Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 111

Search results for: sucrose

111 Effect of Chemicals on Keeping Quality and Vase Life of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Cv. Eskimo

Authors: Qurrat Ul Ain Farooq, Misha Arshad, Malik Abid Mehmood


The experiment under discussion was carried out to check the effect of different concentrations of sucrose (2%, 4%, 6%), CuSO4 (200ppm, 300ppm, 400 ppm), GA3 (25ppm, 50ppm, 75 ppm), and combinations of sucrose and GA3 (2% +25 ppm), (4%+50 ppm), (6%+75 ppm) on the carnation cut flower. Visual symptoms of flower senescence, changes in weight (g) of a flower was observed and recorded by using weight balance. The experiment was laid out according to CRD (Complete Randomized Design) it was two-factor factorial, the software used for the analysis was Statistix. Maximum TSS were found in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8.3 %) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm, 4% sucrose + 50 ppm GA3 and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3. Maximum vase life in term of days was recorded in treatment. CuSO4 400 ppm and 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (8 days) followed by CuSO4 200 ppm (7.7 days). CuSO4 300 ppm & 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 were at par (7 days). Maximum water uptake was also observed in 6% sucrose + 75 ppm GA3 (56.7 ml) followed by CuSO4 400 ppm (49.7 ml) and 50 ppm GA3 (45 ml). Hence, CuSO4 400 ppm found best in all aspects.

Keywords: carnation, vaselife, GA3, CuSO4, sucrose

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110 Optimization of Stevia Concentration in Rasgulla (Sweet Syrup Cheese Ball) Based on Quality

Authors: Gurveer Kaur, T. K. Goswami


Rasgulla (a sweet syrup cheese ball), a sweet, spongy dessert represents traditional sweet dish of an Indian subcontinent prepared by chhana. 100 g of Rasgulla contains 186 calories, and so it is a driving force behind obesity and diabetes. To reduce Rasgulla’s energy value sucrose mainly should be minimized, so instead of sucrose, stevia (zero calories natural sweetener) is used to prepare Rasgulla. In this study three samples were prepared with sucrose to stevia ratio taking 100:0 (as control sample), (i) 50:50 (T1); (ii) 25:75 (T2), and (iii) 0:100 (T3) from 4% fat milk. It was found that as the sucrose concentration decreases the percentage of fat increase in the Rasgulla slightly. Sample T2 showed < 0.1% (±0.06) sucrose content. But there was no significant difference on protein and ash content of the samples. Whitening index was highest (78.0 ± 0.13) for T2 and lowest (65.7 ± 0.21) for the control sample since less sucrose in syrup reduces the browning of the sample (T2). Energy value per 100 g was calculated to be 50, 72, 98, and 184 calories for T3, T2, T1 and control samples, respectively. According to optimization study, the preferred (high quality) order of samples was as follows: T1 > T1 > control > T3. Low sugar content Rasgulla with acceptable quality can be prepared with 25:75 ratio of sucrose to stevia.

Keywords: composition, rasgulla, sensory, stevia

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
109 In vitro Environmental Factors Controlling Root Morphological Traits of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr)

Authors: S. Mohajer , R. M. Taha, M. Adel


Developing our knowledge of when pineapple roots grow can lead to improved water, fertilizer applications, and more precise culture management. This paper presents current understanding of morphological traits in pineapple roots, highlighting studies using incubation periods and various solid MS media treated with different sucrose concentrations and pH, which directly assess in vitro environmental factors. Rooting parameters had different optimal sucrose concentrations and incubation periods. All shoots failed to root in medium supplemented with sucrose at 5 g/L and no roots formed within the first 45 days in medium enriched with sucrose at 10 g/L. After 75 days, all shoots rooted in medium enriched with 10 and 20 g/L sucrose. Moreover, MS medium supplied with 20 g/L sucrose resulted in the longest and the highest number of roots with 27.3 mm and 4.7, respectively. Root function, such as capacity for P and N uptake, declined rapidly with root length. As a result, the longer the incubation period, the better the rooting responses would be.

Keywords: environmental factors, in vitro rooting, pineapple, tissue culture

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108 Development of Orthogonally Protected 2,1':4,6-Di-O-Diisopropylidene Sucrose as the Versatile Intermediate for Diverse Synthesis of Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters

Authors: Li Lin Ong, Duc Thinh Khong, Zaher M. A. Judeh


Phenylpropanoid sucrose esters (PSEs) are natural compounds found in various medicinal plants which exhibit important biological activities such as antiproliferation and α- and β-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Despite their potential as new therapeutics, total synthesis of PSEs has been very limited as their inherent structures contain one or more (substituted) cinnamoyl groups randomly allocated on the sucrose core via ester linkage. Since direct acylation of unprotected sucrose would be complex and tedious due to the presence of eight free hydroxyl groups, partially protected 2,1’:4,6-di-O-diisopropylidene sucrose was used as the starting material instead. However, similar reactivity between the remaining four hydroxyl groups still pose a challenge in the total synthesis of PSEs as the lack of selectivity can restrict customisation where acylation at specific OH is desired. To overcome this problem, a 4-step orthogonal protection scheme was developed. In this scheme, the remaining four hydroxyl groups on 2,1’:4,6-di-O-diisopropylidene sucrose, 6’-OH, 3’-OH, 4’-OH, and 3-OH, were protected with different protecting groups with an overall yield of > 40%. This orthogonally protected intermediate would provide a convenient and divergent access to a wider range of natural and synthetic PSEs as (substituted) cinnamoyl groups can be selectively introduced at desired positions. Using this scheme, three different series of monosubstituted PSEs were successfully synthesized where (substituted) cinnamoyl groups were introduced selectively at O-3, O-3’, and O-4’ positions, respectively. The expanded library of PSEs would aid in structural-activity relationship study of PSEs for identifying key components responsible for their biological activities.

