Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1021

Search results for: oral bioavailability

1021 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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1020 Development of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of Anticancer Agents Used in AYUSH System of Medicine for Improved Oral Bioavailability Followed by Their Pharmacological Evaluation Using Biotechnological Techniques

Authors: Meenu Mehta, Munish Garg

Abstract:

The use of oral anticancer drugs from AYUSH system of medicine is widely increased among the society due to their low cost, enhanced efficacy, increased patient preference, lack of inconveniences related to infusion and they provide an opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. However, oral delivery of these drugs usually laid down by the limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variation. As most of the cytotoxic agents have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or near the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can negatively affect treatment result. It is estimated that 40% of active substances are poorly soluble in water. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. There are several techniques reported in literature. Among all these Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling a reduction in dose. Thus, SEDDS anticancer drugs will have the increased bioavailability and efficacy. These dosage form will provide societal benefit in a cost-effective manner as compared to other oral dosage forms. Present study reflects on the formulation strategies as SEDDS for oral anticancer agents of AYUSH system for enhanced bioavailability with proven efficacy by cancer cell lines.

Keywords: anticancer agents, AYUSH system, bioavailability, SEDDS

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1019 Nanoprecipitation with Ultrasonication for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability of Fursemide: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Study in Rat Model

Authors: Malay K. Das, Bhanu P. Sahu

Abstract:

Furosemide is a weakly acidic diuretic indicated for treatment of edema and hypertension. It has very poor solubility but high permeability through stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to its limited solubility it has poor and variable oral bioavailability of 10-90%. The aim of this study was to enhance the oral bioavailability of furosemide by preparation of nanosuspensions. The nanosuspensions were prepared by nanoprecipitation with sonication using DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) as a solvent and water as an antisolvent (NA). The prepared nanosuspensions were sterically stabilized with polyvinyl acetate (PVA).These were characterized for particle size, ζ potential, polydispersity index, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and release behavior. The effect of nanoprecipitation on oral bioavailability of furosemide nanosuspension was studied by in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption study in rats and compared to pure drug. The stable nanosuspension was obtained with average size range of the precipitated nanoparticles between 150-300 nm and was found to be homogenous showing a narrow polydispersity index of 0.3±0.1. DSC and XRD studies indicated that the crystalline furosemide drug was converted to amorphous form upon precipitation into nanoparticles. The release profiles of nanosuspension formulation showed up to 81.2% release in 4 h. The in vivo studies on rats revealed a significant increase in the oral absorption of furosemide in the nanosuspension compared to pure drug. The AUC0→24 and Cmax values of nanosuspension were approximately 1.38 and 1.68-fold greater than that of pure drug, respectively. Furosemide nanosuspension showed 20.06±0.02 % decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to 13.37±0.02 % in plain furosemide suspension, respectively. The improved oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamics effect of furosemide may be due to the improved dissolution of furosemide in simulated gastric fluid which results in enhanced oral systemic absorption of furosemide from stomach region where it has better permeability.

Keywords: furosemide, nanosuspension, bioavailability enhancement, nanoprecipitation, oral drug delivery

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1018 Nano-emulsion/Nano-suspension as Precursors for Oral Dissolvable Film to Enhance Bioavalabilty for Poor-water Solubility Drugs

Authors: Yuan Yang, Mickey Lam

Abstract:

Oral dissolvable films have been considered as a unique alternative approach to conventional oral dosage forms. The films could be administrated via the gastrointestinal tract as conventional dosages or through sublingual/buccal mucosa membranes, which could enhance drug bioavailability by avoiding the first-pass effect and improving permeability due to high blood flow and lymphatic circulation. This work has described a state-of-art technic using nano-emulsion/nano-suspension as a precursor for the film to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. The drug molecules are consequentially processed through the emulsification, gelation, and film-casting processes. The gelation process is critical to stabilizing the nano-emulsion for the film-casting as well as controlling the drug release process. Furthermore, the size of the nanoparticle on the film has a strong correlation with the size of the micelles in the precursor and the condition of the gelation process. It has been discovered that nanoparticle from 200 nm to 300 nm has shown the highest permeability for sublingual administration. In one example shown in work, the bioavailability of a low solubilize drug has been increased from 10% to 24% via sublingual administration of the film. The increasing of the bioavailability was thought to be associated with the enhancement of the diffusion process of the drug in the saliva layer above the mucosa membrane and the fact that the presents of the emulsifier help lose the rigid junction of the mucosa cells.

