Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: docetaxel

9 Solubility Enhancement of Poorly Soluble Anticancer Drug, Docetaxel Using a Novel Polymer, Soluplus via Solid Dispersion Technique

Authors: Adinarayana Gorajana, Venkata Srikanth Meka, Sanjay Garg, Lim Sue May

Abstract:

This study was designed to evaluate and enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug, docetaxel through solid dispersion (SD) technique prepared using freeze drying method. Docetaxel solid dispersions were formulated with Soluplus in different weight ratios. Freeze drying method was used to prepare the solid dispersions. Solubility of the solid dispersions were evaluated respectively and the optimized of drug-solubilizers ratio systems were characterized with different analytical methods like Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the formation of complexes between drug and solubilizers. The solubility data revealed an overall improvement in solubility for all SD formulations. The ternary combination 1:5:2 gave the highest increase in solubility that is approximately 3 folds from the pure drug, suggesting the optimum drug-solubilizers ratio system. This data corresponds with the DSC and SEM analyses, which demonstrates presence of drug in amorphous state and the dispersion in the solubilizers in molecular level. The solubility of the poorly soluble drug, docetaxel was enhanced through preparation of solid dispersion formulations employing freeze drying method. Solid dispersion with multiple carrier system shows better solubility compared to single carrier system.

Keywords: docetaxel, freeze drying, soluplus, solid dispersion technique

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8 Trastuzumab Decorated Bioadhesive Nanoparticles for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Kasi Viswanadh Matte, Abhisheh Kumar Mehata, M.S. Muthu

Abstract:

Brest cancer, up-regulated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER-2) led to the concept of developing HER-2 targeted anticancer therapeutics. Docetaxel-loaded D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 conjugated chitosan (TPGS-g-chitosan) nanoparticles were prepared with or without Trastuzumab decoration. The particle size and entrapment efficiency of conventional, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 126-186 nm and 74-78% respectively. In-vitro, MDA-MB-231 cells showed that docetaxel-loaded non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted TPGS-g-chitosan nanoparticles have enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity with a promising bioadhesion property, in comparison to conventional nanoparticles. The IC50 values of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles from cytotoxic assay were found to be 43 and 223 folds higher than DocelTM. The in-vivo pharmacokinetic study showed 2.33, and 2.82-fold enhancement in relative bioavailability of docetaxel for non-targeted and HER-2 receptor targeted nanoparticles, respectively than DocelTM, and after i.v administration, non-targeted and targeted nanoparticle achieved 3.48 and 5.94 times prolonged half-life in comparison to DocelTM. The area under the curve (AUC), relative bioavailability (FR) and mean residence time (MRT) were found to be higher for non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles compared to DocelTM. Further, histopathology results of non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles showed less toxicity on vital organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney compared to DocelTM.

Keywords: breast cancer, HER-2 receptor, targeted nanomedicine, chitosan, TPGS

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7 Fabrication and Characterization of Folic Acid-Grafted-Thiomer Enveloped Liposomes for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Docetaxel

Authors: Farhan Sohail, Gul Shahnaz Irshad Hussain, Shoaib Sarwar, Ibrahim Javed, Zajif Hussain, Akhtar Nadhman

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a hybrid nanocarrier (NC) system with enhanced membrane permeability, bioavailability and targeted delivery of Docetaxel (DTX) in breast cancer. Hybrid NC’s based on folic acid (FA) grafted thiolated chitosan (TCS) enveloped liposomes were prepared with DTX and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their enhanced permeability and bioavailability. Physicochemical characterization of NC’s including particle size, morphology, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, PXRD, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from NC’s was determined in vitro. Permeation enhancement and p-gp inhibition were performed through everted sac method on freshly excised rat intestine which indicated that permeation was enhanced 5 times as compared to pure DTX and the hybrid NC’s were strongly able to inhibit the p-gp activity as well. In-vitro cytotoxicity and tumor targeting was done using MDA-MB-231 cell line. The stability study of the formulations performed for 3 months showed the improved stability of FA-TCS enveloped liposomes in terms of its particles size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency as compared to TCS NP’s and liposomes. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in vivo using rabbits. The oral bioavailability and AUC0-96 was increased 10.07 folds with hybrid NC’s as compared to positive control. Half-life (t1/2) was increased 4 times (58.76 hrs) as compared to positive control (17.72 hrs). Conclusively, it is suggested that FA-TCS enveloped liposomes have strong potential to enhance permeability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs after oral administration and tumor targeting.

