Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8918

Search results for: environment of cellular and hormonal interactions

8918 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan


This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
8917 Cellular RNA-Binding Domains with Distant Homology in Viral Proteomes

Authors: German Hernandez-Alonso, Antonio Lazcano, Arturo Becerra


Until today, viruses remain controversial and poorly understood; about their origin, this problem represents an enigma and one of the great challenges for the contemporary biology. Three main theories have tried to explain the origin of viruses: regressive evolution, escaped host gene, and pre-cellular origin. Under the perspective of the escaped host gene theory, it can be assumed a cellular origin of viral components, like protein RNA-binding domains. These universal distributed RNA-binding domains are related to the RNA metabolism processes, including transcription, processing, and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation. In the case of viruses, these domains are present in important viral proteins like helicases, nucleases, polymerases, capsid proteins or regulation factors. Therefore, they are implicated in the replicative cycle and parasitic processes of viruses. That is why it is possible to think that those domains present low levels of divergence due to selective pressures. For these reasons, the main goal for this project is to create a catalogue of the RNA-binding domains found in all the available viral proteomes, using bioinformatics tools in order to analyze its evolutionary process, and thus shed light on the general virus evolution. ProDom database was used to obtain larger than six thousand RNA-binding domain families that belong to the three cellular domains of life and some viral groups. From the sequences of these families, protein profiles were created using HMMER 3.1 tools in order to find distant homologous within greater than four thousand viral proteomes available in GenBank. Once accomplished the analysis, almost three thousand hits were obtained in the viral proteomes. The homologous sequences were found in proteomes of the principal Baltimore viral groups, showing interesting distribution patterns that can contribute to understand the evolution of viruses and their host-virus interactions. Presence of cellular RNA-binding domains within virus proteomes seem to be explained by closed interactions between viruses and their hosts. Recruitment of these domains is advantageous for the viral fitness, allowing viruses to be adapted to the host cellular environment.

Keywords: bioinformatics tools, distant homology, RNA-binding domains, viral evolution

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8916 Determination of Biomolecular Interactions Using Microscale Thermophoresis

Authors: Lynn Lehmann, Dinorah Leyva, Ana Lazic, Stefan Duhr, Philipp Baaske


Characterization of biomolecular interactions, such as protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid or protein-small molecule, provides critical insights into cellular processes and is essential for the development of drug diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we present a novel, label-free, and tether-free technology to analyze picomolar to millimolar affinities of biomolecular interactions by Microscale Thermophoresis (MST). The entropy of the hydration shell surrounding molecules determines thermophoretic movement. MST exploits this principle by measuring interactions using optically generated temperature gradients. MST detects changes in the size, charge and hydration shell of molecules and measures biomolecule interactions under close-to-native conditions: immobilization-free and in bioliquids of choice, including cell lysates and blood serum. Thus, MST measures interactions under close-to-native conditions, and without laborious sample purification. We demonstrate how MST determines the picomolar affinities of antibody::antigen interactions, and protein::protein interactions measured from directly from cell lysates. MST assays are highly adaptable to fit to the diverse requirements of different and complex biomolecules. NanoTemper´s unique technology is ideal for studies requiring flexibility and sensitivity at the experimental scale, making MST suitable for basic research investigations and pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: biochemistry, biophysics, molecular interactions, quantitative techniques

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8915 Effect of Post Circuit Resistance Exercise Glucose Feeding on Energy and Hormonal Indexes in Plasma and Lymphocyte in Free-Style Wrestlers

Authors: Miesam Golzadeh Gangraj, Younes Parvasi, Mohammad Ghasemi, Ahmad Abdi, Saeid Fazelifar