Keywords: oral dissolvable film, nano-suspension, nano-emulsion, bioavailability

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1017 Fabrication and Characterization of Folic Acid-Grafted-Thiomer Enveloped Liposomes for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Docetaxel

Authors: Farhan Sohail, Gul Shahnaz Irshad Hussain, Shoaib Sarwar, Ibrahim Javed, Zajif Hussain, Akhtar Nadhman

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a hybrid nanocarrier (NC) system with enhanced membrane permeability, bioavailability and targeted delivery of Docetaxel (DTX) in breast cancer. Hybrid NC’s based on folic acid (FA) grafted thiolated chitosan (TCS) enveloped liposomes were prepared with DTX and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their enhanced permeability and bioavailability. Physicochemical characterization of NC’s including particle size, morphology, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, PXRD, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from NC’s was determined in vitro. Permeation enhancement and p-gp inhibition were performed through everted sac method on freshly excised rat intestine which indicated that permeation was enhanced 5 times as compared to pure DTX and the hybrid NC’s were strongly able to inhibit the p-gp activity as well. In-vitro cytotoxicity and tumor targeting was done using MDA-MB-231 cell line. The stability study of the formulations performed for 3 months showed the improved stability of FA-TCS enveloped liposomes in terms of its particles size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency as compared to TCS NP’s and liposomes. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in vivo using rabbits. The oral bioavailability and AUC0-96 was increased 10.07 folds with hybrid NC’s as compared to positive control. Half-life (t1/2) was increased 4 times (58.76 hrs) as compared to positive control (17.72 hrs). Conclusively, it is suggested that FA-TCS enveloped liposomes have strong potential to enhance permeability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs after oral administration and tumor targeting.

Keywords: docetaxel, coated liposome, permeation enhancement, oral bioavailability

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1016 The Metabolite Profiling of Fulvestrant-3 Boronic Acid under Biological Oxidation

Authors: Changde Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Shilong Zheng, Jiawang Liu, Shanchun Guo, Qiu Zhong, Guangdi Wang

Abstract:

Fulvestrant was approved by FDA to treat breast cancer as a selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with intramuscular injection administration. ZB716, a fulvestarnt-3 boronic acid, is an SERD with comparable anticancer effect to fulvestrant, but could produce good pharmacokinetic properties under oral administration with mice or rat models. To understand why ZB716 produced much better oral bioavailability, it was proposed that the boronic acid blocked the phase II direct biotransformation with the hydroxyl group on the 3 position of the aromatic ring on fulvestrant. In this study, ZB716 or fulvestrant was incubated with human liver microsome and oxidation cofactor NADPH in vitro. Their metabolites after oxidation were profiled with the Q-Exactive, a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The result showed that ZB716 blocked the forming of hydroxyl groups on its benzene ring except for the oxidation of C-B bond forming fulvestrant in its metabolites, and the concentration of fulvestrant with one more hydroxyl group found in the metabolites from incubation with fulvestrant was about 34 fold high as that formed from incubation with ZB716. Compared to fulvestrant, ZB716 is expected to be much difficult to be further bio-transformed into more hydrophilic compounds, to be difficult excreted out of blood system, and to have longer residence time in blood, which can lead to higher oral bioavailability. This study provided evidence to explain the high bioavailability of ZB716 after oral administration from the perspective of its difficulty of oxidation, a phase I biotransformation, on positions on its aromatic ring.

