Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Rakhi Bansal

33 Effect of Surfactant Level of Microemulsions and Nanoemulsions on Cell Viability

Authors: Sonal Gupta, Rakhi Bansal, Javed Ali, Reema Gabrani, Shweta Dang


Nanoemulsions (NEs) and microemulsions (MEs) have been an attractive tool for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and lipophillic actives. Both these systems are composed of oil phase, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase. Depending upon the application and intended use, both oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions can be designed. NEs are fabricated using high energy methods employing less percentage of surfactant as compared to MEs which are self assembled drug delivery systems. Owing to the nanometric size of the droplets these systems have been widely used to enhance solubility and bioavailability of natural as well as synthetic molecules. The aim of the present study is to assess the effect of % age of surfactants on cell viability of Vero cells (African Green Monkeys’ Kidney epithelial cells) via MTT assay. Green tea catechin (Polyphenon 60) loaded ME employing low energy vortexing and NE employing high energy ultrasonication were prepared using same excipients (labrasol as oil, cremophor EL as surfactant and glycerol as co-surfactant) however, the % age of oil and surfactant needed to prepare the ME was higher as compared to NE. These formulations along with their excipients (oilME=13.3%, SmixME=26.67%; oilNE=10%, SmixNE=13.52%) were added to Vero cells for 24 hrs. The tetrazolium dye, 3-(4,5-dimethylthia/ol-2-yl)-2,5-diphi-iiyltclrazolium bromide (MTT), is reduced by live cells and this reaction is used as the end point to evaluate the cytoxicity level of a test formulation. Results of MTT assay indicated that oil at different percentages exhibited almost equal cell viability (oilME ≅ oilNE) while surfactant mixture had a significant difference in the cell viability values (SmixME < SmixNE). Polyphenon 60 loaded ME and its PlaceboME showed higher toxicity as compared to Polyphenon 60 loaded NE and its PlaceboNE that can be attributed to the higher concentration of surfactants present in MEs. Another probable reason for high % cell viability of Polyphenon 60 loaded NE might be due to the effective release of Polyphenon 60 from NE formulation that helps in the sustenance of Vero cells.

Keywords: cell viability, microemulsion, MTT, nanoemulsion, surfactants, ultrasonication

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32 Clinico-Microbiological Study of S. aureus from Various Clinical Samples with Reference to Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA)

Authors: T. G. Pathrikar, A. D. Urhekar, M. P. Bansal


To find out S. aureus from patient samples on the basis of coagulase test. We have evaluated slide coagulase (n=46 positive), tube coagulase (n=48 positive) and DNase test (n=44, positive) , We have isolated and identified MRSA from various clinical samples and specimens by disc diffusion method determined the incidence of MRSA 50% in patients. Found out the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates and also the MIC of MRSA of oxacillin by E-Test.

Keywords: cefoxitin disc diffusion MRSA detection, e – test, S. aureus devastating pathogen, tube coagulase confirmation

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31 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral


In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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30 ATC in Competitive Electricity Market Using TCSC

Authors: S. K. Gupta, Richa Bansal


In a deregulated power system structure, power producers, and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from the point of generation to the point of consumption. All parties in this open access environment may try to purchase the energy from the cheaper source for greater profit margins, which may lead to overloading and congestion of certain corridors of the transmission network. This may result in violation of line flow, voltage and stability limits and thereby undermine the system security. Utilities therefore need to determine adequately their Available Transfer Capability (ATC) to ensure that system reliability is maintained while serving a wide range of bilateral and multilateral transactions. This paper presents power transfer distribution factor based on AC load flow for the determination and enhancement of ATC. The study has been carried out for IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, power transfer distribution factors, electric

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29 Indoor Air Pollution: A Major Threat to Human Health

Authors: Pooja Rawat, Rakhi Tyagi


Globally, almost 3 billion people rely on biomass (wood, charcoal, dung and crop residues) and coal as their primary source of domestic energy. Cooking and heating with solid fuels on open fire give rise to major pollutants. Women are primarily affected by these pollutants as they spend most of their time in the house. The WHO World Health Report 2002 estimates that indoor air pollution (IAP) is responsible for 2.7% of the loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) worldwide and 3.7% in high mortality developing countries. Indoor air pollution has the potential to not only impact health, but also impact the general economic well-being of the household. Exposure to high level of household pollution lead to acute and chronic respiratory conditions (e.g.: pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer and cataract). There has been many strategies for reducing IAP like subsidize cleaner fuel technologies, for example use of kerosene rather than traditional biomass fuels. Another example is development, promotion of 'improved cooking stoves'. India, likely ranks second- distributing over 12 million improved stoves in the first seven years of a national program to develop. IAP should be reduced by understanding the welfare effects of reducing IAP within households and to understanding the most cost effective way to reduce it.