The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of glucose feeding on energy and hormonal indexes in plasma and lymphocyte immediately after wrestling – base techniques circuit exercise (WBTCE) in young male freestyle wrestlers. Sixteen wrestlers (weight = 75/45 ± 12/92 kg, age = 22/29 ± 0/90 years, BMI = 26/23 ± 2/64 kg/m²) were randomly divided into two groups: control (water), glucose (2 gr per kg body weight). Blood samples were obtained before, immediately, and 90 minutes of the post-exercise recovery period. Glucose (2 g/kg of body weight, 1W/5V) and water (equal volumes) solutions were given immediately after the second blood sampling. Data were analyzed by using an ANOVA (a repeated measure) and a suitable post hoc test (LSD). A significant decrease was observed in lymphocytes glycogen immediately after exercise (P < 0.001). In the experimental group, increase Lymphocyte glycogen concentration (P < 0.028) than in the control group in 90 min post-exercise. Plasma glucose concentrations increased in all groups immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Plasma insulin concentrations in both groups decreased immediately after exercise, but at 90 min after exercise, its level was significantly increased only in glucose group (P < 0.001). Our results suggested that WBTCE protocol could be affected cellular energy sources and hormonal response. Furthermore, Glucose consumption can increase the lymphocyte glycogen and better energy within the cell.

Keywords: glucose feeding, lymphocyte, Wrestling – base techniques circuit , exercise

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8914 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim


This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
8913 Plant Layout Analysis by Computer Simulation for Electronic Manufacturing Service Plant

Authors: D. Visuwan, B. Phruksaphanrat


In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It is found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout. In this research, computer simulation is used for Electronic Manufacturing Service (EMS) plant layout analysis. The current layout of this manufacturing plant is a process layout, which is not suitable due to the nature of an EMS that has high-volume and high-variety environment. Moreover, quick response and high flexibility are also needed. Then, cellular manufacturing layout design was determined for the selected group of products. Systematic layout planning (SLP) was used to analyse and design the possible cellular layouts for the factory. The cellular layout was selected based on the main criteria of the plant. Computer simulation was used to analyse and compare the performance of the proposed cellular layout and the current layout. It found that the proposed cellular layout can generate better performances than the current layout.

Keywords: layout, electronic manufacturing service plant, computer simulation, cellular manufacturing system

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8912 Social Interaction of Gifted Students in a Heterogeneous Educational Environment

Authors: Ekaterina Donii


Understanding interpersonal competence, social interaction and peer relationships of gifted children is a concern for specialists in the field of gifted education. To gain more in-depth knowledge concerning the social functioning of gifted children among peers, we decided to study the social abilities of gifted children in a heterogeneous academic environment. Eight gifted children (5 of age 7, 1 of age 8.5, 1 of age 9.5 and 1 of age 10), their classmates (10 of age 7-8, 12 of age 8.5-9, 16 of age 9.5-10) and teachers participated in the study. The sociometric questionnaire analysis was based on the method of Rodríguez and Morera to check the social status of the gifted children among classmates. The Instrument Observational Protocol for Interactions within the Classroom (OPINTEC-v.5) was used to assess the social interactions between the gifted students, their classmates, and the teacher within the educational context. While doing a task together, the gifted children interacted more with popular and neither popular nor gifted classmates than with rejected classmates. While spending time together, the gifted children interacted more with neither popular nor rejected classmates than with popular or rejected classmates. All gifted children chose other gifted and non-gifted classmates for interaction, established close relations and demonstrated good social abilities interacting with their classmates. The aim of this study was to examine the social interactions, social status, and social network of the gifted students in a regular classroom. The majority of the gifted children were popular among their classmates and had good social skills. We should be alert, though, for those gifted children who do have social problems, in order to help them functioning in a regular classroom.

Keywords: gifted, heterogeneous environment, sociometric status, social interactions

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8911 Effects of Twitter Interactions on Self-Esteem and Narcissistic Behaviour

Authors: Leena-Maria Alyedreessy


Self-esteem is thought to be determined by ones’ own feeling of being included, liked and accepted by others. This research explores whether this concept may also be applied in the virtual world and assesses whether there is any relationship between Twitter users' self-esteem and the amount of interactions they receive. 20 female Arab participants were given a survey asking them about their Twitter interactions and their feelings of having an imagined audience to fill out and a Rosenberg Self-Esteem Assessment to complete. After completion and statistical analysis, results showed a significant correlation between the feeling of being Twitter elite, the feeling of having a lot of people listening to your tweets and having a lot of interactions with high self-esteem. However, no correlations were detected for low-self-esteem and low interactions.

