Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Mihir Raval

17 Experimental Design for Formulation Optimization of Nanoparticle of Cilnidipine

Authors: Arti Bagada, Kantilal Vadalia, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Cilnidipine is practically insoluble in water which results in its insufficient oral bioavailability. The purpose of the present investigation was to formulate cilnidipine nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation method to increase the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate and hence bioavailability by utilizing various experimental statistical design modules. Experimental design were used to investigate specific effects of independent variables during preparation cilnidipine nanoparticles and corresponding responses in optimizing the formulation. Plackett Burman design for independent variables was successfully employed for optimization of nanoparticles of cilnidipine. The influence of independent variables studied were drug concentration, solvent to antisolvent ratio, polymer concentration, stabilizer concentration and stirring speed. The dependent variables namely average particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential value and saturation solubility of the formulated nanoparticles of cilnidipine. The experiments were carried out according to 13 runs involving 5 independent variables (higher and lower levels) employing Plackett-Burman design. The cilnidipine nanoparticles were characterized by average particle size, polydispersity index value, zeta potential value and saturation solubility and it results were 149 nm, 0.314, 43.24 and 0.0379 mg/ml, respectively. The experimental results were good correlated with predicted data analysed by Plackett-Burman statistical method.

Keywords: dissolution enhancement, nanoparticles, Plackett-Burman design, nanoprecipitation

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16 Optimization of Lercanidipine Nanocrystals Using Design of Experiments Approach

Authors: Dolly Gadhiya, Jayvadan Patel, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Lercanidipine hydrochloride is a calcium channel blockers used for treating angina pectoris and hypertension. Lercanidipine is a BCS Class II drug having poor aqueous solubility. Absolute bioavailability of Lercanidipine is very low and the main reason ascribed for this is poor aqueous solubility of the drug. Design and formulatation of nanocrystals by media milling method was main focus of this study. In this present study preliminary optimization was carried out with one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. For this different parameters like size of milling beads, amount of zirconium beads, types of stabilizer, concentrations of stabilizer, concentrations of drug, stirring speeds and milling time were optimized on the basis of particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. From the OFAT model different levels for above parameters selected for Plackett - Burman Design (PBD). Plackett-Burman design having 13 runs involving 6 independent variables was carried out at higher and lower level. Based on statistical analysis of PBD it was found that concentration of stabilizer, concentration of drug and stirring speed have significant impact on particle size, PDI, zeta potential value and saturation solubility. These experimental designs for preparation of nanocrystals were applied successfully which shows increase in aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of Lercanidipine hydrochloride.

Keywords: Lercanidipine hydrochloride, nanocrystals, OFAT, Plackett Burman

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15 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth

Abstract:

Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: cow urine, hypoglycemic effect, synergic effect, type 2 diabetes, vijaysar

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14 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Priya Patel, Paresh Patel, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: silibinin, cancer, nanoparticles, PLGA, bioavailability

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13 Increasing Sustainability of Melanin Bio-Production Using Seawater

Authors: Harsha Thaira, Ritu Raval, Keyur Raval

Abstract:

Melanin has immense applications in the field of agriculture, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries due to its photo-protective, UV protective and anti- oxidant activities. However, its production is limited to costly chemical methods or harsh extractive methods from hair which ultimately gives poor yields. This makes the cost of melanin very high, to the extent of US Dollar 300 per gram. Some microorganisms are reported to produce melanin under stress conditions. Out of all melanin producing organisms, Pseudomonas stutzeri can grow in sea water and produce melanin under saline stress. The objective of this study was to develop a sea water based bioprocess. Effects of different growth media and process parameters on melanin production using sea water were investigated. The marine bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri HMGM-7(MTCC 11712) was selected and the effect of different media such as Nutrient Broth (NB), Luria Bertini (LB) broth, Bushnell- Haas broth (BHB) and Trypticase Soy broth (TSB) and various medium components were investigated with one factor at a time approach. Parameters like shaking frequency, inoculum age, inoculum size, pH and temperature were also investigated in order to obtain the optimum conditions for maximum melanin production. The highest yield of melanin concentration, 0.306 g/L, was obtained in Trypticase Soy broth at 36 hours. The yield was 1.88 times higher than the melanin obtained before optimization, 0.163 g/L at 36 hours. Studies are underway to optimize medium constituents to further enhance melanin production.