Keywords: orthogonal protection, phenylpropanoid sucrose esters, selectivity, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
107 Vitrification-Based Cryopreservation of Phalaenopsis cornu-Cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. f. Protocorms

Authors: Suphat Rittirat, Sutha Klaocheed, Somporn Prasertsongskun, Kanchit Thammasiri


Protocorms of Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. f. were successfully cryopreserved using a vitrification method. Two-month old protocorms at GI 4 stage were precultured in liquid MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 M) at 25±1°C for 2 days on an orbital shaker at 110 rpm. The protocorms were treated with loading solution (2 M glycerol plus 0.4 M sucrose) for 20 minutes at 25±1°C. Then, the protocorms were sufficiently dehydrated with vitrification solution (plant vitrification solution 2, PVS2) for various times (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes) at 25±1°C and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 day. After rapid thawing in water bath at 40°C for 2 minutes, the explants were washed by MS liquid medium containing 0.5 ml of 1.2 M sucrose for 20 minutes. The results shown that the protocorms were precultured in liquid MS medium containing 0.5 M sucrose and dehydrated with vitrification solution for 60 minutes had the highest survival percentage of protocorm at 31±1.0 % as measured by Evan’s blue. No survival rate of protocorms was found without vitrification treatments.

Keywords: protocorms, cryopreservation, Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi, vitrification

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106 Effect of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. under Slow Growth Conditions

Authors: J. Linjikao, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd


In vitro conservation of orchid germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlet under slow growth conditions was investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of Vacin and Went medium (½VW and ¼VW) supplemented with different concentrations of mannitol (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%), sucrose (0 and 3%) and 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water. The cultures were incubated at 25±2 °C and maintained under 20 µmol/m2s light intensity for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were subcultured to fresh medium for growth recovery. The results found that the highest leaf number per plantlet could be observed on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol while the highest root number per plantlet was found on ½VW added with 3% sucrose without adding mannitol after 24 weeks of in vitro storage. The results showed that the maximum number of leaves (5.8 leaves) and roots (5.0 roots) of preserved plantlets were produced on ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol. Therefore, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol was the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.

Keywords: preservation, vandopsis, germplasm, in vitro

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
105 A Review of Food Reformulation of Sweetened Baked Goods to Reduce Added Sugar Intake

Authors: Xiao Luo, Jayashree Arcot, Timothy P. Gill, Jimmy C. Louie, Anna M. Rangan


Excessive consumption of added sugar is negatively associated with many health outcomes such as lower diet quality, dental diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Sugar-sweetened baked goods are popular discretionary foods that contribute significant amounts of added sugar to people’s diets worldwide. Food reformulation is of the most effective methods to reduce consumption of added sugar without significantly altering individual's diet pattern. However, sucrose, as the major sugar in baked goods, plays several vital functional roles such as providing sweetness and bulking, and suitable substitutes must be able to address these. The review examines the literature on sugar-reduced baked goods to summarise the feasible reformulations of low/no added sugar baked goods, and indicates the future directions for healthier baked goods reformulation. Based on this review, polyols and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are suitable for alternative sweeteners to partially or fully replace sucrose in baked goods. Low-calorie carbohydrates such as oligofructose, polydextrose, maltodextrins are the mostly used bulking agents to compensate the loss of bulk due to the removal of sucrose. This review found that maltitol seems the most suitable sole sucrose substitution at present, while diverse mixtures of NNS( stevia, sucralose, acesulfame-K), other polyols and inulins can also deliver the functionalities of sucrose in baked products.

Keywords: alternative sweeteners, baked goods, reformulation, sugar reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
104 Evaluation of Molasses and Sucrose as Cabohydrate Sources for Biofloc System on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Performances