Keywords: twitter, social media, self-esteem, narcissism, interactions

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8910 Developing a Cybernetic Model of Interdepartmental Logistic Interactions in SME

Authors: Jonas Mayer, Kai-Frederic Seitz, Thorben Kuprat


In today’s competitive environment production’s logistic objectives such as ‘delivery reliability’ and ‘delivery time’ and distribution’s logistic objectives such as ‘service level’ and ‘delivery delay’ are attributed great importance. Especially for small and mid-sized enterprises (SME) attaining these objectives pose a key challenge. Within this context, one of the difficulties is that interactions between departments within the enterprise and their specific objectives are insufficiently taken into account and aligned. Interdepartmental independencies along with contradicting targets set within the different departments result in enterprises having sub-optimal logistic performance capability. This paper presents a research project which will systematically describe the interactions between departments and convert them into a quantifiable form.

Keywords: department-specific actuating and control variables, interdepartmental interactions, cybernetic model, logistic objectives

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8909 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification

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8908 Cellular Automata Using Fractional Integral Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan


In this paper, a proposed model of cellular automata is studied by means of fractional integral function. A cellular automaton is a decentralized computing model providing an excellent platform for performing complex computation with the help of only local information. The paper discusses how using fractional integral function for representing cellular automata memory or state. The architecture of computing and learning model will be given and the results of calibrating of approach are also given.

Keywords: fractional integral, cellular automata, memory, learning

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8907 Monitoring of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Waters and Sediment from the River Nile (Egypt) by Yeast Assays

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Khaled Y. AbouelFadl, Angela Krüger, Werner Kloas


In Egypt, no previous records are available regarding possible multiple hormonal activities in the aquatic systems and especially the river Nile. In this paper, the in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and yeast androgen screen (YAS) were used to assess the multiple hormonal activities in surface waters and sediment from the Egyptian river Nile for the first time. This study sought to determine if river Nile water caused changes in gonadal histology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus). All water samples exhibited extremely low levels of estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was not detected nearly in any of the sediment samples. Unlike the estrogenicity, significant androgenic activities were recorded in the water and sediment samples along the Nile course. The present study reports for the first time quantified anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities with high levels in both water and sediment of the river Nile. The greatest anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were observed in sample from downstream river Nile. These results indicated that the anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities along the Nile course were great and the pollution of the sites at the downstream was more serious than the upstream sites due to industrial activities at theses sites. Good correlations were observed among some hormonal activities, suggesting coexistence of these contaminants in the environmental matrices. There were no signs of sexual disruption in any of the gonads analysed from either male or female Nile tilapia, demonstrating that any hormonal activity present along the Nile course was not sufficient to induce adverse effects on reproductive development. Further investiga¬tion is necessary to identify the chemicals responsible for the hormonal activities in the river Nile and to examine the effect of very low levels of hormonally active chemicals on gonadal histology, as well as in the development of more sensitive biomarkers.

Keywords: multiple hormonal activities, YES, YAS, river Nile, Nile tilapia, gonadal histology

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8906 Effect of Cellular Water Transport on Deformation of Food Material during Drying