Keywords: docetaxel, coated liposome, permeation enhancement, oral bioavailability

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6 Cyclic NGR Peptide Anchored Block Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles as Dual Targeting Drug Delivery System for Solid Tumor Therapy

Authors: Madhu Gupta, G. P. Agrawa, Suresh P. Vyas

Abstract:

Certain tumor cells overexpress a membrane-spanning molecule aminopeptidase N (CD13) isoform, which is the receptor for peptides containing the NGR motif. NGR-modified Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded PEG-b-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (cNGR-DNB-NPs) were developed and evaluated for their in vitro potential in HT-1080 cell line. The cNGR-DNB-NPs containing particles were about 148 nm in diameter with spherical shape and high encapsulation efficiency. Cellular uptake was confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Both quantitatively and qualitatively results confirmed the NGR conjugated nanoparticles revealed the higher uptake of nanoparticles by CD13-overexpressed tumor cells. Free NGR inhibited the cellular uptake of cNGR-DNB-NPs, revealing the mechanism of receptor mediated endocytosis. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that cNGR-DNB-NPs, formulation was more cytotoxic than unconjugated one, which were consistent well with the observation of cellular uptake. Hence, the selective delivery of cNGR-DNB-NPs formulation in CD13-overexpressing tumors represents a potential approach for the design of nanocarrier-based dual targeted delivery systems for targeting the tumor cells and vasculature.

Keywords: solid Tumor, docetaxel, targeting, NGR ligand

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5 Targeted Delivery of Docetaxel Drug Using Cetuximab Conjugated Vitamin E TPGS Micelles Increases the Anti-Tumor Efficacy and Inhibit Migration of MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: V. K. Rajaletchumy, S. L. Chia, M. I. Setyawati, M. S. Muthu, S. S. Feng, D. T. Leong

Abstract:

Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) can be classified as one of the most aggressive with a high rate of local recurrences and systematic metastases. TNBCs are insensitive to existing hormonal therapy or targeted therapies such as the use of monoclonal antibodies, due to the lack of oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and the absence of overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) compared with other types of breast cancers. The absence of targeted therapies for selective delivery of therapeutic agents into tumours, led to the search for druggable targets in TNBC. In this study, we developed a targeted micellar system of cetuximab-conjugated micelles of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (vitamin E TPGS) for targeted delivery of docetaxel as a model anticancer drug for the treatment of TNBCs. We examined the efficacy of our micellar system in xenograft models of triple negative breast cancers and explored the effect of the micelles on post-treatment tumours in order to elucidate the mechanism underlying the nanomedicine treatment in oncology. The targeting micelles were found preferentially accumulated in tumours immediately after the administration of the micelles compare to normal tissue. The fluorescence signal gradually increased up to 12 h at the tumour site and sustained for up to 24 h, reflecting the increases in targeted micelles (TPFC) micelles in MDA-MB-231/Luc cells. In comparison, for the non-targeting micelles (TPF), the fluorescence signal was evenly distributed all over the body of the mice. Only a slight increase in fluorescence at the chest area was observed after 24 h post-injection, reflecting the moderate uptake of micelles by the tumour. The successful delivery of docetaxel into tumour by the targeted micelles (TPDC) exhibited a greater degree of tumour growth inhibition than Taxotere® after 15 days of treatment. The ex vivo study has demonstrated that tumours treated with targeting micelles exhibit enhanced cell cycle arrest and attenuated proliferation compared with the control and with those treated non-targeting micelles. Furthermore, the ex vivo investigation revealed that both the targeting and non-targeting micellar formulations shows significant inhibition of cell migration with migration indices reduced by 0.098- and 0.28-fold, respectively, relative to the control. Overall, both the in vivo and ex vivo data increased the confidence that our micellar formulations effectively targeted and inhibited EGF-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 tumours.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, cancer nanotechnology, drug targeting, molecular biomaterials, nanomedicine