Authors: A. M. Nour, M. A. Zaki, E. A. Omer, Nourhan Mohamed


Performances of mixed-sex Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings (11.33 ± 1.78 g /fish) reared under biofloc system developed by molasses and sucrose as carbon sources in indoor fiberglass tanks were evaluated. Six indoor fiberglass tanks (1m 3 each filled with 1000 l of underground fresh water), each was stocked with 2kg fish were used for 14 weeks experimental period. Three experimental groups were designed (each group 2 tanks) as following: 1-control: 20% daily without biofloc, 2-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (molasses as C source) and 3-zero water exchange rate with biofloc (sucrose as C source). Fish in all aquariums were fed on floating feed pellets (30% crude protein, 3 mm in diameter) at a rate of 3% of the actual live fish body, 3 times daily and 6 days a week. Carbohydrate supplementations were applied daily to each tank two hrs, after feeding to maintain the carbon: nitrogen ratio (C: N) ratio 20:1. Fish were reared under continuous aeration by pumping air into the water in the tank bottom using two sandy diffusers and constant temperature between 27.0-28.0 ºC by using electrical heaters for 10 weeks. Criteria's for assessment of water quality parameters, biofloc production and fish growth performances were collected and evaluated. The results showed that total ammonia nitrogen in control group was higher than biofloc groups. The biofloc volumes were 19.13 mg/l and 13.96 mg/l for sucrose and molasses, respectively. Biofloc protein (%), ether extract (%) and gross energy (kcal/100g DM), they were higher in biofloc molasses group than biofloc sucrose group. Tilapia growth performances were significantly higher (P < 0.05) with molasses group than in sucrose and control groups, respectively. The highest feed and nutrient utilization values for protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein productive (PPV%) and energy utilization (EU, %) were higher in molasses group followed by sucrose group and control group respectively.

Keywords: biofloc, Nile tilapia, cabohydrates, performances

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103 Germination and Bulb Formation of Allium tuncelianum L. under in vitro Condition

Authors: Suleyman Kizil, Tahsin Sogut, Khalid M. Khawar


Genus Allium includes 600 to 750 species and most of these including Allium tuncelianum (Kollman) N. Ozhatay, B. Mathew & Siraneci; Syn; A. macrochaetum Boiss. and Hausskn. subsp. tuncelianum Kollman] or Tunceli garlic is endemic to Eastern Turkish Province of Tunceli and Munzur mountains. They are edible, bear attractive white-to-purple flowers and fertile black seeds with deep seed dormancy. This study aimed to break seed dormancy of Tunceli garlic and determine the conditions for induction of bulblets on these seeds and increase their diameter by culturing them on MS medium supplemented different strengths of KNO3. Tunceli garlic seeds were collected from field grown plants. They were germinated on MS medium with or without 20 g/l sucrose followed by their culture on 1 × 1900 mg/l, 2 × 1900 mg/l, 4 ×1900 mg/l and 6 × 1900 mg/l mg/l KNO3 supplemented with 20 g/l sucrose to increase bulb diameter. Improved seeds germination was noted on MS medium with and without sucrose but with variation compared to previous reports. The bulb development percentage on each of the sprouted seeds was not parallel to the percentage of seed germination. The results showed 34% and 28.5% bulb induction was noted on germinated seeds after 150 and 158 days on MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and no sucrose respectively showing a delay of 8 days on the latter compared to the former. The results emphatically noted role of cold stratification on agar solidified MS medium supplemented with sucrose to improve seed germination. The best increase in bulb diameter was noted on MS medium containing 1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3 after 178 days with bulblet diameter and bulblet weight of 0.54 cm and 0.048 g, respectively. Consequently, the bulbs induced on sucrose containing MS medium could be transferred to pots earlier. Increased (>1 × 1900 mg/l KNO3) strengths of KNO3 induced negative effect on growth and development of Tunceli garlic bulbs. The strategy of seed germination and bulblet induction reported in this study could be positively used for conservation of this endemic plant species.

Keywords: Tunceli garlic, seed, dormancy, bulblets, bulb growth

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102 Enhanced Solar-Driven Evaporation Process via F-Mwcnts/Pvdf Photothermal Membrane for Forward Osmosis Draw Solution Recovery

Authors: Ayat N. El-Shazly, Dina Magdy Abdo, Hamdy Maamoun Abdel-Ghafar, Xiangju Song, Heqing Jiang


Product water recovery and draw solution (DS) reuse is the most energy-intensive stage in forwarding osmosis (FO) technology. Sucrose solution is the most suitable DS for FO application in food and beverages. However, sucrose DS recovery by conventional pressure-driven or thermal-driven concentration techniques consumes high energy. Herein, we developed a spontaneous and sustainable solar-driven evaporation process based on a photothermal membrane for the concentration and recovery of sucrose solution. The photothermal membrane is composed of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs)photothermal layer on a hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) substrate. The f-MWCNTs photothermal layer with a rough surface and interconnected network structures not only improves the light-harvesting and light-to-heat conversion performance but also facilitates the transport of water molecules. The hydrophilic PVDF substrate can promote the rapid transport of water for adequate water supply to the photothermal layer. As a result, the optimized f-MWCNTs/PVDF photothermal membrane exhibits an excellent light absorption of 95%, and a high surface temperature of 74 °C at 1 kW m−2 . Besides, it realizes an evaporation rate of 1.17 kg m−2 h−1 for 5% (w/v) of sucrose solution, which is about 5 times higher than that of the natural evaporation. The designed photothermal evaporation process is capable of concentrating sucrose solution efficiently from 5% to 75% (w/v), which has great potential in FO process and juice concentration.

Keywords: solar, pothothermal, membrane, MWCNT

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101 Food Preference of Monomorium Destructor

Authors: Ussawit Srisakrapikoop, Art-Ong Pradatsundarasar, Duangkhae Sitthicharoenchai


Monomorium destructor or Singapore ant is one of the common household pests. It causes nuisance and damage to household. Due to the fact that there are many queens in one colony (polygyny), so this ant can quickly increase its population in a short time in the urban environment. This study has been conducted at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University in the field condition. Ant food preference was conducted for 3 replicates per month by using six food choices including 20% sucrose solution, 20% sucrose agar, pork liver, smashed pork liver, pork fat and lard. The number of ants of each bait choice was counted and the orders of ant accessing baits were also recorded. The results showed that the 20% sucrose agar was the most attractive significantly following by pork liver and pork fat. The ants also most accessed to the pork liver bait choice in the first place. It can be suggested that the ant control by baiting should consist of mixture of carbohydrate, protein and lipid in solid form with suitable ratios.