Keywords: open fire, indoor pollution, lung diseases, indoor air pollution

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28 Electrochemical Studies of Si, Si-Ge- and Ge-Air Batteries

Authors: R. C. Sharma, Rishabh Bansal, Prajwal Menon, Manoj K. Sharma


Silicon-air battery is highly promising for electric vehicles due to its high theoretical energy density (8470 Whkg⁻¹) and its discharge products are non-toxic. For the first time, pure silicon and germanium powders are used as anode material. Nickel wire meshes embedded with charcoal and manganese dioxide powder as cathode and concentrated potassium hydroxide is used as electrolyte. Voltage-time curves have been presented in this study for pure silicon and germanium powder and 5% and 10% germanium with silicon powder. Silicon powder cell assembly gives a stable voltage of 0.88 V for ~20 minutes while Si-Ge provides cell voltage of 0.80-0.76 V for ~10-12 minutes, and pure germanium cell provides cell voltage 0.80-0.76 V for ~30 minutes. The cell voltage is higher for concentrated (10%) sodium hydroxide solution (1.08 V) and it is stable for ~40 minutes. A sharp decrease in cell voltage beyond 40 min may be due to rapid corrosion.

Keywords: Silicon-air battery, Germanium-air battery, voltage-time curve, open circuit voltage, Anodic corrosion

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27 Dissolved Gas Analysis Based Regression Rules from Trained ANN for Transformer Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Deepika Bhalla, Raj Kumar Bansal, Hari Om Gupta


Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) has been widely used for fault diagnosis in a transformer. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have high accuracy but are regarded as black boxes that are difficult to interpret. For many problems it is desired to extract knowledge from trained neural networks (NN) so that the user can gain a better understanding of the solution arrived by the NN. This paper applies a pedagogical approach for rule extraction from function approximating neural networks (REFANN) with application to incipient fault diagnosis using the concentrations of the dissolved gases within the transformer oil, as the input to the NN. The input space is split into subregions and for each subregion there is a linear equation that is used to predict the type of fault developing within a transformer. The experiments on real data indicate that the approach used can extract simple and useful rules and give fault predictions that match the actual fault and are at times also better than those predicted by the IEC method.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, dissolved gas analysis, rules extraction, transformer

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26 A Method to Determine Cutting Force Coefficients in Turning Using Mechanistic Approach

Authors: T. C. Bera, A. Bansal, D. Nema


During performing turning operation, cutting force plays a significant role in metal cutting process affecting tool-work piece deflection, vibration and eventually part quality. The present research work aims to develop a mechanistic cutting force model and to study the mechanistic constants used in the force model in case of turning operation. The proposed model can be used for the reliable and accurate estimation of the cutting forces establishing relationship of various force components (cutting force and feed force) with uncut chip thickness. The accurate estimation of cutting force is required to improve thin-walled part accuracy by controlling the tool-work piece deflection induced surface errors and tool-work piece vibration.

Keywords: turning, cutting forces, cutting constants, uncut chip thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
25 Virtual Computing Lab for Phonics Development among Deaf Students

Authors: Ankita R. Bansal, Naren S. Burade


Idea is to create a cloud based virtual lab for Deaf Students, “A language acquisition program using Visual Phonics and Cued Speech” using VMware Virtual Lab. This lab will demonstrate students the sounds of letters associated with the Language, building letter blocks, making words, etc Virtual labs are used for demos, training, for the Lingual development of children in their vernacular language. The main potential benefits are reduced labour and hardware costs, faster response times to users. Virtual Computing Labs allows any of the software as a service solutions, virtualization solutions, and terminal services solutions available today to offer as a service on demand, where a single instance of the software runs on the cloud and services multiple end users. VMWare, XEN, MS Virtual Server, Virtuoso, and Citrix are typical examples.

Keywords: visual phonics, language acquisition, vernacular language, cued speech, virtual lab

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24 Real Time Acquisition and Psychoacoustic Analysis of Brain Wave

Authors: Shweta Singh, Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan


Psychoacoustics has become a potential area of research due to the growing interest of both laypersons and medical and mental health professionals. Non-invasive brain computer interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely being used in this field. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the response of EEG signals to acoustic stimuli further analysing the brain electrical activity. The real time EEG is acquired for 6 participants using a cost effective and portable EMOTIV EEG neuron headset. EEG data analysis is further done using EMOTIV test bench, EDF browser and EEGLAB (MATLAB Tool) application software platforms. Spectral analysis of acquired neural signals (AF3 channel) using these software platforms are clearly indicative of increased brain activity in various bands. The inferences drawn from such an analysis have significant correlation with subject’s subjective reporting of the experiences. The results suggest that the methodology adopted can further be used to assist patients with sleeping and depressive disorders.

Keywords: OM chant, spectral analysis, EDF browser, EEGLAB, EMOTIV, real time acquisition

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
23 Simulation of Photocatalytic Degradation of Rhodamine B in Annular Photocatalytic Reactor

Authors: Jatinder Kumar, Ajay Bansal


Simulation of a photocatalytic reactor helps in understanding the complex behavior of the photocatalytic degradation. Simulation also aids the designing and optimization of the photocatalytic reactor. Lack of simulation strategies is a huge hindrance in the commercialization of the photocatalytic technology. With the increased performance of computational resources, and development of simulation software, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming an affordable engineering tool to simulate and optimize reactor designs. In the present paper, a CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) model for simulating the performance of an immobilized-titanium dioxide based annular photocatalytic reactor was developed. The computational model integrates hydrodynamics, species mass transport, and chemical reaction kinetics using a commercial CFD code Fluent 6.3.26. The CFD model was based on the intrinsic kinetic parameters determined experimentally in a perfectly mixed batch reactor. Rhodamine B, a complex organic compound, was selected as a test pollutant for photocatalytic degradation. It was observed that CFD could become a valuable tool to understand and improve the photocatalytic systems.