Keywords: melanin, marine, bioprocess, pseudomonas

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12 Quantum Confinement in LEEH Capped CdS Nanocrystalline

Authors: Mihir Hota, Namita Jena, S. N. Sahu

Abstract:

LEEH (L-cysteine ethyl ester hydrochloride) capped CdS semiconductor nanocrystals are grown at 800C using a simple chemical route. Photoluminescence (PL), Optical absorption (UV) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) have been carried out to evaluate the structural and optical properties of the nanocrystal. Optical absorption studies have been carried out to optimize the sample. XRD and TEM analysis shows that the nanocrystal belongs to FCC structure having average size of 3nm while a bandgap of 2.84eV is estimated from Photoluminescence analysis. The nanocrystal emits bluish light when excited with 355nm LASER.

Keywords: cadmium sulphide, nanostructures, luminescence, optical properties

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11 Thermodynamic Optimization of an R744 Based Transcritical Refrigeration System with Dedicated Mechanical Subcooling Cycle

Authors: Mihir Mouchum Hazarika, Maddali Ramgopal, Souvik Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The thermodynamic analysis shows that the performance of the R744 based transcritical refrigeration cycle drops drastically for higher ambient temperatures. This is due to the peculiar s-shape of the isotherm in the supercritical region. However, subcooling of the refrigerant at the gas cooler exit enhances the performance of the R744 based system. The present study is carried out to analyze the R744 based transcritical system with dedicated mechanical subcooling cycle. Based on this proposed cycle, the thermodynamic analysis is performed, and optimum operating parameters are determined. The amount of subcooling and the pressure ratio in the subcooling cycle are the parameters which are needed to be optimized to extract the maximum COP from this proposed cycle. It is expected that this study will be helpful in implementing the dedicated subcooling cycle with R744 based transcritical system to improve the performance.

Keywords: optimization, R744, subcooling, transcritical

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10 Comparison of Different Machine Learning Models for Time-Series Based Load Forecasting of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: H. J. Joshi, Satyajeet Patil, Parth Dandavate, Mihir Kulkarni, Harshita Agrawal

Abstract:

As the world looks towards a sustainable future, electric vehicles have become increasingly popular. Millions worldwide are looking to switch to Electric cars over the previously favored combustion engine-powered cars. This demand has seen an increase in Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. The big challenge is that the randomness of electrical energy makes it tough for these charging stations to provide an adequate amount of energy over a specific amount of time. Thus, it has become increasingly crucial to model these patterns and forecast the energy needs of power stations. This paper aims to analyze how different machine learning models perform on Electric Vehicle charging time-series data. The data set consists of authentic Electric Vehicle Data from the Netherlands. It has an overview of ten thousand transactions from public stations operated by EVnetNL.

Keywords: forecasting, smart grid, electric vehicle load forecasting, machine learning, time series forecasting

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9 Comparative Study of Static and Dynamic Bending Forces during 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending Process

Authors: Mahesh K. Chudasama, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

3-roller conical bending process is widely used in the industries for manufacturing of conical sections and shells. It involves static as well dynamic bending stages. Analytical models for prediction of bending force during static as well as dynamic bending stage are available in the literature. In this paper, bending forces required for static bending stage and dynamic bending stages have been compared using the analytical models. It is concluded that force required for dynamic bending is very less as compared to the bending force required during the static bending stage.

Keywords: analytical modeling, cone frustum, dynamic bending, static bending

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8 A Comparative Study of Force Prediction Models during Static Bending Stage for 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending

Authors: Mahesh Chudasama, Harit Raval

Abstract:

Conical sections and shells of metal plates manufactured by 3-roller conical bending process are widely used in the industries. The process is completed by first bending the metal plates statically and then dynamic roller bending sequentially. It is required to have an analytical model to get maximum bending force, for optimum design of the machine, for static bending stage. Analytical models assuming various stress conditions are considered and these analytical models are compared considering various parameters and reported in this paper. It is concluded from the study that for higher bottom roller inclination, the shear stress affects greatly to the static bending force whereas for lower bottom roller inclination it can be neglected.

Keywords: roller-bending, static-bending, stress-conditions, analytical-modeling

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7 Factors Affecting Weld Line Movement in Tailor Welded Blank

Authors: Sanjay Patil, Shakil A. Kagzi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) are utilized in automotive industries widely because of their advantage of weight and cost reduction and maintaining required strength and structural integrity. TWB consist of two or more sheet having dissimilar or similar material and thickness; welded together to form a single sheet before forming it to desired shape. Forming of the tailor welded blank is affected by ratio of thickness of blanks, ratio of their strength, etc. mainly due to in-homogeneity of material. In the present work the relative effect of these parameters on weld line movement is studied during deep drawing of TWB using FE simulation using HYPERWORKS. The simulation is validated with results from the literature. Simulations were than performed based on Taguchi orthogonal array followed by the ANOVA analysis to determine the significance of these parameters on forming of TWB.