Keywords: baits, food preference, monomorium destructor, Singapore ant

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100 Cotton Fiber Quality Improvement by Introducing Sucrose Synthase (SuS) Gene into Gossypium hirsutum L.

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Mukhtar Ahmed


The demand for long staple fiber having better strength and length is increasing with the introduction of modern spinning and weaving industry in Pakistan. Work on gene discovery from developing cotton fibers has helped to identify dozens of genes that take part in cotton fiber development and several genes have been characterized for their role in fiber development. Sucrose synthase (SuS) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose in a plant cell, in cotton fiber it catalyzes a reversible reaction, but preferentially converts sucrose and UDP into fructose and UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose (UDPG) is a nucleotide sugar act as a donor for glucose residue in many glycosylation reactions and is essential for the cytosolic formation of sucrose and involved in the synthesis of cell wall cellulose. The study was focused on successful Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of SuS gene in pCAMBIA 1301 into cotton under a CaMV35S promoter. Integration and expression of the gene were confirmed by PCR, GUS assay, and real-time PCR. Young leaves of SuS overexpressing lines showed increased total soluble sugars and plant biomass as compared to non-transgenic control plants. Cellulose contents from fiber were significantly increased. SEM analysis revealed that fibers from transgenic cotton were highly spiral and fiber twist number increased per unit length when compared with control. Morphological data from field plants showed that transgenic plants performed better in field conditions. Incorporation of genes related to cotton fiber length and quality can provide new avenues for fiber improvement. The utilization of this technology would provide an efficient import substitution and sustained production of long-staple fiber in Pakistan to fulfill the industrial requirements.

Keywords: agrobacterium-mediated transformation, cotton fiber, sucrose synthase gene, staple length

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99 Effect of Capsule Storage on Viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in Yogurt Powder

Authors: Kanchana Sitlaothaworn


Yogurt capsule was made by mixing 14% w/v of reconstitution of skim milk with 2% FOS. The mixture was fermented by commercial yogurt starter comprising Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. These yogurts were made as yogurt powder by freeze-dried. Yogurt powder was put into capsule then stored for 28 days at 4oc. 8ml of commercial yogurt was found to be the most suitable inoculum size in yogurt production. After freeze-dried, the viability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus reduced from 109 to 107 cfu/g. The precence of sucrose cannot help to protect cell from ice crystal formation in freeze-dried process, high (20%) sucrose reduced L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth during fermentation of yogurt. The addition of FOS had reduced slowly the viability of both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus similar to control (without FOS) during 28 days of capsule storage. The viable cell exhibited satisfactory viability level in capsule storage (6.7x106cfu/g) during 21 days at 4oC.

Keywords: yogurt capsule, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, freeze-drying, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
98 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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97 Plantlet Regeneration from Zygotic Embryos of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen

Authors: Uche C. Okafor, Nwanneka M. Okpokwu, Felix Nwafor, Carl E. A. Okezie


Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree) belongs to the family Polygalaceae characterised by papillionaceous purplish flowers. This medicinally valued plant disappears at an alarming rate due to intensified anthropopressure particularly the unregulated manner of subterranean plant parts' collection from natural stands. Some indiscriminately harvested plants bear seeds containing both mature and immature zygotic embryos that are often discarded. Here, such seeds are collected for this experiment. Seeds were collected, washed, de-coated, and dipped in 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by rising in 5 % solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for another 25 min. Mature zygotic embryos (MZEs) were excised from seeds and cultured in two basal media (MS and B5), three carbon sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) at five concentrations (0-40 g/L) while immature zygotic embryos (iMZEs) were composed on similar basal media and carbon source supplemented with 0-2 mg/L Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0-2 mg/L Indole acetic acid (IAA). MZEs cultured on MS + 30g/L sucrose differed significantly from other treatments at p≤0.05 with maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm). MZEs culture had the maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm) in medium containing MS+ 30g L-1 sucrose. iMZEs on the other hand had maximum growth on MS + 40g/L sucrose supplemented with 1.5 mg/L IAA+ 1.0 mg/L BAP. This study is a geared towards creating an alternative path for the maximum production of plants in vitro, thereby, preventing the plants from disappearing.