Keywords: simulation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), annular photocatalytic reactor, titanium dioxide

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22 Connecting Students and Faculty Research Efforts through the Research and Projects Portal

Authors: Havish Nalapareddy, Mark V. Albert, Ranak Bansal, Avi Udash, Lin Lin


Students engage in many course projects during their degree programs. However, impactful projects often need a time frame longer than a single semester. Ideally, projects are documented and structured to be readily accessible to future students who may choose to continue the project, with features that emphasize the local community, university, or course structure. The Research and Project Portal (RAPP) is a place where students can post both their completed and ongoing projects with all the resources and tools used. This portal allows students to see what other students have done in the past, in the same university environment, related to their domain of interest. Computer science instructors or students selecting projects can use this portal to assign or choose an incomplete project. Additionally, this portal allows non-computer science faculty and industry collaborators to document their project ideas for students in courses to prototype directly, rather than directly soliciting the help of instructors in engaging students. RAPP serves as a platform linking students across classes and faculty both in and out of computer science courses on joint projects to encourage long-term project efforts across semesters or years.

Keywords: education, technology, research, academic portal

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21 Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India

Authors: Shivam Kushwaha, Veena Bansal


Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.

Keywords: timeshare, holiday, tourism, customer perception, intent to use, Indian tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
20 Clustering of Association Rules of ISIS & Al-Qaeda Based on Similarity Measures

Authors: Tamanna Goyal, Divya Bansal, Sanjeev Sofat


In world-threatening terrorist attacks, where early detection, distinction, and prediction are effective diagnosis techniques and for functionally accurate and precise analysis of terrorism data, there are so many data mining & statistical approaches to assure accuracy. The computational extraction of derived patterns is a non-trivial task which comprises specific domain discovery by means of sophisticated algorithm design and analysis. This paper proposes an approach for similarity extraction by obtaining the useful attributes from the available datasets of terrorist attacks and then applying feature selection technique based on the statistical impurity measures followed by clustering techniques on the basis of similarity measures. On the basis of degree of participation of attributes in the rules, the associative dependencies between the attacks are analyzed. Consequently, to compute the similarity among the discovered rules, we applied a weighted similarity measure. Finally, the rules are grouped by applying using hierarchical clustering. We have applied it to an open source dataset to determine the usability and efficiency of our technique, and a literature search is also accomplished to support the efficiency and accuracy of our results.

Keywords: association rules, clustering, similarity measure, statistical approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
19 Improved Multi–Objective Firefly Algorithms to Find Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences for Optimal Golomb Ruler Channel Allocation

Authors: Shonak Bansal, Prince Jain, Arun Kumar Singh, Neena Gupta


Recently nature–inspired algorithms have widespread use throughout the tough and time consuming multi–objective scientific and engineering design optimization problems. In this paper, we present extended forms of firefly algorithm to find optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences. The OGRs have their one of the major application as unequally spaced channel–allocation algorithm in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems in order to minimize the adverse four–wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effect. The simulation results conclude that the proposed optimization algorithm has superior performance compared to the existing conventional computing and nature–inspired optimization algorithms to find OGRs in terms of ruler length, total optical channel bandwidth and computation time.

Keywords: channel allocation, conventional computing, four–wave mixing, nature–inspired algorithm, optimal Golomb ruler, lévy flight distribution, optimization, improved multi–objective firefly algorithms, Pareto optimal

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
18 Service Life Modelling of Concrete Deterioration Due to Biogenic Sulphuric Acid (BSA) Attack-State-of-an-Art-Review

Authors: Ankur Bansal, Shashank Bishnoi


Degradation of Sewage pipes, sewage pumping station and Sewage treatment plants(STP) is of major concern due to difficulty in their maintenance and the high cost of replacement. Most of these systems undergo degradation due to Biogenic sulphuric acid (BSA) attack. Since most of Waste water treatment system are underground, detection of this deterioration remains hidden. This paper presents a literature review, outlining the mechanism of this attack focusing on critical parameters of BSA attack, along with available models and software to predict the deterioration due to this attack. This paper critically examines the various steps and equation in various Models of BSA degradation, detail on assumptions and working of different softwares are also highlighted in this paper. The paper also focuses on the service life design technique available through various codes and method to integrate the servile life design with BSA degradation on concrete. In the end, various methods enhancing the resistance of concrete against Biogenic sulphuric acid attack are highlighted. It may be concluded that the effective modelling for degradation phenomena may bring positive economical and environmental impacts. With current computing capabilities integrated degradation models combining the various durability aspects can bring positive change for sustainable society.