Keywords: ANOVA, deep drawing, Tailor Welded Blank (TWB), weld line movement

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6 Growth and Characterization of Bis-Thiourea Nickel Barium Chloride Single Crystals

Authors: Rakesh Hajiyani, Chetan Chauhan, Harshkant Jethva, Mihir Joshi

Abstract:

Metal bis-thiourea type organo-metallic crystals are popular as non-linear optical materials. Bis-thiourea nickel barium chloride was synthesized and crystals were grown by slow aqueous solvent evaporation technique. The transparent and colorless crystals having maximum dimensions of 13 mm x 8 mm x 2.2 mm were obtained. The EDAX was carried out to estimate the content of nickel and barium in the grown crystals. The powder XRD analysis suggested orthorhombic crystal structure with unit cell parameters as: a= 9.70 Å, b= 10.68 Å and c= 17.95 Å. The FTIR spectroscopy study confirmed the presence of various functional groups. The UV-vis spectroscopy study indicated that the crystals were transparent in the visible region with 90% transmittance level further optical parameters were studied. From the TGA it was found that the crystals remained stable up to 170 0C and then decomposed through two decomposition stages. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations of dielectric constant, dielectric loss were studied with frequency. It was found that the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss decreased as the frequency of applied field increased. The results are discussed.

Keywords: crystal growth, dielectric study, optical parameters, organo-metallic crystals, powder xrd, slow evaporation technique, TGA

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5 In-Silico Fusion of Bacillus Licheniformis Chitin Deacetylase with Chitin Binding Domains from Chitinases

Authors: Keyur Raval, Steffen Krohn, Bruno Moerschbacher

Abstract:

Chitin, the biopolymer of the N-acetylglucosamine, is the most abundant biopolymer on the planet after cellulose. Industrially, chitin is isolated and purified from the shell residues of shrimps. A deacetylated derivative of chitin i.e. chitosan has more market value and applications owing to it solubility and overall cationic charge compared to the parent polymer. This deacetylation on an industrial scale is performed chemically using alkalis like sodium hydroxide. This reaction not only is hazardous to the environment owing to negative impact on the marine ecosystem. A greener option to this process is the enzymatic process. In nature, the naïve chitin is converted to chitosan by chitin deacetylase (CDA). This enzymatic conversion on the industrial scale is however hampered by the crystallinity of chitin. Thus, this enzymatic action requires the substrate i.e. chitin to be soluble which is technically difficult and an energy consuming process. We in this project wanted to address this shortcoming of CDA. In lieu of this, we have modeled a fusion protein with CDA and an auxiliary protein. The main interest being to increase the accessibility of the enzyme towards crystalline chitin. A similar fusion work with chitinases had improved the catalytic ability towards insoluble chitin. In the first step, suitable partners were searched through the protein data bank (PDB) wherein the domain architecture were sought. The next step was to create the models of the fused product using various in silico techniques. The models were created by MODELLER and evaluated for properties such as the energy or the impairment of the binding sites. A fusion PCR has been designed based on the linker sequences generated by MODELLER and would be tested for its activity towards insoluble chitin.

Keywords: chitin deacetylase, modeling, chitin binding domain, chitinases

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4 Pavement Failures and Its Maintenance

Authors: Maulik L. Sisodia, Tirth K. Raval, Aarsh S. Mistry

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the ongoing researches about the defects in both flexible and rigid pavement and the maintenance in both flexible and rigid pavements. Various defects in pavements have been identified since the existence of both flexible and rigid pavement. Flexible Pavement failure is defined in terms of decreasing serviceability caused by the development of cracks, ruts, potholes etc. Flexible Pavement structure can be destroyed in a single season due to water penetration. Defects in flexible pavements is a problem of multiple dimensions, phenomenal growth of vehicular traffic (in terms of no. of axle loading of commercial vehicles), the rapid expansion in the road network, non-availability of suitable technology, material, equipment, skilled labor and poor funds allocation have all added complexities to the problem of flexible pavements. In rigid pavements due to different type of destress the failure like joint spalling, faulting, shrinkage cracking, punch out, corner break etc. Application of correction in the existing surface will enhance the life of maintenance works as well as that of strengthening layer. Maintenance of a road network involves a variety of operations, i.e., identification of deficiencies and planning, programming and scheduling for actual implementation in the field and monitoring. The essential objective should be to keep the road surface and appurtenances in good condition and to extend the life of the road assets to its design life. The paper describes lessons learnt from pavement failures and problems experienced during the last few years on a number of projects in India. Broadly, the activities include identification of defects and the possible cause there off, determination of appropriate remedial measures; implement these in the field and monitoring of the results.