Keywords: Gamborg's medium, Murashige and Skoog medium, Securidaca longepedunculata, zygotic embryos

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96 Process Evaluation for a Trienzymatic System

Authors: C. Müller, T. Ortmann, S. Scholl, H. J. Jördening


Multienzymatic catalysis can be used as an alternative to chemical synthesis or hydrolysis of polysaccharides for the production of high value oligosaccharides from cheap resources such as sucrose. However, development of multienzymatic processes is complex, especially with respect to suitable conditions for enzymes originating from different organisms. Furthermore, an optimal configuration of the catalysts in a reaction cascade has to be found. These challenges can be approached by design of experiments. The system investigated in this study is a trienzymatic catalyzed reaction which results in laminaribiose production from sucrose and comprises covalently immobilized sucrose phosphorylase (SP), glucose isomerase (GI) and laminaribiose phosphorylase (LP). Operational windows determined with design of experiments and kinetic data of the enzymes were used to optimize the enzyme ratio for maximum product formation and minimal production of byproducts. After adjustment of the enzyme activity ratio to 1: 1.74: 2.23 (SP: LP: GI), different process options were investigated in silico. The considered options included substrate dependency, the use of glucose as co-substrate and substitution of glucose isomerase by glucose addition. Modeling of batch operation in a stirred tank reactor led to yields of 44.4% whereas operation in a continuous stirred tank reactor resulted in product yields of 22.5%. The maximum yield in a bienzymatic system comprised of sucrose phosphorylase and laminaribiose phosphorylase was 67.7% with sucrose and different amounts of glucose as substrate. The experimental data was in good compliance with the process model for batch operation. The continuous operation will be investigated in further studies. Simulation of operational process possibilities enabled us to compare various operational modes regarding different aspects such as cost efficiency, with the minimum amount of expensive and time-consuming practical experiments. This gives us more flexibility in process implementation and allows us, for example, to change the production goal from laminaribiose to higher oligosaccharides.

Keywords: design of experiments, enzyme kinetics, multi-enzymatic system, in silico process development

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95 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
94 Assessing Storage of Stability and Mercury Reduction of Freeze-Dried Pseudomonas putida within Different Types of Lyoprotectant

Authors: A. A. M. Azoddein, Y. Nuratri, A. B. Bustary, F. A. M. Azli, S. C. Sayuti


Pseudomonas putida is a potential strain in biological treatment to remove mercury contained in the effluent of petrochemical industry due to its mercury reductase enzyme that able to reduce ionic mercury to elementary mercury. Freeze-dried P. putida allows easy, inexpensive shipping, handling and high stability of the product. This study was aimed to freeze dry P. putida cells with addition of lyoprotectant. Lyoprotectant was added into the cells suspension prior to freezing. Dried P. putida obtained was then mixed with synthetic mercury. Viability of recovery P. putida after freeze dry was significantly influenced by the type of lyoprotectant. Among the lyoprotectants, tween 80/ sucrose was found to be the best lyoprotectant. Sucrose able to recover more than 78% (6.2E+09 CFU/ml) of the original cells (7.90E+09CFU/ml) after freeze dry and able to retain 5.40E+05 viable cells after 4 weeks storage in 4oC without vacuum. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) pre-treated freeze dry cells and broth pre-treated freeze dry cells after freeze-dry recovered more than 64% (5.0 E+09CFU/ml) and >0.1% (5.60E+07CFU/ml). Freeze-dried P. putida cells in PEG and broth cannot survive after 4 weeks storage. Freeze dry also does not really change the pattern of growth P. putida but extension of lag time was found 1 hour after 3 weeks of storage. Additional time was required for freeze-dried P. putida cells to recover before introduce freeze-dried cells to more complicated condition such as mercury solution. The maximum mercury reduction of PEG pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks was 56.78% and 17.91%. The maximum of mercury reduction of tween 80/sucrose pre-treated freeze-dried cells after freeze dry and after storage 3 weeks were 26.35% and 25.03%. Freeze dried P. putida was found to have lower mercury reduction compare to the fresh P. putida that has been growth in agar. Result from this study may be beneficial and useful as initial reference before commercialize freeze-dried P. putida.

Keywords: Pseudomonas putida, freeze-dry, PEG, tween80/Sucrose, mercury, cell viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
93 The Modeling of Viscous Microenvironment for the Coupled Enzyme System of Bioluminescence Bacteria

Authors: Irina E. Sukovataya, Oleg S. Sutormin, Valentina A. Kratasyuk


Effect of viscosity of media on kinetic parameters of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase was investigated with addition of organic solvents (glycerol and sucrose), because bioluminescent enzyme systems based on bacterial luciferases offer a unique and general tool for analysis of the many analytes and enzymes in the environment, research, and clinical laboratories and other fields. The possibility of stabilization and increase of activity of the coupled enzyme system NADH:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase activity in vicious aqueous-organic mixtures have been shown.

Keywords: coupled enzyme system of bioluminescence bacteria NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase–luciferase, glycerol, stabilization of enzymes, sucrose

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
92 Combination of Lamotrigine and Duloxetine: A Potential Approach for the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression

Authors: Kedar S. Prabhavalkar, Nimmy Baby Poovanpallil


Lamotrigine is approved for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. However, its role in the treatment of acute bipolar depression is not well clear. Its efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorders including refractory unipolar depression suggested the use of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug for acute bipolar depression. The present study aims to evaluate and perform a comparative analysis of the therapeutic effects of lamotrigine, an epileptic mood stabilizer, when used alone and in combination with duloxetine in treating acute bipolar depression at different doses of lamotrigine. Male swiss albino mice were used. For evaluation of efficacy of combination, immobility period was analyzed 30 min after the treatment from forced swim and tail suspension tests. Further amount of sucrose consumed in sucrose preference test was estimated. The combination of duloxetine and lamotrigine showed potentiation of antidepressant activity in acute models. Decrease in immobility time and increase in the amount of sucrose consumption in stressed mice were higher in combined group compared to lamotrigine monotherapy group. Brain monoamine levels were also attenuated more with combination compared to monotherapy. Results of the present study suggest potential role of lamotrigine and duloxetine combination in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