Keywords: biotransformation, fulvestrant, metabolite profiling, ZB716

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1015 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan

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This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

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1014 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad, William Aalbersberg

Abstract:

Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: iron, bioavailability, Fiji foods, in vitro technique, human nutrition

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1013 Studies on Effect of Nano Size and Surface Coating on Enhancement of Bioavailability and Toxicity of Berberine Chloride; A p-gp Substrate

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Parameswara Rao Vuddanda

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is study the factual benefit of nano size and surface coating of p-gp efflux inhibitor on enhancement of bioavailability of Berberine chloride (BBR); a p-gp substrate. In addition, 28 days sub acute oral toxicity study was also conducted to assess the toxicity of the formulation on chronic administration. BBR loaded polymeric nanoparticles (BBR-NP) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. BBR NP were surface coated (BBR-SCNP) with the 1 % w/v of vitamin E TPGS. For bioavailability study, total five groups (n=6) of rat were treated as follows first; pure BBR, second; physical mixture of BBR, carrier and vitamin E TPGS, third; BBR-NP, fourth; BBR-SCNP and fifth; BBR and verapamil (widely used p-gp inhibitor). Blood was withdrawn at pre-set timing points in 24 hrs study and drug was quantified by HPLC method. In oral chronic toxicity study, total four groups (n=6) were treated as follows first (control); water, second; pure BBR, third; BBR surface coated nanoparticles and fourth; placebo BBR surface coated nanoparticles. Biochemical levels of liver (AST, ALP and ALT) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) along with their histopathological studies were also examined (0-28 days). The AUC of BBR-SCNP was significantly 3.5 folds higher compared to all other groups. The AUC of BBR-NP was 3.23 and 1.52 folds higher compared to BBR solution and BBR with verapamil group, respectively. The physical mixture treated group showed slightly higher AUC than BBR solution treated group but significantly low compared to other groups. It indicates that encapsulation of BBR in nanosize form can circumvent P-gp efflux effect. BBR-NP showed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) which are near to BBR-SCNP. However, the difference in values of T1/2 and clearance indicate that surface coating with vitamin E TPGS not only avoids the P-gp efflux at its absorption site (intestine) but also at organs which are responsible for metabolism and excretion (kidney and liver). It may be the reason for observed decrease in clearance of BBR-SCNP. No toxicity signs were observed either in biochemical or histopathological examination of liver and kidney during toxicity studies. The results indicate that administration of BBR in surface coated nanoformulation would be beneficial for enhancement of its bioavailability and longer retention in systemic circulation. Further, sub acute oral dose toxicity studies for 28 days such as evaluation of intestine, liver and kidney histopathology and biochemical estimations indicated that BBR-SCNP developed were safe for long use.

Keywords: bioavailability, berberine nanoparticles, p-gp efflux inhibitor, nanoprecipitation method

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1012 Bio-Equivalence of Doxycycline in Two Preparations in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the bio-equivalence of doxycycline in Dolistin® and Colidox® at a dose rate of 10 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight in 48 clinically normal broiler chickens. After oral administration, plasma levels of doxycycline peaked after 2 hours post-dosing without significant differences between the two products and it could be detected therapeutically and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most micro-organisms sensitive to doxycycline for 12 hours. The disposition kinetics of doxycycline in the two products following oral administration revealed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax.) were 22.65 and 21.80 µg/ml and attained at (Tmax.) 2.10 and 2.20 hours, respectively. Doxycycline in both of the products was eliminated with half- lives (t0.5α) equal to 7.70 and 6.93 hours, respectively. The mean systemic bio availabilities of doxycycline in both of the products after oral administration in chickens were 80.60 and 79.70%, respectively. It was concluded that doxycycline in the form of Dolistin® and Colidox® needs a dose equivalent to 20 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight a day is better to keep the plasma concentration higher than the MIC.

Keywords: tetracyclines, doxycycline, bioavailability, broilers, chickens

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1011 Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

Authors: Sanjay Saraf

Abstract:

The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their importance in early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.