Keywords: concrete degradation, modelling, service life, sulphuric acid attack

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17 Linking Work-Family Enrichment and Innovative Workplace Behavior: The Mediating Role of Positive Emotions

Authors: Nidhi Bansal, Upasna Agarwal


Innovation is a key driver for economic growth and well-being of developed as well as emerging economies like India. Very few studies examined the relationship between IWB and work-family enrichment. Therefore, the present study examines the relationship between work-family enrichment (WFE) and innovative workplace behavior (IWB) and whether it is mediated by positive emotions. Social exchange theory and broaden and build theory explain the proposed relationships. Data were collected from 250 full time dual working parents in different Indian organizations through a survey questionnaire. Snowball technique was used for approaching respondents. Mediation analysis was assessed through PROCESS macro (Hayes, 2012) in SPSS. With correlational analysis, it was explored that all three variables were significantly and positively related. Analysis suggests that work-family enrichment is significantly related to innovative workplace behavior and this relationship is partially mediated by positive emotions. A cross-sectional design, use of self-reported questions and data collected only from dual working parents are few limitations of the study. This is one of the few studies to examine the innovative workplace behavior in response to work-family enrichment and first attempt to examine the mediation effect of emotions between these two variables.

Keywords: dual working parents, emotions, innovative workplace behavior, work-family enrichment

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16 A Multilevel Approach of Reproductive Preferences and Subsequent Behavior in India

Authors: Anjali Bansal


Reproductive preferences mainly deal with two questions: when a couple wants children and how many they want. Questions related to these desires are often included in the fertility surveys as they can provide relevant information on the subsequent behavior. The aim of the study is to observe whether respondent’s response to these questions changed over time or not. We also tried to identify socio- economic and demographic factors associated with the stability (or instability) of fertility preferences. For this purpose, we used IHDS1 (2004-05) and follow up survey IHDS2 (2011-12) data and applied bivariate, multivariate and multilevel repeated measure analysis to it to find the consistency between responses. From the analysis, we found that preferences of women changes over the course of time as from the bivariate analysis we have found that 52% of women are not consistent in their desired family size and huge inconsistency are found in desire to continue childbearing. To get a better overlook of these inconsistencies, we have computed Intra Class Correlation (ICC) which tries to explain the consistency between individuals on their fertility responses at two time periods. We also explored that husband’s desire for additional child specifically male offspring contribute to these variations. Our findings lead us to a cessation that in India, individuals fertility preferences changed over a seven-year time period as the Intra Class correlation comes out to be very small which explains the variations among individuals. Concerted efforts should be made, therefore, to educate people, and conduct motivational programs to promote family planning for family welfare.

Keywords: change, consistency, preferences, over time

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
15 Ammonia Sensing Properties of Nanostructured Hybrid Halide Perovskite Thin Film

Authors: Nidhi Gupta, Omita Nanda, Rakhi Grover, Kanchan Saxena


Hybrid perovskite is new class of material which has gained much attention due to their different crystal structure and interesting optical and electrical properties. Easy fabrication, high absorption coefficient, and photoluminescence properties make them a strong candidate for various applications such as sensors, photovoltaics, photodetectors, etc. In perovskites, ions arrange themselves in a special type of crystal structure with chemical formula ABX3, where A is organic species like CH3NH3+, B is metal ion (e.g., Pb, Sn, etc.) and X is halide (Cl-, Br-, I-). In crystal structure, A is present at corner position, B at center of the crystal lattice and halide ions at the face centers. High stability and sensitivity of nanostructured perovskite make them suitable for chemical sensors. Researchers have studied sensing properties of perovskites for number of analytes such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, ethanol and other hazardous chemical compounds. Ammonia being highly toxic agent makes it a reason of concern for the environment. Thus the detection of ammonia is extremely important. Our present investigation deals with organic inorganic hybrid perovskite based ammonia sensor. Various methods like sol-gel, solid state synthesis, thermal vapor deposition etc can be used to synthesize Different hybrid perovskites. In the present work, a novel hybrid perovskite has been synthesized by a single step method. Ethylenediammnedihalide and lead halide were used as precursor. Formation of hybrid perovskite was confirmed by FT-IR and XRD. Morphological characterization of the synthesized material was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analysis revealed the formation of one dimensional nanowire perovskite with mean diameter of 200 nm. Measurements for sensing properties of halide perovskite for ammonia vapor were carried out. Perovskite thin films showed a color change from yellow to orange on exposure of ammonia vapor. Electro-optical measurements show that sensor based on lead halide perovskite has high sensitivity towards ammonia with effective selectivity and reversibility. Sensor exhibited rapid response time of less than 20 seconds.

Keywords: hybrid perovskite, ammonia, sensor, nanostructure, thin film

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
14 Isolation, Characterization and Quantitation of Anticancer Constituent from Chloroform Extract of N. arbortristis L. Leaves