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4 An Evidence Map of Cost-Utility Studies in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cassandra Springate, Alexandra Furber, Jack E. Hines

Abstract:

Objectives: To create an evidence map of the cost-utility studies available with non-small cell lung cancer patients, and identify the geographical settings and interventions used. Methods: Using the Disease, Study Type, and Model Type filters in heoro.com we identified all cost-utility studies published between 1960 and 2017 with patients with non-small cell lung cancer. These papers were then indexed according to pre-specified categories. Results: Heoro.com identified 89 independent publications, published between 1995 and 2017. Of the 89 papers, 74 were published since 2010, 28 were from the USA, and 35 were from Europe, 16 of which were from the UK. Other publications were from China and Japan (13), Canada (9), Australia and New Zealand (4), and other countries (8). Fifty-nine studies included a chemotherapy intervention, of which 23 included erlotinib or gefitinib, 21 included pemetrexed or docetaxel, others included nivolumab (3), pembrolizumab (2), crizotinib (2), denosumab (2), necitumumab (1), and bevacizumab (1). Also, 19 studies modeled screening, staging, or surveillance strategies. Conclusions: The cost-utility studies found for NSCLC most commonly looked at the effectiveness of different chemotherapy treatments, with some also evaluating the addition of screening strategies. Most were also conducted with patient data from the USA and Europe.

Keywords: cancer, cost-utility, economic model, non-small cell lung cancer

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3 Neo-Adjuvant B-CAT Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Authors: Muneeb Nasir, Misbah Masood, Farrukh Rashid, Abubabakar Shahid

Abstract:

Introduction: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a potent option for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) as these tumours lack a clearly defined therapeutic target. Several recent studies lend support that pathological complete remission (pCR) is associated with improved disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and could be used as surrogate marker for DFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Methods: We have used a four-drug protocol in T3 and T4 TNBC patients either N+ or N- in the neo-adjuvant setting. The 15 patients enrolled in this study had a median age of 45 years. 12 patients went on to complete four planned cycles of B-CAT protocol. The chemotherapy regimen included inj. Bevacizumab 5mg/kg D1, inj. Adriamycin 50mg/m2 D1 and Docetaxel 65mg/m2 on D1. Inj. Cisplatin 60mg/m2 on D2. All patients received GCF support from D4 to D9 of each cycle. Results: Radiological assessment using ultrasound and PET-CT revealed a high percentage of responses. Radiological CR was documented in half of the patients (6/12) after four cycles. Remaining patients went on to receive 2 more cycles before undergoing radical surgery. pCR was documented in 7/12 patients and 3 more had a good partial response. The regimen was toxic and grade ¾ neutropenia was seen in 58% of patients. Four episodes of febrile neutropenia were reported and managed. Non-hematatological toxicities were common with mucositis, diarrhea, asthenia and neuropathy topping the list. Conclusion: B-CAT is a very active combination with very high pCR rates in TNBC. Toxicities though frequent, were manageable on outpatient basis. This protocol warrants further investigation.