Keywords: dermatological investigations, genodermatosis, histological features, oral examination

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1010 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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1009 Evidence Based Practice for Oral Care in Children

Authors: T. Turan, Ç. Erdoğan

Abstract:

As far as is known, general nursing care practices do not include specific evidence-based practices related to oral care in children. This study aimed to evaluate the evidence based nursing practice for oral care in children. This article is planned as a review article by searching the literature in this field. According to all age groups and the oral care in various specific situations located evidence in the literature were examined. It has been determined that the methods and frequency used in oral care practices performed by nurses in clinics differ from one hospital to another. In addition, it is seen that different solutions are used in basic oral care, oral care practices to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia and evidence-based practice in mucositis management in children. As a result, a standard should be established in oral care practices for children and education for children is recommended.

Keywords: evidence-based practice, oral care, nursing, children

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1008 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

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The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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1007 Mucoadhesive Chitosan-Coated Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: S. L. J. Tan, N. Billa, C. J. Roberts

Abstract:

Oral delivery of amphotericin B (AmpB) potentially eliminates constraints and side effects associated with intravenous administration, but remains challenging due to the physicochemical properties of the drug such that it results in meagre bioavailability (0.3%). In an advanced formulation, 1) nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were formulated as they can accommodate higher levels of cargoes and restrict drug expulsion and 2) a mucoadhesion feature was incorporated so as to impart sluggish transit of the NLC along the gastrointestinal tract and hence, maximize uptake and improve bioavailability of AmpB. The AmpB-loaded NLC formulation was successfully formulated via high shear homogenisation and ultrasonication. A chitosan coating was adsorbed onto the formed NLC. Physical properties of the formulations; particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (%EE), aggregation states and mucoadhesion as well as the effect of the variable pH on the integrity of the formulations were examined. The particle size of the freshly prepared AmpB-loaded NLC was 163.1 ± 0.7 nm, with a negative surface charge and remained essentially stable over 120 days. Adsorption of chitosan caused a significant increase in particle size to 348.0 ± 12 nm with the zeta potential change towards positivity. Interestingly, the chitosan-coated AmpB-loaded NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) showed significant decrease in particle size upon storage, suggesting 'anti-Ostwald' ripening effect. AmpB-loaded NLC formulation showed %EE of 94.3 ± 0.02 % and incorporation of chitosan increased the %EE significantly, to 99.3 ± 0.15 %. This suggests that the addition of chitosan renders stability to the NLC formulation, interacting with the anionic segment of the NLC and preventing the drug leakage. AmpB in both NLC and ChiAmpB NLC showed polyaggregation which is the non-toxic conformation. The mucoadhesiveness of the ChiAmpB NLC formulation was observed in both acidic pH (pH 5.8) and near-neutral pH (pH 6.8) conditions as opposed to AmpB-loaded NLC formulation. Hence, the incorporation of chitosan into the NLC formulation did not only impart mucoadhesive property but also protected against the expulsion of AmpB which makes it well-primed as a potential oral delivery system for AmpB.

Keywords: Amphotericin B, mucoadhesion, nanostructured lipid carriers, oral delivery

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1006 Bioavailability Enhancement of Ficus religiosa Extract by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Karunanithi Priyanka, Ramoji Kosuru, Raju Prasad Sharma

Abstract:

Herbal drugs are well known for their mixed pharmacological activities with the benefit of no harmful side effects. The use of herbal drugs is limited because of their higher dose requirement, frequent drug administration, poor bioavailability of phytochemicals and delayed onset of action. Ficus religiosa, a potent anti-oxidant plant useful in the treatment of diabetes and cancer was selected for the study. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Ficus religiosa extract was developed for the enhancement in oral bioavailability of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, principal components present in the extract. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to develop extract loaded SLN. Developed extract loaded SLN were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and kinetics, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractrometry and stability studies. Entrapment efficiency of optimized extract loaded SLN was found to be 68.46 % (56.13 % of stigmasterol and 12.33 % of β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, respectively). RP HPLC method development was done for simultaneous estimation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract in rat plasma. Bioavailability studies were carried out for extract in suspension form and optimized extract loaded SLN. AUC of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 6.7-folds by 9.2-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Also, Cmax of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 4.3-folds by 3.9-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Mean residence times (MRT) for stigmasterol were found to be 12.3 ± 0.67 hours from extract and 7.4 ± 2.1 hours from SLN and for β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, 10.49 ± 2.9 hours from extract and 6.4 ± 0.3 hours from SLN. Hence, it was concluded that SLN enhanced the bioavailability and reduced the MRT of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract which in turn may lead to reduction in dose of Ficus religiosa extract, prolonged duration of action and also enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, phytosterolins, bioavailability, solid lipid nanoparticles, stigmasterol and β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside

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1005 Development of Generally Applicable Intravenous to Oral Antibiotic Switch Therapy Criteria

Authors: H. Akhloufi, M. Hulscher, J. M. Prins, I. H. Van Der Sijs, D. Melles, A. Verbon

Abstract:

Background: A timely switch from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy has many advantages, such as reduced incidence of IV-line related infections, a decreased hospital length of stay and less workload for healthcare professionals with equivalent patient safety. Additionally, numerous studies have demonstrated significant decreases in costs of a timely intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy switch, while maintaining efficacy and safety. However, a considerable variation in iv to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria has been described in literature. Here, we report the development of a set of iv to oral switch criteria that are generally applicable in all hospitals. Material/methods: A RAND-modified Delphi procedure, which was composed of 3 rounds, was used. This Delphi procedure is a widely used structured process to develop consensus using multiple rounds of questionnaires within a qualified panel of selected experts. The international expert panel was multidisciplinary and composed out of clinical microbiologists, infectious disease consultants and clinical pharmacists. This panel of 19 experts appraised 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria and operationalized these criteria using 41 measurable conditions extracted from the literature. The procedure to select a concise set of iv to oral switch criteria included 2 questionnaire rounds and a face-to-face meeting. Results: The procedure resulted in the selection of 16 measurable conditions, which operationalize 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria. The following 6 major switch therapy criteria were selected: (1) Vital signs should be good or improving when bad. (2) Signs and symptoms related to the infection have to be resolved or improved. (3) The gastrointestinal tract has to be intact and functioning. (4) The oral route should not be compromised. (5) Absence of contra-indicated infections. (6) An oral variant of the antibiotic with good bioavailability has to exist. Conclusions: This systematic stepwise method which combined evidence and expert opinion resulted in a feasible set of 6 major intravenous to oral antibiotic switch therapy criteria operationalized by 16 measurable conditions. This set of early antibiotic iv to oral switch criteria can be used in daily practice in all adult hospital patients. Future use in audits and as rules in computer assisted decision support systems will lead to improvement of antimicrobial steward ship programs.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship, intravenous to oral, switch therapy

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1004 Layersomes for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: A. C. Rana, Abhinav Singh Rana

Abstract:

Layer by layer coating of biocompatible polyelectrolytes converts the liposomes into stable version i.e 'layersomes'. This system was further used to deliver the Amphotericin B through the oral route. Extensive optimization of different process variables resulted in the formation of layersomes with the particle size of 238.4±5.1, PDI of 0.24±0.16, the zeta potential of 34.6±1.3, and entrapment efficiency of 71.3±1.2. TEM analysis further confirmed the formation of spherical particles. Trehalose (10% w/w) resulted in the formation of fluffy and easy to redisperse cake in freeze dried layersomes. Controlled release up to 50 % within 24 h was observed in the case of layersomes. The layersomes were found stable in simulated biological fluids and resulted in the 3.59 fold higher bioavailability in comparison to free Amp-B. Furthermore, the developed formulation was found to be safe in comparison to Fungizone as indicated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine level.