Authors: Parul Grover, K. A. Suri, Raj Kumar, Gulshan Bansal


Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn is traditionally used as anticancer herb in Indian system of medicine, but its introduction into modern system of medicine is still awaited due to lack of systematic scientific studies. Objective: The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize anticancer phytoconstituents from N. arbortristis L. leaves based on bioactivity guided fractionation. Method: Different extracts of the leaves of the plant were prepared by Soxhlet extractor. Each extract was evaluated for anticancer activity against HL-60 cell lines. Chloroform and HA extract showed potent anticancer activity and hence were selected for fractionation. Fraction C1 from chloroform extract was found to be most potent amongst all when tested against three cell lines (HL-60, A-549, and HCT-116) and thus was selected for further fractionation and a pure compound CP-01 was isolated. RP-HPLC method has been developed for quantification of isolated compound by using Kinetex C-18 column with gradient elution at 0.7 mL/min using mobile phase containing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (0.01 M, pH 3.0) with acetonitrile. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λₘₐₓ) selected was 210 nm. Results: The structure of potent anticancer CP-01 was determined on the basis spectroscopic methods like IR, 1H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR and Mass Spectrometry and it was characterized as 1,1,2-tris(2’,4’-di-tert-butylbenzene)-4,4-dimethyl-pent-1-ene. The content of CP-01 was found to be 0.88 %w/w of chloroform extract and 0.08 %w/w of N.arbortristis leaves. Conclusion: The study supports the traditional use of N. arbortristis as anticancer herb & the identified compound CP-01 can serve as an excellent lead to develop potent and safe anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, HL-60 cell lines, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, RP-HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
13 Prenatal Development of Heart and Great Vessels in Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Authors: Anuradha Gupta, Neelam Bansal, Varinder Uppal


The present investigation was made on 35 Indian buffalo fetuses ranging from 0.9 cm to 104 cm curved crown rump length (CVRL). The gross anatomical study revealed that all structures were developed at 13 cm CVRL (87 days) in group I. At 0.9 cm CVRL (32 days) the heart was unseptated and tubular and was clearly divided into common atrial chamber dorsally and primitive ventricle in 1.2 cm CVRL fetus (34 days). Septum primum appeared at 1.9 cm CVRL (37 days), truncal ridges at 2.5 cm CVRL (39 days) and foramen ovale in 3.0 cm CVRL (42 days) buffalo foetuses. At 7.6 cm CVRL (62 days) endocardial cushions fused to form left and right atrioventricular openings and four chambered heart was formed in 8.7 cm CVRL (66 days). Endocardium and epicardium was thicker in atria as compared to ventricles in all the age groups. Myocardium of atria was thin as compared to ventricles in all the age groups and was loosely arranged. Immature hyaline cartilage was first appeared at base of aorta in 62 cm CVRL (213 days) fetuses. Intercalated discs were seen in group III and aorta, pulmonary artery, coronary artery were well appreciated in 3.2 cm CVRL (43 days). Neutral and acid mucopolysaccharides were comparatively more in atria than ventricles. Basic proteins showed strong reaction in atrium and ventricle, and intense in conduction system. Lipids and phospholipids were more in myocardium and conduction system than endocardium and epicardium. All the histochemical moieties were comparatively more in tunica intima than media and adventitia of all the great vessels of heart.

Keywords: buffalo, fetal development, histochemistry, heart

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12 A Case Report on Anesthetic Considerations in a Neonate with Isolated Oesophageal Atresia with Radiological Fallacy

Authors: T. Rakhi, Thrivikram Shenoy


Esophageal atresia is a disorder of maldevelopment of esophagus with or without a connection to the trachea. Radiological reviews are needed in consultation with the pediatric surgeon and neonatologist and we report a rare case of esophageal atresia associated with atrial septal defect-patent ductus arteriosus complex. A 2-day old female baby born at term, weighing 3.010kg, admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with respiratory distress and excessive oral secretions. On examination, continuous murmur and cyanosis were seen. Esophageal atresia was suspected, after a failed attempt to pass a nasogastric tube. Chest radiograph showed coiling of the nasogastric tube and absent gas shadow in the abdomen. Echocardiography confirmed Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Atrial Septal Defect not in failure and was diagnosed with esophageal atresia with suspected fistula posted for surgical repair. After preliminary management with oxygenation, suctioning in prone position and antibiotics, investigations revealed Hb 17gms serum biochemistry, coagulation profile and C-Reactive Protein Test normal. The baby was premedicated with 5mcg of fentanyl and 100 mcg of midazolam and a rapid awake laryngoscopy was done to rule out difficult airway followed by induction with o2 air, sevo and atracurium 2 mg. Placement of a 3.5 tube was uneventful at first attempt and after confirming bilateral air entry positioned in the lateral position for Right thoracotomy. A pulse oximeter, Echocardiogram, Non-invasive Blood Pressure, temperature and a precordial stethoscope in left axilla were essential monitors. During thoracotomy, both the ends of the esophagus and the fistula could not be located after thorough search suggesting an on table finding of type A esophageal atresia. The baby was repositioned for gastrostomy, and cervical esophagostomy ventilated overnight and extubated uneventful. Absent gas shadow was overlooked and the purpose of this presentation is to create an awareness between the neonatologist, pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologist regarding variation of typing of Tracheoesophageal fistula pre and intraoperatively. A need for imaging modalities warranted for a definitive diagnosis in the presence of a gasless stomach.