Keywords: lamotrigine, duloxetine, acute bipolar depression, augmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
91 Redirecting Photosynthetic Electron Flux in the Engineered Cyanobacterium synechocystis Sp. Pcc 6803 by the Deletion of Flavodiiron Protein Flv3

Authors: K. Thiel, P. Patrikainen, C. Nagy, D. Fitzpatrick, E.-M. Aro, P. Kallio


Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have been recognized as potential future biotechnological hosts for the direct conversion of CO₂ into chemicals of interest using sunlight as the solar energy source. However, in order to develop commercially viable systems, the flux of electrons from the photosynthetic light reactions towards specified target chemicals must be significantly improved. The objective of the study was to investigate whether the autotrophic production efficiency of specified end-metabolites can be improved in engineered cyanobacterial cells by rescuing excited electrons that are normally lost to molecular oxygen due to the cyanobacterial flavodiiron protein Flv1/3. Natively Flv1/3 dissipates excess electrons in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain by directing them to molecular oxygen in Mehler-like reaction to protect photosystem I. To evaluate the effect of flavodiiron inactivation on autotrophic production efficiency in the cyanobacterial host Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis), sucrose was selected as the quantitative reporter and a representative of a potential end-product of interest. The concept is based on the native property of Synechocystis to produce sucrose as an intracellular osmoprotectant when exposed to high external ion concentrations, in combination with the introduction of a heterologous sucrose permease (CscB from Escherichia coli), which transports the sucrose out from the cell. In addition, cell growth, photosynthetic gas fluxes using membrane inlet mass spectrometry and endogenous storage compounds were analysed to illustrate the consequent effects of flv deletion on pathway flux distributions. The results indicate that a significant proportion of the electrons can be lost to molecular oxygen via Flv1/3 even when the cells are grown under high CO₂ and that the inactivation of flavodiiron activity can enhance the photosynthetic electron flux towards optionally available sinks. The flux distribution is dependent on the light conditions and the genetic context of the Δflv mutants, and favors the production of either sucrose or one of the two storage compounds, glycogen or polyhydroxybutyrate. As a conclusion, elimination of the native Flv1/3 reaction and concomitant introduction of an engineered product pathway as an alternative sink for excited electrons could enhance the photosynthetic electron flux towards the target endproduct without compromising the fitness of the host.

Keywords: cyanobacterial engineering, flavodiiron proteins, redirecting electron flux, sucrose

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90 Production of High-Content Fructo-Oligosaccharides

Authors: C. Nobre, C. C. Castro, A.-L. Hantson, J. A. Teixeira, L. R. Rodrigues, G. De Weireld


Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are produced from sucrose by Aureobasidium pullulans in yields between 40-60% (w/w). To increase the amount of FOS it is necessary to remove the small, non-prebiotic sugars, present. Two methods for producing high-purity FOS have been developed: the use of microorganisms able to consume small saccharides; and the use of continuous chromatography to separate sugars: simulated moving bed (SMB). It is herein proposed the combination of both methods. The aim of this study is to optimize the composition of the fermentative broth (in terms of salts and sugars) that will be further purified by SMB. A yield of 0.63 gFOS.g Sucrose-1 was obtained with A. pullulans using low amounts of salts in the initial fermentative broth. By removing the small sugars, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis increased the percentage of FOS from around 56.0% to 83% (w/w) in average, losing only 10% (w/w) of FOS during the recovery process.

Keywords: fructo-oligosaccharides, microbial treatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zymomonas mobilis

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89 Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Sugar Extraction from Phoenix dactylifera L.

Authors: Lila Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Kahina Djaoud, Myriam Tazarourte, Samir Hadjal, Khodir Madani


In Algeria, important quantities of secondary date variety (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are generated in each campaign; their chemical composition is similar to that of commercial dates. The present work aims to valorize this common date variety (Degla-Beida) which is often poorly exploited. In this context, we tried to prepare syrup from the secondary date variety and to evaluate the effect of conventional extraction (CE) or water bath extraction (WBE) and alternative extraction (microwaves assisted extraction (MAE), and ultrasounds assisted extraction (UAE)) on its total sugar content (TSC), using response surface methodology (RSM). Then, the analysis of individual sugars was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Maximum predicted TSC recoveries under the optimized conditions for MAE, UAE and CE were 233.248 ± 3.594 g/l, 202.889 ± 5.797 g/l, and 233.535 ± 5.412 g/l, respectively, which were close to the experimental values: 233.796 ± 1.898 g/l; 202.037 ± 3.401 g/l and 234.380 ± 2.425 g/l. HPLC analysis revealed high similarity in the sugar composition of date juices obtained by MAE (60.11% sucrose, 16.64% glucose and 23.25% fructose) and CE (50.78% sucrose, 20.67% glucose and 28.55% fructose), although a large difference was detected for that obtained by UAE (0.00% sucrose, 46.94% glucose and 53.06% fructose). Microwave-assisted extraction was the best method for the preparation of date syrup with an optimal recovery of total sugar content. However, ultrasound-assisted extraction was the best one for the preparation of date syrup with high content of reducing sugars.