Authors: M. Imran Hossen Khan, M. Mahiuddin, M. A. Karim


Drying is a food processing technique where simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place from surface to the center of the sample. Deformation of food materials during drying is a common physical phenomenon which affects the textural quality and taste of the dried product. Most of the plant-based food materials are porous and hygroscopic in nature that contains about 80-90% water in different cellular environments: intercellular environment and intracellular environment. Transport of this cellular water has a significant effect on material deformation during drying. However, understanding of the scale of deformation is very complex due to diverse nature and structural heterogeneity of food material. Knowledge about the effect of transport of cellular water on deformation of material during drying is crucial for increasing the energy efficiency and obtaining better quality dried foods. Therefore, the primary aim of this work is to investigate the effect of intracellular water transport on material deformation during drying. In this study, apple tissue was taken for the investigation. The experiment was carried out using 1H-NMR T2 relaxometry with a conventional dryer. The experimental results are consistent with the understanding that transport of intracellular water causes cellular shrinkage associated with the anisotropic deformation of whole apple tissue. Interestingly, it is found that the deformation of apple tissue takes place at different stages of drying rather than deforming at one time. Moreover, it is found that the penetration rate of heat energy together with the pressure gradient between intracellular and intercellular environments is the responsible force to rupture the cell membrane.

Keywords: heat and mass transfer, food material, intracellular water, cell rupture, deformation

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8905 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan


Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: historical square, Iranian public square, social interaction, Tehran

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8904 Application of Strength Criteria for Cellular Pressure Vessels

Authors: Antanas Žiliukas, Mindaugas Kukis


The work deals with cellular pressure vessels subjected to internal pressure. Their cellular insert can be used for placing liquids or gases, which is necessary to carry out technological processes, and the vessel itself has a good bearing capacity. Numerical calculations of the three core structures, which measure the influence of the inner cylinder thickness on maximum bearing capacity are presented. The calculations are compared using strength criteria and they show the different strength safety level.

Keywords: pressure, strength criterion, sandwich plate, cellular vessel

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8903 Modeling of the Cellular Uptake of Rigid Nanoparticles: Investigating the Influence of the Adaptation of the Cell’s Mechanical Properties during Endocytosis

Authors: Sarah Iaquinta, Christophe Blanquart, Elena Ishow, Sylvain Freour, Frederic Jacquemin, Shahram Khazaie


Nanoparticles have recently emerged as a possible cancer treatment tool. Several formulations have been used to enhance the uptake of these nanoparticles by cancer cells and avoid their immediate clearance when administrated in vivo. Most of the previous studies focus on the investigation of the influence of the mechanical properties of the cell membrane and the particle. However, these studies do not account for the variation of adhesion and tension during the wrapping of the nanoparticle by the membrane. These couplings should be considered since the cell adapts to the interaction with the nanoparticle by, e.g., increasing the number of interactions (consequently leading to an increase of the cell membrane/nanoparticle adhesion) and by reorganizing its cytoskeleton, leading to the releasing of the tension of the cell membrane. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a novel model for representing the cellular uptake of rigid circular nanoparticles based on an energetic model tailored to take into account the adaptation of the nanoparticle/cell membrane adhesion and of the membrane stress during wrapping. Several coupling models using sigmoidal functions are considered and compared. The study calculations revealed that the results considering constant parameters underestimated the final wrapping degree of the particle by up to 50%.

Keywords: adhesion, cellular adaptation, cellular uptake, mechanical properties, tension

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8902 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

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8901 Interaction Tasks of CUE Model in Virtual Language Learning in Travel English for Taiwanese College EFL Learners

Authors: Kuei-Hao Li, Eden Huang


Motivation suggests the willingness one person has towards taking action. Learners’ motivation has frequently been regarded as the most crucial factor in successful language acquisition. Without sufficient motivation, learners cannot achieve long-term learning goals despite remarkable abilities. Therefore, the study aims to investigate motivation of interaction tasks designed by the researchers for college EFL learners in Travel English class in virtual reality environment, integrating CUE model, Cognition, Usage and Expansion in the course. Thirty college learners were asked to join the virtual language learning website designed by the researchers. Data was collected via feedback questionnaire, interview, and learner interactions. The findings indicated that the course in the CUE model in language learning website of virtual reality environment was effective at motivating EFL learners and improving their oral communication and social interactions in the learning process. Some pedagogical implications are also provided in helping both language instructors and EFL learners in virtual reality environment.