Keywords: amphotericin B, layersomes, liposomes, toxicity

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1003 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Yaowaporn Sangsen, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Boonchoo Sritularak, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, oxyresveratrol

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1002 Formulation and Optimization of Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System of Rutin for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability Using QbD Approach

Authors: Shrestha Sharma, Jasjeet K. Sahni, Javed Ali, Sanjula Baboota

Abstract:

Introduction: Rutin is a naturally occurring strong antioxidant molecule belonging to bioflavonoid category. Due to its free radical scavenging properties, it has been found to be beneficial in the treatment of various diseases including inflammation, cancer, diabetes, allergy, cardiovascular disorders and various types of microbial infections. Despite its beneficial effects, it suffers from the problem of low aqueous solubility which is responsible for low oral bioavailability. The aim of our study was to optimize and characterize self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of rutin using Box-Behnken design (BBD) combined with a desirability function. Further various antioxidant, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed for the optimized rutin SNEDDS formulation. Methodologies: Selection of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant was done on the basis of solubility/miscibility studies. Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS 15 and Transcutol P were selected as oil phase, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Optimization of SNEDDS formulations was done by a three-factor, three-level (33)BBD. The independent factors were Sefsol+ Vitamin E, Solutol HS15, and Transcutol P. The dependent variables were globule size, self emulsification time (SEF), % transmittance and cumulative percentage drug released. Various response surface graphs and contour plots were constructed to understand the effect of different factor, their levels and combinations on the responses. The optimized Rutin SNEDDS formulation was characterized for various parameters such as globule size, zeta potential, viscosity, refractive index , % Transmittance and in vitro drug release. Ex vivo permeation studies and pharmacokinetic studies were performed for optimized formulation. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and reducing power assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Permeation of rutin across small intestine was assessed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Major findings:The optimized SNEDDS formulation consisting of Sefsol+ Vitamin E - Solutol HS15 -Transcutol HP at proportions of 25:35:17.5 (w/w) was prepared and a comparison of the predicted values and experimental values were found to be in close agreement. The globule size and PDI of optimized SNEDDS formulation was found to be 16.08 ± 0.02 nm and 0.124±0.01 respectively. Significant (p˂0.05) increase in percentage drug release was achieved in the case of optimized SNEDDS formulation (98.8 %) as compared to rutin suspension. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic study showed a 2.3-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability compared with that of the suspension. Antioxidant assay results indicated better efficacy of the developed formulation than the pure drug and it was found to be comparable with ascorbic acid. The results of anti-inflammatory studies showed 72.93 % inhibition for the SNEDDS formulation which was significantly higher than the drug suspension 46.56%. The results of CLSM indicated that the absorption of SNEDDS formulation was considerably higher than that from rutin suspension. Conclusion: Rutin SNEDDS have been successfully prepared and they can serve as an effective tool in enhancing oral bioavailability and efficacy of Rutin.

Keywords: rutin, oral bioavilability, pharamacokinetics, pharmacodynamics

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1001 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Priya Patel, Paresh Patel, Mihir Raval

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Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: silibinin, cancer, nanoparticles, PLGA, bioavailability

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1000 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El

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Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

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999 Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Study

Authors: Renjith George Pallivathukal, Preethy Mary Donald

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Asymptomatic oral lesions are often ignored by the patients and usually will be identified only in advanced stages. Early detection of precancerous lesions is important for better prognosis. It is also important for the oral health care person to be aware of the regional prevalence of oral lesions in order to provide early care for the same. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of oral lesions based on the information available from patient records in a teaching dental school. Dental records of patients who attended the department of Oral medicine and diagnosis between September 2014 and September 2016 were retrieved and verified for oral lesions. Results: The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The lesions were classified as white (40.5%), red (23%), ulcerated (10.5%), pigmented (15.2%) and soft tissue enlargements (10.8%). 52% of the patients were unaware of the oral lesions before the dental visit. Overall, the prevalence of lesions in dental patients lower to national estimates, but the prevalence of some lesions showed variations.