Keywords: dates, extraction, RSM, sugars, syrup

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88 Preventive Effect of Stem Back Extracts of Coula edulis Baill. against High-Fat / High Sucrose Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben


Background: Insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress are associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other cardio metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Coula edulis extracts (CEE) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in high-fat/high sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each fed, received daily oral administration of CE extracts for 8 weeks as follows: Group 1 or negative control group, fed with standard diet (SD); Group 2 fed with high-fat/high sucrose diet (HFHS) only; Group3 fed with HFHS + CEAq 200; Group 4 fed with HFHS + CEAq 400; Group 5 fed with HFHS + CEEt 200; Group 6 fed with HFHS + CEEt 400. At the end of the experiment (8 weeks), animals were sacrificed plasma lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oxidative marker and digestive enzyme activities were measured. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Results: Feedings with HFHS significantly (p < 0.01) induced plasma hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein levels, alterations of α amylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, and oxidative stress. Daily oral administration with CEE for eight weeks after insulin resistance induction had a hypolipidaemic action, antioxidative activities and modulated metabolic markers. Ethanolic extract at the higher dose had the best effect on body weight gain and insulin resistance, whereas aqueous extract showed the better activity on hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: These results suggest that CEAq and CEEt at 400mg/kg are promising complementary supplements that can be used to protect better from metabolic disorders associated with HFHS.

Keywords: Coula edulis Baill, high-fat / high sucrose diet, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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87 Thermal Hysteresis Activity of Ice Binding Proteins during Ice Crystal Growth in Sucrose Solution

Authors: Bercem Kiran-Yildirim, Volker Gaukel


Ice recrystallization (IR) which occurs especially during frozen storage is an undesired process due to the possible influence on the quality of products. As a result of recrystallization, the total volume of ice remains constant, but the size, number, and shape of ice crystals change. For instance, as indicated in the literature, the size of ice crystals in ice cream increases due to recrystallization. This results in texture deterioration. Therefore, the inhibition of ice recrystallization is of great importance, not only for food industry but also for several other areas where sensitive products are stored frozen, like pharmaceutical products or organs and blood in medicine. Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have the unique ability to inhibit ice growth and in consequence inhibit recrystallization. This effect is based on their ice binding affinity. In the presence of IBP in a solution, ice crystal growth is inhibited during temperature decrease until a certain temperature is reached. The melting during temperature increase is not influenced. The gap between melting and freezing points is known as thermal hysteresis (TH). In literature, the TH activity is usually investigated under laboratory conditions in IBP buffer solutions. In product applications (e.g., food) there are many other solutes present which may influence the TH activity. In this study, a subset of IBPs, so-called antifreeze proteins (AFPs), is used for the investigation of the influence of sucrose solution concentration on the TH activity. For the investigation, a polarization microscope (Nikon Eclipse LV100ND) equipped with a digital camera (Nikon DS-Ri1) and a cold stage (Linkam LTS420) was used. In a first step, the equipment was established and validated concerning the accuracy of TH measurements based on literature data.

Keywords: ice binding proteins, ice crystals, sucrose solution, thermal hysteresis

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86 Physicochemical Properties of Low Viscosity Banana Juice

Authors: Victor Vicent, Oscar Kibazohi


Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most largely consumed fruits in the world. It is an excellent source of potassium, antioxidants, and fiber. In East and Central African countries, banana is used to produce low viscosity clear juice using traditional kneading of ripe banana and grasses until juice oozes out. Recently, an improved method involving blending of the banana followed by pressing to separate the juice from pulp has been achieved. This study assessed the physicochemical properties of banana juice prior to product formulation. Two different banana juices from two cultivars: Pisang awak and Mbile an East African Highland Banana (EAHB) were evaluated for viscosity, sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), organic acids (malic, citric and succinic acids) and minerals using the HPLC and AAS. Juice extracted from Pisang awak had a viscosity of 3.43 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s while EAHB juice had a viscosity of 6.02 × 10⁻⁵ N.m⁻² s. Sugar concentrations varied with banana place of origin. Pisang awak juice had a higher dissolved solids value of 24-28ᵒ Brix then EAHB, whose value was 18-24ᵒ Brix. Juice viscosity was 3.5–5.3 mPa.s, specific gravity was 1.0-1.1, and pH was 4.3-4.8. The average concentration of sucrose, fructose, and glucose was 1.10 g/L, 70 g/L 70 g/l, respectively for Pisang awak from lower altitude compared to 45-200 g/L 45-120 g/l and 45-120 g/L, respectively for Pisang awak from higher altitude. On the other hand, EAHB from North East Tanzania produced juice corresponding concentrations of 45 g/L, 56 g/L, and 55 g/L, respectively while another EAHB from North West of Tanzania had sucrose and fructose and glucose concentration of 155 g/L and 145 g/L. respectively. Dominant acids were malic and citric acids for pisang awak but succinic for EAHB. Dominant minerals in all cultivars were potassium 2.7-3.1 g/L followed by magnesium 0.6-2 g/L.