Keywords: anesthetic, atrial septal defects, esophageal atresia, patent ductus arteriosus, perioperative, chest x-ray

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11 Avian Esophagus: A Comparative Microscopic Study In Birds With Different Feeding Habits

Authors: M. P. S. Tomar, Himanshu R. Joshi, P. Jagapathi Ramayya, Rakhi Vaish, A. B. Shrivastav


The morphology of an organ system varies according to the feeding habit, habitat and nature of their life-style. This phenomenon is called adaptation. During evolution these morphological changes make the system species specific so the study on the differential characteristics of them makes the understanding regarding the morpho-physiological adaptation easier. Hence the present study was conducted on esophagus of pariah kite, median egret, goshawk, dove and duck. Esophagus in all birds was comprised of four layers viz. Tunica mucosa, Tunica submucosa, Tunica muscularis and Tunica adventitia. The mucosa of esophagus showed longitudinal folds thus the lumen was irregular. The epithelium was stratified squamous in all birds but in Median egret the cells were large and vacuolated. Among these species very thick epithelium was observed in goshawk and duck but keratinization was highest in dove. The stratum spongiosum was 7-8 layers thick in both Pariah kite and Goshawk. In all birds, the glands were alveolar mucous secreting type. In Median egret and Pariah kite, these were round or oval in shape and with or without lumen depending upon the functional status whereas in Goshawk the shape of the glands varied from spherical / oval to triangular with openings towards the lumen according to the functional activity and in dove these glands were oval in shape. The glands were numerous in number in egret while one or two in each fold in goshawk and less numerous in other three species. The core of the mucosal folds was occupied by the lamina propria and showed large number of collagen fibers and cellular infiltration in pariah kite, egret and dove where as in goshawk and duck, collagen and reticular fibers were fewer and cellular infiltration was lesser. Lamina muscularis was very thick in all species and it was comprised of longitudinally arranged smooth muscle fibers. In Median egret, it was in wavy pattern. Tunica submucosa was very thin in all species. Tunica muscularis was mostly comprised of circular smooth muscle bundles in all species but the longitudinal bundles were very few in number and not continuous. The tunica adventitia was comprised of loose connective tissue fibers containing collagen and elastic fibers with numerous small blood vessels in all species. Further, it was observed that the structure of esophagus in birds varies according to their feeding habits.

Keywords: dove, duck, egret, esophagus, goshawk, kite

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10 Geological and Geotechnical Approach for Stabilization of Cut-Slopes in Power House Area of Luhri HEP Stage-I (210 MW), India

Authors: S. P. Bansal, Mukesh Kumar Sharma, Ankit Prabhakar


Luhri Hydroelectric Project Stage-I (210 MW) is a run of the river type development with a dam toe surface powerhouse (122m long, 50.50m wide, and 65.50m high) on the right bank of river Satluj in Himachal Pradesh, India. The project is located in the inner lesser Himalaya between Dhauladhar Range in the south and higher Himalaya in the north in the seismically active region. At the project, the location river is confined within narrow V-shaped valleys with little or no flat areas close to the river bed. Nearly 120m high cut slopes behind the powerhouse are proposed from the powerhouse foundation level of 795m to ± 915m to accommodate the surface powerhouse. The stability of 120m high cut slopes is a prime concern for the reason of risk involved. The slopes behind the powerhouse will be excavated in mainly in augen gneiss, fresh to weathered in nature, and biotite rich at places. The foliation joints are favorable and dipping inside the hill. Two valleys dipping steeper joints will be encountered on the slopes, which can cause instability during excavation. Geological exploration plays a vital role in designing and optimization of cut slopes. SWEDGE software has been used to analyze the geometry and stability of surface wedges in cut slopes. The slopes behind powerhouse have been analyzed in three zones for stability analysis by providing a break in the continuity of cut slopes, which shall provide quite substantial relief for slope stabilization measure. Pseudo static analysis has been carried out for the stabilization of wedges. The results indicate that many large wedges are forming, which have a factor of safety less than 1. The stability measures (support system, bench width, slopes) have been planned so that no wedge failure may occur in the future.

Keywords: cut slopes, geotechnical investigations, Himalayan geology, surface powerhouse, wedge failure

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9 Clinical Relevance of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Marker for Prostate Cancer

Authors: Shalu Jain, Anju Bansal, Anup Kumar, Sunita Saxena


Objectives: The novel TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion is a common somatic event in prostate cancer that in some studies is linked with a more aggressive disease phenotype. Thus, this study aims to determine whether clinical variables are associated with the presence of TMPRSS2:ERG-fusion gene transcript in Indian patients of prostate cancer. Methods: We evaluated the clinical variables with presence and absence of TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer and BPH association of clinical patients. Patients referred for prostate biopsy because of abnormal DRE or/and elevated sPSA were enrolled for this prospective clinical study. TMPRSS2:ERG mRNA copies in samples were quantified using a Taqman chemistry by real time PCR assay in prostate biopsy samples (N=42). The T2:ERG assay detects the gene fusion mRNA isoform TMPRSS2 exon1 to ERG exon4. Results: Histopathology report has confirmed 25 cases as prostate cancer adenocarcinoma (PCa) and 17 patients as benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Out of 25 PCa cases, 16 (64%) were T2: ERG fusion positive. All 17 BPH controls were fusion negative. The T2:ERG fusion transcript was exclusively specific for prostate cancer as no case of BPH was detected having T2:ERG fusion, showing 100% specificity. The positive predictive value of fusion marker for prostate cancer is thus 100% and the negative predictive value is 65.3%. The T2:ERG fusion marker is significantly associated with clinical variables like no. of positive cores in prostate biopsy, Gleason score, serum PSA, perineural invasion, perivascular invasion and periprostatic fat involvement. Conclusions: Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease that may be defined by molecular subtypes such as the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. In the present prospective study, the T2:ERG quantitative assay demonstrated high specificity for predicting biopsy outcome; sensitivity was similar to the prevalence of T2:ERG gene fusions in prostate tumors. These data suggest that further improvement in diagnostic accuracy could be achieved using a nomogram that combines T2:ERG with other markers and risk factors for prostate cancer.