Keywords: B-CAT:bevacizumab, cisplatin, adriamycin, taxotere, CR: complete response, pCR: pathological complete response, TNBC: triple negative breast cancer

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2 Hybrid-Nanoengineering™: A New Platform for Nanomedicine

Authors: Mewa Singh

Abstract:

Nanomedicine, a fusion of nanotechnology and medicine, is an emerging technology ideally suited to the targeted therapies. Nanoparticles overcome the low selectivity of anti-cancer drugs toward the tumor as compared to normal tissue and hence result-in less severe side-effects. Our new technology, HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™, uses a new molecule (MR007) in the creation of nanoparticles that not only helps in nanonizing the medicine but also provides synergy to the medicine. The simplified manufacturing process will result in reduced manufacturing costs. Treatment is made more convenient because hybrid nanomedicines can be produced in oral, injectable or transdermal formulations. The manufacturing process uses no protein, oil or detergents. The particle size is below 180 nm with a narrow distribution of size. Importantly, these properties confer great stability of the structure. The formulation does not aggregate in plasma and is stable over a wide range of pH. The final hybrid formulation is stable for at least 18 months as a powder. More than 97 drugs, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen, doxorubicinm prednisone, and artemisinin have been nanonized in water soluble formulations. Preclinical studies on cell cultures of tumors show promising results. Our HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ platform enables the design and development of hybrid nano-pharmaceuticals that combine efficacy with tolerability, giving patients hope for both extended overall survival and improved quality of life. This study would discuss or present this new discovery of HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ which targets drug delivery, synergistic, and potentiating effects, and barriers of drug delivery and advanced drug delivery systems.

Keywords: nano-medicine, nano-particles, drug delivery system, pharmaceuticals

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1 Synthesis of Functionalized-2-Aryl-2, 3-Dihydroquinoline-4(1H)-Ones via Fries Rearrangement of Azetidin-2-Ones

Authors: Parvesh Singh, Vipan Kumar, Vishu Mehra

Abstract:

Quinoline-4-ones represent an important class of heterocyclic scaffolds that have attracted significant interest due to their various biological and pharmacological activities. This heterocyclic unit also constitutes an integral component in drugs used for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, sleep disorders and in antibiotics viz. norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The synthetic accessibility and possibility of fictionalization at varied positions in quinoline-4-ones exemplifies an elegant platform for the designing of combinatorial libraries of functionally enriched scaffolds with a range of pharmacological profles. They are also considered to be attractive precursors for the synthesis of medicinally imperative molecules such as non-steroidal androgen receptor antagonists, antimalarial drug Chloroquine and martinellines with antibacterial activity. 2-Aryl-2,3-dihydroquinolin-4(1H)-ones are present in many natural and non-natural compounds and are considered to be the aza-analogs of favanones. The β-lactam class of antibiotics is generally recognized to be a cornerstone of human health care due to the unparalleled clinical efficacy and safety of this type of antibacterial compound. In addition to their biological relevance as potential antibiotics, β-lactams have also acquired a prominent place in organic chemistry as synthons and provide highly efficient routes to a variety of non-protein amino acids, such as oligopeptides, peptidomimetics, nitrogen-heterocycles, as well as biologically active natural and unnatural products of medicinal interest such as indolizidine alkaloids, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxoids, cyptophycins, lankacidins, etc. A straight forward route toward the synthesis of quinoline-4-ones via the triflic acid assisted Fries rearrangement of N-aryl-βlactams has been reported by Tepe and co-workers. The ring expansion observed in this case was solely attributed to the inherent ring strain in β-lactam ring because -lactam failed to undergo rearrangement under reaction conditions. Theabovementioned protocol has been recently extended by our group for the synthesis of benzo[b]-azocinon-6-ones via a tandem Michael addition–Fries rearrangement of sorbyl anilides as well as for the single-pot synthesis of 2-aryl-quinolin-4(3H)-ones through the Fries rearrangement of 3-dienyl-βlactams. In continuation with our synthetic endeavours with the β-lactam ring and in view of the lack of convenient approaches for the synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones, the present work describes the single-pot synthesis of C-3 functionalized quinolin-4(1H)-ones via the trific acid promoted Fries rearrangement of C-3 vinyl/isopropenyl substituted β-lactams. In addition, DFT calculations and MD simulations were performed to investigate the stability profles of synthetic compounds.

Keywords: dihydroquinoline, fries rearrangement, azetidin-2-ones, quinoline-4-ones

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