Keywords: Flexible Pavements, Rigid Pavements, Defects, Maintenance

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3 Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak

Authors: Harshita Raj, Joydeep Ghosh, Rakesh L. Tanna, Prabal K. Chattopadhyay, K. A. Jadeja, Sharvil Patel, Kaushal M. Patel, Narendra C. Patel, S. B. Bhatt, V. K. Panchal, Chhaya Chavda, C. N. Gupta, D. Raju, S. K. Jha, J. Raval, S. Joisa, S. Purohit, C. V. S. Rao, P. K. Atrey, Umesh Nagora, R. Manchanda, M. B. Chowdhuri, Nilam Ramaiya, S. Banerjee, Y. C. Saxena

Abstract:

Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fusion, gas fueling, recycling, Tokamak, Aditya

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2 Prospects and Challenges of Sports Culture in India: A Case Study of Gujarat

Authors: Jay Raval

Abstract:

Sports and physical fitness have been a vital component of our civilization. It is such a power which, motivates and inspires every individual, communities and even countries to be aware of the physical and mental health. All though, sports play vital role in the overall development of the nation, but in the developing countries such as India, this culture of sports is yet to be motivated. However, in India lack of sporting culture has held back the growth of a similar industry in the past, despite the growing awareness and interest in various different sports besides cricket. Hence, due to a lack of sporting culture, corporate investments in India’s sports have traditionally been limited to only non-profit corporate social responsibility activities and initiatives. From past couple of years, India has come up with new initiatives such as Indian Premier League (Cricket), Hockey India League, Indian Badminton League, Pro Kabaddi League, and Indian Super League (Football) which help to boost Indian sports culture and thereby increase economy of the country. Out of 29 states of India, among all of those competitive states, Gujarat is showing very rapid increase in sports participation. Khel Mahakumbh, the competition conducted for the last six years has been a giant step in this direction and covers rural and urban areas of Gujarat. The objective of the research is to address the overall development of the sports system. Sports system includes infrastructure, coaches, resources, and participants. The current existing system is not disabled friendly. This research paper highlights adequate steps in order to improve and sort out pressing issues in the sports system. Education system is highly academic-centric with a definite trend towards reducing school sports and extra-curricular sports in the Gujarat state. Constituents of this research work make an attempt to evaluate the framework of the Olympic Charter, the Sports Authority of India, the Indian Olympics Association and the National Sports Federations. It explores the areas that need to be revamped, rejuvenated and reoriented to function in an open, democratic, equitable, transparent and accountable manner. Research is based on mixed method approach. It is used for the data collection which includes the personal interviews, document analysis and the use of news article. Quality assurance is also tested by conducting the trustworthiness of the paper. Mixed method helps to strengthen the analysis part and give strong base for the discussion during the analysis.

Keywords: physical development, sports authority of India, sports policy, women empowerment

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1 Chronic Hypertension, Aquaporin and Hydraulic Conductivity: A Perspective on Pathological Connections

Authors: Chirag Raval, Jimmy Toussaint, Tieuvi Nguyen, Hadi Fadaifard, George Wolberg, Steven Quarfordt, Kung-ming Jan, David S. Rumschitzki

Abstract:

Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Numerous studies examine aquaporins’ role in osmotic water transport in various systems but virtually none focus on aquaporins’ role in hydrostatically-driven water transport involving mammalian cells save for our laboratory’s recent study of aortic endothelial cells. Here we investigate aquaporin-1 expression and function in the aortic endothelium in two high-renin rat models of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive genomically altered Wystar-Kyoto rat variant and Sprague-Dawley rats made hypertensive by two kidney, one clip Goldblatt surgery. We measured aquaporin-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells from whole rat aortas by quantitative immunohistochemistry, and function by measuring the pressure driven hydraulic conductivities of excised rat aortas with both intact and denuded endothelia on the same vessel. We use them to calculate the effective intimal hydraulic conductivity, which is a combination of endothelial and subendothelial components. We observed well-correlated enhancements in aquaporin-1 expression and function in both hypertensive rat models as well as in aortas from normotensive rats whose expression was upregulated by 2h forskolin treatment. Upregulated aquaporin-1 expression and function may be a response to hypertension that critically determines conduit artery vessel wall viability and long-term susceptibility to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: acute hypertension, aquaporin-1, hydraulic conductivity, hydrostatic pressure, aortic endothelial cells, transcellular flow

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