Keywords: oral mucosal lesion, pre-cancer, prevalence, soft tissue lesion

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998 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh

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Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
997 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic

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To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: bioactivity, bioavailability, fermented, fruit, nutrition

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996 Formulation and Evaluation of Glimepiride (GMP)-Solid Nanodispersion and Nanodispersed Tablets

Authors: Ahmed. Abdel Bary, Omneya. Khowessah, Mojahed. al-jamrah

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Introduction: The major challenge with the design of oral dosage forms lies with their poor bioavailability. The most frequent causes of low oral bioavailability are attributed to poor solubility and low permeability. The aim of this study was to develop solid nanodispersed tablet formulation of Glimepiride for the enhancement of the solubility and bioavailability. Methodology: Solid nanodispersions of Glimepiride (GMP) were prepared using two different ratios of 2 different carriers, namely; PEG6000, pluronic F127, and by adopting two different techniques, namely; solvent evaporation technique and fusion technique. A full factorial design of 2 3 was adopted to investigate the influence of formulation variables on the prepared nanodispersion properties. The best chosen formula of nanodispersed powder was formulated into tablets by direct compression. The Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis were conducted for the thermal behavior and surface structure characterization, respectively. The zeta potential and particle size analysis of the prepared glimepiride nanodispersions was determined. The prepared solid nanodispersions and solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP were evaluated in terms of pre-compression and post-compression parameters, respectively. Results: The DSC and FTIR studies revealed that there was no interaction between GMP and all the excipients used. Based on the resulted values of different pre-compression parameters, the prepared solid nanodispersions powder blends showed poor to excellent flow properties. The resulted values of the other evaluated pre-compression parameters of the prepared solid nanodispersion were within the limits of pharmacopoeia. The drug content of the prepared nanodispersions ranged from 89.6 ± 0.3 % to 99.9± 0.5% with particle size ranged from 111.5 nm to 492.3 nm and the resulted zeta potential (ζ ) values of the prepared GMP-solid nanodispersion formulae (F1-F8) ranged from -8.28±3.62 mV to -78±11.4 mV. The in-vitro dissolution studies of the prepared solid nanodispersed tablets of GMP concluded that GMP- pluronic F127 combinations (F8), exhibited the best extent of drug release, compared to other formulations, and to the marketed product. One way ANOVA for the percent of drug released from the prepared GMP-nanodispersion formulae (F1- F8) after 20 and 60 minutes showed significant differences between the percent of drug released from different GMP-nanodispersed tablet formulae (F1- F8), (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preparation of glimepiride as nanodispersed particles proven to be a promising tool for enhancing the poor solubility of glimepiride.

Keywords: glimepiride, solid Nanodispersion, nanodispersed tablets, poorly water soluble drugs

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995 Development of Lipid Architectonics for Improving Efficacy and Ameliorating the Oral Bioavailability of Elvitegravir

Authors: Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali

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Aim: The objective of research undertaken is analytical method validation (HPLC method) of an anti-HIV drug Elvitegravir (EVG). Additionally carrying out the forced degradation studies of the drug under different stress conditions to determine its stability. It is envisaged in order to determine the suitable technique for drug estimation, which would be employed in further research. Furthermore, comparative pharmacokinetic profile of the drug from lipid architectonics and drug suspension would be obtained post oral administration. Method: Lipid Architectonics (LA) of EVR was formulated using probe sonication technique and optimized using QbD (Box-Behnken design). For the estimation of drug during further analysis HPLC method has been validation on the parameters (Linearity, Precision, Accuracy, Robustness) and Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantification (LOQ) has been determined. Furthermore, HPLC quantification of forced degradation studies was carried out under different stress conditions (acid induced, base induced, oxidative, photolytic and thermal). For pharmacokinetic (PK) study, Albino Wistar rats were used weighing between 200-250g. Different formulations were given per oral route, and blood was collected at designated time intervals. A plasma concentration profile over time was plotted from which the following parameters were determined:

Keywords: AIDS, Elvitegravir, HPLC, nanostructured lipid carriers, pharmacokinetics

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994 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

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The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
993 Oral Sex Practice among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesian Urban Settings

Authors: I Putu Yuda Hananta, Inke Kusumastuti

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The latest Indonesian Biology and Behavior Surveillance (IBBS) conducted by Indonesian Ministry of Health reported a large proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in oral sex in their recent sexual history. While it is considered as a pleasuring and safe, oral sex might facilitate the transmission of various sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens. This study was aimed to investigate the oral sex practice among MSM in Indonesian urban settings to help delineate demographic and behavior determinants of such practice. In 2014, 501 MSM in 8 clinic-based and outreach STI services were recruited in Jakarta, Yogyakarta and Denpasar, Indonesia. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire inquiring about their demographics and sexual history. Median age (interquartile range) of the respondents was 27 (24-30) years; most completed senior high school (54.3%), worked in informal jobs (57.9%), and single (60.9%); and 32.3% reported receiving money in exchange for sex. Oral sex was practiced by most respondents: insertive only (10.0%), receptive only (6.0%), and both (82.4%). A separate multivariable analysis was performed using logistic regression to identify the determinants for receptive and insertive oral sex. Factors associated with receptive oral sex were having more than 10 sex partner(s) in the preceding 6 months vs 1 partner, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) [95% CI]=3.40 [1.22-9.42], p=0.03; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs no history, aOR=4.37 [1.76-10.82], p=0.01. Factors associated with insertive oral sex were receiving money for sex vs. not receiving, aOR=2.98 [1.10-8.04], p=0.02; and history of receptive-insertive anal sex vs. no history, aOR=2.10 [0.51-8.74], p<0.001. Only a few respondents reported consistent condom use (11.6% and 12.0% for receptive and insertive oral sex, respectively). Our findings demonstrated that while oral sex is a common practice among MSM, the consistency of condom use in oral sex is very low. In addition, certain sex behavior (number of sex partners, sex work and history of anal sex) were associated with oral sex, and this might need to be addressed during health promotion efforts on STI prevention through oral-genital contact.

Keywords: behavior, Indonesia, men who have sex with men, oral sex

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
992 Nanoparticles Made of Amino Acid Derived Biodegradable Polymers as Promising Drug Delivery Containers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Tengiz Kantaria, Temur Kantaria, David Tugushi, Nina Kulikova, Ramaz Katsarava

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Polymeric disperse systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) are of high interest for numerous applications in contemporary medicine and nanobiotechnology to a considerable potential for treatment of many human diseases. The important technological advantages of NPs usage as drug carriers (nanocontainers) are their high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances, as well as a high variety of possible administration routes, including oral application and inhalation. NPs can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of NPs enable improvement of drug bioavailability and might allow drug dosage decrease. The targeted and controlled administration of drugs using NPs might also help to overcome drug resistance, which is one of the major obstacles in the control of epidemics. Various degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been used for NPs construction. One of the most promising for the design of NPs are amino acid-based biodegradable polymers (AABBPs) which can clear from the body after the fulfillment of their function. The AABBPs are composed of naturally occurring and non-toxic building blocks such as α-amino acids, fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. The particles designed from these polymers are expected to have an improved bioavailability along with a high biocompatibility. The present work deals with a systematic study of the preparation of NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement method using AABBPs. The influence of the nature and concentration of surfactants, concentration of organic phase (polymer solution), and the ratio organic phase/inorganic(water) phase, as well as of some other factors on the size of the fabricated NPs have been studied. It was established that depending on the used conditions the NPs size could be tuned within 40-330 nm. At the next step of this research was carried out an evaluation of biocompability and bioavailability of the synthesized NPs using a stable human cell culture line – A549. It was established that the obtained NPs are not only biocompatible but they stimulate the cell growth.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bioavailability, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 225