Keywords: banana juice, sugar content, acids, minerals, quality analysis

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85 Utilization of Extracted Spirogyra sp. Media Fermented by Gluconacetobacter Xylinum for Cellulose Production as Raw Material for Paper Product

Authors: T. S. Desak Ketut, A.n. Isna, A.a. Ayu, D. P. Ririn, Suharjono Hadiatullah


The requirement of paper from year to year rise rapidly. The raising of cellulose requirement in paper production caused increasing of wood requirement with the effect that limited forest areal because of deforestation. Alternative cellulose that can be used for making paper is microbial cellulose. The objective of this research are to know the effectivity fermentation media Spirogyra sp. by Gluconacetobacter xylinum for cellulose production as material for the making of paper and to know effect composition bacterial cellulose composite product of Gluconacetobacter xylinum in Spirogyra sp. The method, was used, is as follow, 1) the effect assay from variation composition of fermentation media to bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinum. 2) The effect assay of composition bacterial cellulose fermentation producted by Gluconacetobacter xylinum in extracted Spirogyra media to paper quality. The result of this research is variation fermentation media Spirogyra sp. affect to production of cellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinum. Thus, result showed by the highest value and significantly different in thickness parameter, dry weight and wet weight of nata in sucrose concentration 7,5 % and urea 0,75 %. Composition composite of bacterial cellulose from fermentation product by Gluconacetobacter xylinum in media Spirogyra sp. affect to paper quality from wet nata and dry nata. Parameters thickness, weight, water absorpsion, density and gramatur showed highest result in sucrose concentration 7,5 % and urea concentration 0,75 %, except paper density from dry nata had highest result in sucrose and urea concentration 0%.

Keywords: cellulose, fermentation media, , Gluconacetobacter xylinum, paper, Spirogyra sp.

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84 Enhanced Production of Nisin by Co-culture of Lactococcus Lactis Sub SP. Lactis and Yarrowia Lipolytica in Molasses Based Medium

Authors: Mehdi Ariana, Javad Hamedi


Nisin is a commercial bacteriocin that is used as a food preservative and produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Nisin production through co-culture fermentation can be performed for increasing nisin quantities. Since lactate accumulation in the fermentation medium can prevent L. lactis growth and therefore reduce nisin production, the simultaneous culture of microorganisms can enhance L. lactis growth by a reduction in the amount of lactic acid. In this study, conducted coculture of L.lactis subsp. lactic and the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Both strains are cultured in a molasses-based medium that is mainly constructed of sucrose. Y. lipolytica is not able to use sucrose as a carbon source but is able to consume lactate and decrease lactic acid in the medium. So, Lactic acid consumption can increase pH value and stimulate L. lactis growth. The results showed the mixed culture increased L. lactis growth 6 times higher than that of pure culture and could enhance nisin activity by up to 40%.

Keywords: co-culture fermentation, lactococcus lactis subsp lactis, yarrowia lipolytica, nisin

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83 Autohydrolysis Treatment of Olive Cake to Extract Fructose and Sucrose

Authors: G. Blázquez, A. Gálvez-Pérez, M. Calero, I. Iáñez-Rodríguez, M. A. Martín-Lara, A. Pérez


The production of olive oil is considered as one of the most important agri-food industries. However, some of the by-products generated in the process are potential pollutants and cause environmental problems. Consequently, the management of these by-products is currently considered as a challenge for the olive oil industry. In this context, several technologies have been developed and tested. In this sense, the autohydrolysis of these by-products could be considered as a promising technique. Therefore, this study focused on autohydrolysis treatments of a solid residue from the olive oil industry denominated olive cake. This one comes from the olive pomace extraction with hexane. Firstly, a water washing was carried out to eliminate the water soluble compounds. Then, an experimental design was developed for the autohydrolysis experiments carried out in the hydrothermal pressure reactor. The studied variables were temperature (30, 60 and 90 ºC) and time (30, 60, 90 min). On the other hand, aliquots of liquid obtained fractions were analysed by HPLC to determine the fructose and sucrose contents present in the liquid fraction. Finally, the obtained results of sugars contents and the yields of the different experiments were fitted to a neuro-fuzzy and to a polynomial model.

Keywords: ANFIS, olive cake, polyols, saccharides

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82 Eradication of Apple mosaic virus from Corylus avellana L. via Cryotherapy and Confirmation of Virus-Free Plants via Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Ergun Kaya


Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is an ilarvirus causing harmful damages and product loses in many plant species. Because of xylem and phloem vessels absence, plant meristem tissues used for meristem cultures are virus-free, but sometimes only meristem cultures are not sufficient for virus elimination. Cryotherapy, a new method based on cryogenic techniques, is used for virus elimination. In this technique, 0.1-0.3mm meristems are excised from organized shoot apex of a selected in vitro donor plant and these meristems are frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using suitable cryogenic technique. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient procedure for ApMV-free hazelnut via cryotherapy technique and confirmation of virus-free plants using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR technique. 100% virus free plantlets were obtained using droplet-vitrification method involved cold hardening in vitro cultures of hazelnut, 24 hours sucrose preculture of meristems on MS medium supplemented with 0.4M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets.

Keywords: droplet vitrification, hazelnut, liquid nitrogen, PVS2

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