Keywords: motivation, virtual reality, virtual language learning, second language acquisition

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8900 Improved Performance Using Adaptive Pre-Coding in the Cellular Network

Authors: Yong-Jun Kim, Jae-Hyun Ro, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song


This paper proposes the cooperative transmission scheme with pre-coding because the cellular communication requires high reliability. The cooperative transmission scheme uses pre-coding method with limited feedback information among small cells. Particularly, the proposed scheme has adaptive mode according to the position of mobile station. Thus, demand of recent wireless communication is resolved by this scheme. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has better performance compared to the conventional scheme in the cellular network.

Keywords: CDD, cellular network, pre-coding, SPC

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8899 Improved Performance of Cooperative Scheme in the Cellular and Broadcasting System

Authors: Hyun-Jee Yang, Bit-Na Kwon, Yong-Jun Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In the cooperative transmission scheme, both the cellular system and broadcasting system are composed. Two cellular base stations (CBSs) communicating with a user in the cell edge use cooperative transmission scheme in the conventional scheme. In the case that the distance between two CBSs and the user is distant, the conventional scheme does not guarantee the quality of the communication because the channel condition is bad. Therefore, if the distance between CBSs and a user is distant, the performance of the conventional scheme is decreased. Also, the bad channel condition has bad effects on the performance. The proposed scheme uses two relays to communicate well with CBSs when the channel condition between CBSs and the user is poor. Using the relay in the high attenuation environment can obtain both advantages of the high bit error rate (BER) and throughput performance.

Keywords: cooperative communications, diversity gain, OFDM, interworking system

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8898 Improved Predictive Models for the IRMA Network Using Nonlinear Optimisation

Authors: Vishwesh Kulkarni, Nikhil Bellarykar


Cellular complexity stems from the interactions among thousands of different molecular species. Thanks to the emerging fields of systems and synthetic biology, scientists are beginning to unravel these regulatory, signaling, and metabolic interactions and to understand their coordinated action. Reverse engineering of biological networks has has several benefits but a poor quality of data combined with the difficulty in reproducing it limits the applicability of these methods. A few years back, many of the commonly used predictive algorithms were tested on a network constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) to resolve this issue. The network was a synthetic network of five genes regulating each other for the so-called in vivo reverse-engineering and modeling assessment (IRMA). The network was constructed in S. cereviase since it is a simple and well characterized organism. The synthetic network included a variety of regulatory interactions, thus capturing the behaviour of larger eukaryotic gene networks on a smaller scale. We derive a new set of algorithms by solving a nonlinear optimization problem and show how these algorithms outperform other algorithms on these datasets.

Keywords: synthetic gene network, network identification, optimization, nonlinear modeling

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8897 Improved Particle Swarm Optimization with Cellular Automata and Fuzzy Cellular Automata

Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh


The particle swarm optimization are Meta heuristic optimization method, which are used for clustering and pattern recognition applications are abundantly. These algorithms in multimodal optimization problems are more efficient than genetic algorithms. A major drawback in these algorithms is their slow convergence to global optimum and their weak stability can be considered in various running of these algorithms. In this paper, improved Particle swarm optimization is introduced for the first time to overcome its problems. The fuzzy cellular automata is used for improving the algorithm efficiently. The credibility of the proposed approach is evaluated by simulations, and it is shown that the proposed approach achieves better results can be achieved compared to the Particle swarm optimization algorithms.

