLa nude mice subcutaneously transplanted tumor model was established and treated with different drugs to observe the effect of BH/FA-CTS-NPs in vivo on HeLa bearing tumor. The BH/FA-CTS-NPs prepared in this experiment have a regular shape, uniform particle size, and no aggregation phenomenon. The results of DLS showed that mean particle size, PDI and Zeta potential of BH/FA-CTS NPs were (249.2 ± 3.6) nm, 0.129 ± 0.09, 33.6 ± 2.09, respectively, and the average diameter and PDI were stable in 90 days. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the characteristic peaks of FA-CTS and BH/FA-CTS-NPs confirmed that FA-CTS cross-linked successfully and BH was encapsulated in NPs. The EE and DL amount were (79.3 ± 3.12) % and (7.24 ± 1.41) %, respectively. The results of in vitro release study indicated that the cumulative release of BH/FA-CTS NPs was (89.48±2.81) % in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) within 48h; these results by MTT assays and wund healing assays indicated that BH/FA-CTS NPs not only inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner but can induce apoptosis as well. The subcutaneous xenograft tumor formation rate of human cervical cancer cell line HeLa in nude mice was 98% after inoculation for 2 weeks. Compared with BH group and BH/CTS-NPs group, the xenograft tumor growth of BH/FA-CTS-NPs group was obviously slower; the result indicated that BH/FA-CTS-NPs could significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa xenograft tumor. BH/FA-CTS NPs with the sustained release effect could be prepared successfully by the ionic crosslinking method. Considering these properties, block proliferation and impairing the migration of the HeLa cell line, BH/FA-CTS NPs could be an important compound for consideration in the treatment of cervical cancer.

Keywords: folic-acid, chitosan, berberine hydrochloride, nanoparticles, cervical cancer

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1 A Review on Future of Plant Based Medicine in Treatment of Urolithiatic Disorder

Authors: Gopal Lamichhane, Biswash Sapkota, Grinsun Sharma, Mahendra Adhikari

Abstract:

Urolithiasis is a condition in which insoluble or less soluble salts like oxalate, phosphate etc. precipitate in urinary tract and causes obstruction in ureter resulting renal colic or sometimes haematuria. It is the third most common disorder of urinary tract affecting nearly 2% of world’s population. Poor urinary drainage, microbial infection, oxalate and calcium containing diet, calciferol, hyperparathyroidism, cysteine in urine, gout, dysfunction of intestine, drought environment, lifestyle, exercise, stress etc. are risk factors for urolithiasis. Wide ranges of treatments are available in allopathic system of medicine but reoccurrence is unpreventable even with the surgical removal of stone or lithotripsy. So, people prefer alternative medicinal systems such as Unani, homeopathic, ayurvedic etc. systems of medicine due to their fewer side effects over allopathic counterpart. Different plants based ethnomedicines are being well established by their continuous effective use in human since long time in treatment of urinary problem. Many studies have scientifically proved those ethnomedicines for antiurolithiatic effect in animal and in vitro model. Plant-based remedies were found to be therapeutically effective for both prevention as well as cure of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Plants were known to show these effects through a combination of many effects such as antioxidant, diuretic, hypocalciuric, urine alkalinizing effect in them. Berberine, triterpenoids, lupeol are the phytochemicals established for antiurolithiatic effect. Hence, plant-based medicine can be the effective herbal alternative as well as means of discovery of novel drug molecule for curing urolithiatic disorder and should be focused on further research to discover their value in coming future.

Keywords: urolithiasis, herbal medicine, ethnomedicine, kidney stone, calcium oxalate

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