Keywords: prostate cancer, genetic rearrangement, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, clinical variables

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8 A Real Time Set Up for Retrieval of Emotional States from Human Neural Responses

Authors: Rashima Mahajan, Dipali Bansal, Shweta Singh


Real time non-invasive Brain Computer Interfaces have a significant progressive role in restoring or maintaining a quality life for medically challenged people. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of emerging research in the field of cognitive/affective computing in context of human neural responses. The perspectives of different emotion assessment modalities like face expressions, speech, text, gestures, and human physiological responses have also been discussed. Focus has been paid to explore the ability of EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals to portray thoughts, feelings, and unspoken words. An automated workflow-based protocol to design an EEG-based real time Brain Computer Interface system for analysis and classification of human emotions elicited by external audio/visual stimuli has been proposed. The front end hardware includes a cost effective and portable Emotive EEG Neuroheadset unit, a personal computer and a set of external stimulators. Primary signal analysis and processing of real time acquired EEG shall be performed using MATLAB based advanced brain mapping toolbox EEGLab/BCILab. This shall be followed by the development of MATLAB based self-defined algorithm to capture and characterize temporal and spectral variations in EEG under emotional stimulations. The extracted hybrid feature set shall be used to classify emotional states using artificial intelligence tools like Artificial Neural Network. The final system would result in an inexpensive, portable and more intuitive Brain Computer Interface in real time scenario to control prosthetic devices by translating different brain states into operative control signals.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalogram, EEGLab, BCILab, emotive, emotions, interval features, spectral features, artificial neural network, control applications

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7 Formulation of Hybrid Nanopowder-Molecular Ink for Fabricating Critical Material-Free Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Thin Film Solar Absorber

Authors: Anies Mutiari, Neha Bansal, Martin Artner, Veronika Mayer, Juergen Roth, Mathias Weil, Rachmat Adhi Wibowo


Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) compound (mineral name kesterite) has attracted considerable interests for photovoltaic application owing to its optoelectrical properties. Moreover, its elemental abundance in Earth’s crust offers a comparative advantage for envisaged large-scale photovoltaic deployment without any material shortage issues. In this contribution, we present an innovative route to prepare CZTS solar absorber layer for photovoltaic application from low-cost and up-scalable process. CZTS layers were spin coated on the Molybdenum-coated glass from two inks composed of different solvents; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and ultrapure water. Into each solvent; 0.57M CuCl₂, 0.39M ZnCl₂, 0.53M SnCl₂, and 1.85M Thiourea or Na₂S₂O₃, as well as pre-synthesized CZTS nanopowder, were added as sources of Cu, Zn, Sn and S in the ink. The crystallisation of ink into CZTS dense layers was carried out by firstly annealing the as-deposited CZTS layer in open air at 300°C for 1 minute, followed by sulfurisation at 560–620°C under atmospheric pressure for 120 minutes. Complementary electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations suggest that both solvents can be used for preparing high quality and device relevant CZTS solar absorber layers. The sulphurisation crystallizes the as-deposited CZTS into highly polycrystalline CZTS layer with tetragonal structure demonstrated by the presence of tetrahedrally-shaped grains with the size of 1 µm. An advancement of the CZTS layer preparation was made by gradual substitution of volatile organic compound solvent of DMSO with ultrapure water. It is revealed that by using similar air annealing and sulphurisation process, dense and compact CZTS layers can also be fabricated from an ink with reduced volatile organic compound content.

Keywords: kesterite, solar ink, spin coating, photovoltaics

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6 Cartographic Depiction and Visualization of Wetlands Changes in the North-Western States of India

Authors: Bansal Ashwani


Cartographic depiction and visualization of wetland changes is an important tool to map spatial-temporal information about the wetland dynamics effectively and to comprehend the response of these water bodies in maintaining the groundwater and surrounding ecosystem. This is true for the states of North Western India, i.e., J&K, Himachal, Punjab, and Haryana that are bestowed upon with several natural wetlands in the flood plains or on the courses of its rivers. Thus, the present study documents, analyses and reconstructs the lost wetlands, which existed in the flood plains of the major river basins of these states, i.e., Chenab, Jhelum, Satluj, Beas, Ravi, and Ghagar, in the beginning of the 20th century. To achieve the objective, the study has used multi-temporal datasets since the 1960s using high to medium resolution satellite datasets, e.g., Corona (1960s/70s), Landsat (1990s-2017) and Sentinel (2017). The Sentinel (2017) satellite image has been used for making the wetland inventory owing to its comparatively higher spatial resolution with multi-spectral bands. In addition, historical records, repeated photographs, historical maps, field observations including geomorphological evidence were also used. The water index techniques, i.e., band rationing, normalized difference water index (NDWI), modified NDWI (MNDWI) have been compared and used to map the wetlands. The wetland types found in the north-western states have been categorized under 19 classes suggested by Space Application Centre, India. These enable the researcher to provide with the wetlands inventory and a series of cartographic representation that includes overlaying multiple temporal wetlands extent vectors. A preliminary result shows the general state of wetland shrinkage since the 1960s with varying area shrinkage rate from one wetland to another. In addition, it is observed that majority of wetlands have not been documented so far and even do not have names. Moreover, the purpose is to emphasize their elimination in addition to establishing a baseline dataset that can be a tool for wetland planning and management. Finally, the applicability of cartographic depiction and visualization, historical map sources, repeated photographs and remote sensing data for reconstruction of long term wetlands fluctuations, especially in the northern part of India, will be addressed.