Keywords: cellular automata, cellular learning automata, local search, optimization, particle swarm optimization

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8896 Quantifying the Protein-Protein Interaction between the Ion-Channel-Forming Colicin A and the Tol Proteins by Potassium Efflux in E. coli Cells

Authors: Fadilah Aleanizy


Colicins are a family of bacterial toxins that kill Escherichia coli and other closely related species. The mode of action of colicins involves binding to an outer membrane receptor and translocation across the cell envelope, leading to cytotoxicity through specific targets. The mechanism of colicin cytotoxicity includes a non-specific endonuclease activity or depolarization of the cytoplasmic membrane by pore-forming activity. For Group A colicins, translocation requires an interaction between the N-terminal domain of the colicin and a series of membrane- bound and periplasmic proteins known as the Tol system (TolB, TolR, TolA, TolQ, and Pal and the active domain must be translocated through the outer membranes. Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to virtually every cellular process. The transient protein-protein interactions of the colicin include the interaction with much more complicated assemblies during colicin translocation across the cellular membrane to its target. The potassium release assay detects variation in the K+ content of bacterial cells (K+in). This assays is used to measure the effect of pore-forming colicins such as ColA on an indicator organism by measuring the changes of the K+ concentration in the external medium (K+out ) that are caused by cell killing with a K+ selective electrode. One of the goals of this work is to employ a quantifiable in-vivo method to spot which Tol protein are more implicated in the interaction with colicin A as it is translocated to its target.

Keywords: K+ efflux, Colicin A, Tol-proteins, E. coli

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8895 Toward Understanding the Glucocorticoid Receptor Network in Cancer

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Mattia Lauriola, Yuval Gilad, Adi Kimchi, Yosef Yarden


The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been proposed to play important, but incompletely understood roles in cancer. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as co-medication of various carcinomas, due to their ability to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. Furthermore, GR antagonism has proven to be a strategy to treat triple negative breast cancer and castration-resistant prostate cancer. These observations suggest differential GR involvement in cancer subtypes. The goal of our study has been to elaborate the current understanding of GR signaling in tumor progression and metastasis. Our study involves two cellular models, non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and Ewing sarcoma cells (CHLA9). In our breast cell model, the results indicated that the GR agonist dexamethasone inhibits EGF-induced mammary cell migration, and this effect was blocked when cells were stimulated with a GR antagonist, namely RU486. Microarray analysis for gene expression revealed that the mechanism underlying inhibition involves dexamenthasone-mediated repression of well-known activators of EGFR signaling, alongside with enhancement of several EGFR’s negative feedback loops. Because GR mainly acts primarily through composite response elements (GREs), or via a tethering mechanism, our next aim has been to find the transcription factors (TFs) which can interact with GR in MCF10A cells.The TF-binding motif overrepresented at the promoter of dexamethasone-regulated genes was predicted by using bioinformatics. To validate the prediction, we performed high-throughput Protein Complementation Assays (PCA). For this, we utilized the Gaussia Luciferase PCA strategy, which enabled analysis of protein-protein interactions between GR and predicted TFs of mammary cells. A library comprising both nuclear receptors (estrogen receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, GR) and TFs was fused to fragments of GLuc, namely GLuc(1)-X, X-GLuc(1), and X-GLuc(2), where GLuc(1) and GLuc(2) correspond to the N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the luciferase gene.The resulting library was screened, in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells, for all possible interactions between nuclear receptors and TFs. By screening all of the combinations between TFs and nuclear receptors, we identified several positive interactions, which were strengthened in response to dexamethasone and abolished in response to RU486. Furthermore, the interactions between GR and the candidate TFs were validated by co-immunoprecipitation in MCF10A and in CHLA9 cells. Currently, the roles played by the uncovered interactions are being evaluated in various cellular processes, such as cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. In conclusion, our assay provides an unbiased network analysis between nuclear receptors and other TFs, which can lead to important insights into transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors in various diseases, in this case of cancer.

Keywords: epidermal growth factor, glucocorticoid receptor, protein complementation assay, transcription factor

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8894 Environmental Factors and Executive Functions of Children in 5-Year-Old Kindergarten

Authors: Stephanie Duval


The concept of educational success, combined with the overall development of the child in kindergarten, is at the center of current interests, both in research and in the environments responsible for the education of young children. In order to promote it, researchers emphasize the importance of studying the executive functions [EF] of children in preschool education. More precisely, the EFs, which refers to working memory [WM], inhibition, mental flexibility and planning, would be the pivotal element of the child’s educational success. In order to support the EFs of the child, and even his educational success, the quality of the environments is beginning to be explored more and more. The question that arises now is how to promote EFs for young children in the educational environment, in order to support their educational success? The objective of this study is to investigate the link between the quality of interactions in 5-year-old kindergarten and child’s EFs. The sample consists of 118 children (70 girls, 48 boys) in 12 classes. The quality of the interactions is observed from the Classroom Assessment Scoring System [CLASS], and the EFs (i.e., working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and planning) are measured with administered tests. The hypothesis of this study was that the quality of teacher-child interactions in preschool education, as measured by the CLASS, was associated with the child’s EFs. The results revealed that the quality of emotional support offered by adults in kindergarten, included in the CLASS tool, was positively and significantly related to WM and inhibition skills. The results also suggest that WM is a key skill in the development of EFs, which may be associated with the educational success of the child. However, this hypothesis remains to be clarified, as is the link with educational success. In addition, results showed that factors associated to the family (ex. parents’ income) moderate the relationship between the domain ‘instructional support’ of the CLASS (ex. concept development) and child’s WM skills. These data suggest a moderating effect related to family characteristics in the link between ‘quality of classroom interactions’ and ‘EFs’. This project proposes, as a future avenue, to check the distinctive effect of different environments (familial and educational) on the child’s EFs. More specifically, future study could examine the influence of the educational environment on EF skills, as well as whether or not there is a moderating effect of the family environment (ex. parents' income) on the link between the quality of the interactions in the classroom and the EFs of the children, as anticipated by this research.

Keywords: executive functions [EFs], environmental factors, quality of interactions, preschool education

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8893 Monitoring Vaginal Electrical Resistance, Follicular Wave and Hormonal Profile during Estrus Cycle in Indigenous Sheep

Authors: T. A. Rosy, M. R. I. Talukdar, N. S. Juyena, F. Y. Bari, M. N. Islam


The ovarian follicular dynamics, vaginal electrical resistance (VER) and progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) profiles were investigated during estrus cycle in four indigenous ewes. Daily VER values were recorded with heat detector. The follicles were observed and measured by trans-rectal ultrasonography. Blood was collected daily for hormonal profiles. Results showed a significant variation in VER values (P<0.05) at estrus in regards to ewes and cycles. The day difference between two successive lower values in VER waves ranged from 13-17 days which might indicate the estrus cycle in indigenous ewes. Trans-rectal ultrasonography of ovaries revealed the presence of two to four waves of follicular growth during the study period. Results also showed that follicular diameter was negatively correlated with VER values. Study of hormonal profiles by ELISA revealed a positive correlation between E2 concentration and development of follicle and negative correlation between P4 concentration and development of follicle. The concentrations of estradiol increased at the time of estrus and then fall down in a basal level. Development of follicular size was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of serum estradiol. Inversely, when follicles heed to ovulation concentration of progesterone starts to fall down and after ovulation it turns its way to the zenith and remains at this state until next ovulatory follicle comes to its maximum diameter. This study could help scientists to set up a manipulative reproductive technique for improving genetic values of sheep in Bangladesh.

Keywords: ovarian follicle, hormonal profile, sheep, ultrasonography, vaginal electrical resistance

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8892 An Agent-Based Model of Innovation Diffusion Using Heterogeneous Social Interaction and Preference