Keywords: cartographic depiction and visualization, wetland changes, NDWI/MDWI, geomorphological evidence and remote sensing

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5 Aloe vera Prevents Injuries Induced by Whole Body X-ray Irradiation in Rodents

Authors: Shashi Bala, Neha A. Chugh, Subhash C. Bansal, Mohal L. Garg, Ashwani Koul


Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera from whole body X-ray exposure in rodents. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, after on week’s acclimatization, male balb/c mice procured from Central Animal House, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India), were divided into four groups: Group I mice served as control. Group II mice were orally administrated Aloe vera pulp extract (50 mg/ kg body weight) on alternate days for 30 days. Group III mice were subjected to whole body X-ray irradiation to cumulative dose of 2Gy (0.258Gy twice a day for four days in the last week). Group IV animals were pretreated with Aloe vera pulp extract on alternate days as in Group II and in the last week of the study, they were exposed to X-ray as in Group III. Results: Spleen of X-ray irradiated mice showed histopathological alterations accompanied with enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enhanced activities in Glutathione based enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Glutathione reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) associated with depletion in reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration were observed after X-ray exposure in blood plasma and spleen.. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) and Inteleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also found to be enhanced in serum of irradiated mice. Irradiation-induced significant elevation in Total leucocyte counts (TLC), neutrophil counts and decline in platelet counts, associated with unaltered levels of red blood cell counts (RBC’s) and haemoglobin (Hb) in various treatment groups. Clastogenic damage and apoptosis was also found to be increase in splenic tissue of X-ray exposed mice as assessed by micronucleus and TUNEL assay. However, X-ray irradiated animals administered with Aloe vera revealed significant improvement in levels of ROS/ LPO, LDH activity, and antioxidant mechanism. Aloe vera pretreated animals exhibited less severe damage, and early recovery in micronucleated cells, hematological parameters, apoptotic cells and inflammatory markers as compared to X-ray exposed mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that the radioprotective potential of Aloe vera against X-ray induced damage. This may be due to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: aloe vera, antioxidant defense system, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), micronucleus assay, x-ray

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4 Synthesis, Molecular Modeling and Study of 2-Substituted-4-(Benzo[D][1,3]Dioxol-5-Yl)-6-Phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-One Derivatives as Potential Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Ranju Bansal


Fighting pain and inflammation is a common problem faced by physicians while dealing with a wide variety of diseases. Since ancient time nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) and opioids have been the cornerstone of treatment therapy, however, the usefulness of both these classes is limited due to severe side effects. NSAIDs, which are mainly used to treat mild to moderate inflammatory pain, induce gastric irritation and nephrotoxicity whereas opioids show an array of adverse reactions such as respiratory depression, sedation, and constipation. Moreover, repeated administration of these drugs induces tolerance to the analgesic effects and physical dependence. Further discovery of selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) suggested safety without any ulcerogenic side effects; however, long-term use of these drugs resulted in kidney and hepatic toxicity along with an increased risk of secondary cardiovascular effects. The basic approaches towards inflammation and pain treatment are constantly changing, and researchers are continuously trying to develop safer and effective anti-inflammatory drug candidates for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Synthetic 3(2H)-pyridazinones constitute an important scaffold for drug discovery. Structure-activity relationship studies on pyridazinones have shown that attachment of a lactam at N-2 of the pyridazinone ring through a methylene spacer results in significantly increased anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the derivatives. Further introduction of the heterocyclic ring at lactam nitrogen results in improvement of biological activities. Keeping in mind these SAR studies, a new series of compounds were synthesized as shown in scheme 1 and investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-platelet activities and docking studies. The structures of newly synthesized compounds have been established by various spectroscopic techniques. All the synthesized pyridazinone derivatives exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Homoveratryl substituted derivative was found to possess highest anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity displaying 73.60 % inhibition of edema at 40 mg/kg with no ulcerogenic activity when compared to standard drugs indomethacin. Moreover, 2-substituted-4-benzo[d][1,3]dioxole-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2H)-ones derivatives did not produce significant changes in bleeding time and emerged as safe agents. Molecular docking studies also illustrated good binding interactions at the active site of the cyclooxygenase-2 (hCox-2) enzyme.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, pyridazin-3(2H)-one, selective COX-2 inhibitors

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