Authors: Jang kyun Cho, Jeong-dong Lee


The advent of the Internet, mobile communications, and social network services has stimulated social interactions among consumers, allowing people to affect one another’s innovation adoptions by exchanging information more frequently and more quickly. Previous diffusion models, such as the Bass model, however, face limitations in reflecting such recent phenomena in society. These models are weak in their ability to model interactions between agents; they model aggregated-level behaviors only. The agent based model, which is an alternative to the aggregate model, is good for individual modeling, but it is still not based on an economic perspective of social interactions so far. This study assumes the presence of social utility from other consumers in the adoption of innovation and investigates the effect of individual interactions on innovation diffusion by developing a new model called the interaction-based diffusion model. By comparing this model with previous diffusion models, the study also examines how the proposed model explains innovation diffusion from the perspective of economics. In addition, the study recommends the use of a small-world network topology instead of cellular automata to describe innovation diffusion. This study develops a model based on individual preference and heterogeneous social interactions using utility specification, which is expandable and, thus, able to encompass various issues in diffusion research, such as reservation price. Furthermore, the study proposes a new framework to forecast aggregated-level market demand from individual level modeling. The model also exhibits a good fit to real market data. It is expected that the study will contribute to our understanding of the innovation diffusion process through its microeconomic theoretical approach.

Keywords: innovation diffusion, agent based model, small-world network, demand forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
8891 Systematic Exploration and Modulation of Nano-Bio Interactions

Authors: Bing Yan


Nanomaterials are widely used in various industrial sectors, biomedicine, and more than 1300 consumer products. Although there is still no standard safety regulation, their potential toxicity is a major concern worldwide. We discovered that nanoparticles target and enter human cells1, perturb cellular signaling pathways2, affect various cell functions3, and cause malfunctions in animals4,5. Because the majority of atoms in nanoparticles are on the surface, chemistry modification on their surface may change their biological properties significantly. We modified nanoparticle surface using nano-combinatorial chemistry library approach6. Novel nanoparticles were discovered to exhibit significantly reduced toxicity6,7, enhance cancer targeting ability8, or re-program cellular signaling machineries7. Using computational chemistry, quantitative nanostructure-activity relationship (QNAR) is established and predictive models have been built to predict biocompatible nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, nanotoxicity, nano-bio, nano-combinatorial chemistry, nanoparticle library

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
8890 Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handover on Silom Line BTS

Authors: Silumpa Suboonsan, Suwat Pattaramalai


In this paper, the performance of internet usage by using Vertical Handover (VHO) between cellular network and wireless local area network (WLAN) on Silom line Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS) is evaluated. In the evaluation model, there is the WLAN on every BTS station and there are cellular base stations along the BTS path. The maximum data rates for cellular network are 7.2, 14.4, 42, and 100Mbps and for WLAN are 54, 150, and 300Mbps. The simulation are based on users using internet, watching VDOs and browsing web pages, on the BTS train from first station to the last station (full time usage) and on the BTS train for traveling some number of stations (random time). The results shows that VHO system has throughput a lot more than using only cellular network when the data rate of WLAN is more than one of cellular network. Lastly, the number of watching HD VDO and Full HD VDO is higher on VHO system on both regular time and rush hour of BTS travelling.

Keywords: vertical handover, WLAN, cellular, silom line BTS

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
8889 Land Use Change Modeling Using Cellular Automata, Case Study: Karawang City, West Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Bagus Indrawan Hardi


Cellular Automata are widely used in land use modeling, it has been proven powerful to simulate land use change for small scale in many large cities in the world. In this paper, we try to implement CA for land use modeling in unique city in Indonesia, Karawang. Instead the complex numerical implementation, CA are simple, and it is accurate and also highly dependable on the on the rules (rule based). The most important to do in CA is how we form and calculate the neighborhood effect. The neighborhood effect represents the environment and relationship situation between the occupied cell and others. We adopted 196 cells of circular neighborhood with 8 cells of radius. For the results, CA works well in this study, we exhibit several analyzed and proceed of zoomed part in Karawang region. The rule set can handle the complexity in land use modeling. However, we cannot strictly believe of the result, many non-technical parameters, such as politics, natural disaster activities, etc. may change the results dramatically.

Keywords: cellular automata (CA), land use change, spatial dynamics, urban sprawl

Procedia PDF Downloads 163