Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: antimony

18 Solvent Extraction, Spectrophotometric Determination of Antimony(III) from Real Samples and Synthetic Mixtures Using O-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Sensitive Reagent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Shivaji D. Pulate, Vishwas B. Gaikwad

Abstract:

A simple and selective method is developed for solvent extraction spectrophotometric determination of antimony(III) using O-Methylphenyl Thiourea (OMPT) as a sensitive chromogenic chelating agent. The basis of proposed method is formation of antimony(III)-OMPT complex was extracted with 0.0025 M OMPT in chloroform from aqueous solution of antimony(III) in 1.0 M perchloric acid. The absorbance of this complex was measured at 297 nm against reagent blank. Beer’s law was obeyed up to 15µg mL-1 of antimony(III). The Molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity of the antimony(III)-OMPT complex in chloroform are 16.6730 × 103 L mol-1 cm-1 and 0.00730282 µg cm-2 respectively. The stoichiometry of antimony(III)-OMPT complex was established from slope ratio method, mole ratio method and Job’s continuous variation method was 1:2. The complex was stable for more than 48 h. The interfering effect of various foreign ions was studied and suitable masking agents are used wherever necessary to enhance selectivity of the method. The proposed method is successfully applied for determination of antimony(III) from real samples alloy and synthetic mixtures. Repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 determinations which was 0.42%.

Keywords: solvent extraction, antimony, spectrophotometry, real sample analysis

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17 The Effect of Vitamin "E" on the Peripheral Neurotoxicity of Antimony in Adult Male Albino Rat

Authors: Pymaneh Bairami Rad

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The present work was planned with the aim to study the histological changes that might occur in the sciatic nerve of adult male albino rat following antimony trioxide exposure and to throw more light on the protective role of vitamin "E" on the peripheral neurotoxicity induced by this environmental toxin Sixty adult male albino rats, weighing 183 - 235 grams, were utilized in this work. The animals were divided into 3 groups; each of 20 rats: animals of group I served as control, animals of group II received antimony trioxide daily for 12 successive weeks , animals of group III received antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" daily for the same duration. Antimony trioxide was given in a daily dose of 500 mg/ kg body weight which represents 1/40 of the known LD50 and vitamin "E" was administered in a daily dose of 300 mg/kg body weight. Both antimony trioxide and vitamin "E" were given to the animals by gastric intubation. This research revealed many histological changes in the sciatic nerve, following exposure to antimony trioxide, including Wallerian degeneration in most myelinated nerve fibers with pleomorphic destruction, fragmentation, loss of normal lamination and rupture of myelin sheaths. The axoplasms of these nerve fibers were irregular, degenerated and contained myelin fragments with loss of neurofibrils. Obvious increase in endoneurium was also observed. Concomitant administration of vitamin "E" with antimony trioxide resulted in marked improvement in the histological changes observed in the sciatic nerve.

Keywords: neurotoxicity, antimony, vitamin e, anatomy, histology

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16 Effect of Antimony on Microorganisms in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments

Authors: Barrera C. Monserrat, Sierra-Alvarez Reyes, Pat-Espadas Aurora, Moreno Andrade Ivan

Abstract:

Antimony is a toxic and carcinogenic metalloid considered a pollutant of priority interest by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It is present in the environment in two oxidation states: antimonite (Sb (III)) and antimony (Sb (V)). Sb (III) is toxic to several aquatic organisms, but the potential inhibitory effect of Sb species for microorganisms has not been extensively evaluated. The fate and possible toxic impact of antimony on aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment systems are unknown. For this reason, the objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial toxicity of Sb (V) and Sb (III) in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Sb(V) and Sb(III) were used as potassium hexahydroxoantimonate (V) and potassium antimony tartrate, respectively (Sigma-Aldrich). The toxic effect of both Sb species in anaerobic environments was evaluated on methanogenic activity and the inhibition of hydrogen production of microorganisms from a wastewater treatment bioreactor. For the methanogenic activity, batch experiments were carried out in 160 mL serological bottles; each bottle contained basal mineral medium (100 mL), inoculum (1.5 g of VSS/L), acetate (2.56 g/L) as substrate, and variable concentrations of Sb (V) or Sb (III). Duplicate bioassays were incubated at 30 ± 2°C on an orbital shaker (105 rpm) in the dark. Methane production was monitored by gas chromatography. The hydrogen production inhibition tests were carried out in glass bottles with a working volume of 0.36 L. Glucose (50 g/L) was used as a substrate, pretreated inoculum (5 g VSS/L), mineral medium and varying concentrations of the two species of antimony. The bottles were kept under stirring and at a temperature of 35°C in an AMPTSII device that recorded hydrogen production. The toxicity of Sb on aerobic microorganisms (from a wastewater activated sludge treatment plant) was tested with a Microtox standardized toxicity test and respirometry. Results showed that Sb (III) is more toxic than Sb (V) for methanogenic microorganisms. Sb (V) caused a 50% decrease in methanogenic activity at 250 mg/L. In contrast, exposure to Sb (III) resulted in a 50% inhibition at a concentration of only 11 mg/L, and an almost complete inhibition (95%) at 25 mg/L. For hydrogen-producing microorganisms, Sb (III) and Sb (V) inhibited 50% of this production with 12.6 mg/L and 87.7 mg/L, respectively. The results for aerobic environments showed that 500 mg/L of Sb (V) do not inhibit the Allivibrio fischeri (Microtox) activity or specific oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge. In the case of Sb (III), this caused a loss of 50% of the respiration of the microorganisms at concentrations below 40 mg/L. The results obtained indicate that the toxicity of the antimony will depend on the speciation of this metalloid and that Sb (III) has a significantly higher inhibitory potential compared to Sb (V). It was shown that anaerobic microorganisms can reduce Sb (V) to Sb (III). Acknowledgments: This work was funded in part by grants from the UA-CONACYT Binational Consortium for the Regional Scientific Development and Innovation (CAZMEX), the National Institute of Health (NIH ES- 04940), and PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM (IN105220).

Keywords: aerobic inhibition, antimony reduction, hydrogen inhibition, methanogenic toxicity

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15 Development of Sb/MWCNT Free Standing Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Indu Elizabeth

Abstract:

Antimony/Multi Walled Carbon nano tube nanocomposite (Sb/MWCNT) is synthesized using ethylene glycol mediated reduction process. Binder free, self-supporting and flexible Sb/MWCNT nanocomposite paper has been prepared by employing the vacuum filtration technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the structure of anode and tested for its performance in a Lithium rechargeable cell. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Sb/MWCNT composite paper anode delivers a specific discharge capacity of ~400 mAh g-1 up to a current density of 100 mA g-1.

Keywords: antimony, lithium ion battery, multiwalled carbon nanotube, specific capacity

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14 Metal (Loids) Speciation Using HPLC-ICP-MS Technique in Klodnica River, Upper Silesia, Poland

Authors: Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

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The work allowed gaining knowledge about redox and speciation changes of As, Cr, and Sb ionic forms in Klodnica River water. This kind of studies never has been conducted in this region of Poland. In study optimized and validated previously HPLC-ICP-MS methods for determination of As, Sb and Cr was used. Separation step was done using high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with ion-exchange column followed by ICP-MS spectrometer detector. Preliminary studies included determination of the total concentration of As, Sb and Cr, pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity of the water samples. The study was conducted monthly from March to August 2014, at six points on the Klodnica River. The results indicate that exceeded at acceptable concentration of total Cr and Sb was observed in Klodnica River and we should qualify Klodnica River waters below the second purity class. In Klodnica River waters dominates oxidized antimony and arsenic forms, as well as the two forms of chromium Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Studies have also shown the methyl derivative of arsenic's presence.

Keywords: antimony, arsenic, chromium, HPLC-ICP-MS, river water, speciation

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13 Dose Saving and Image Quality Evaluation for Computed Tomography Head Scanning with Eye Protection

Authors: Yuan-Hao Lee, Chia-Wei Lee, Ming-Fang Lin, Tzu-Huei Wu, Chih-Hsiang Ko, Wing P. Chan

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Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head is a good method for investigating cranial lesions. However, radiation-induced oxidative stress can be accumulated in the eyes and promote carcinogenesis and cataract. In this regard, we aimed to protect the eyes with barium sulfate shield(s) during CT scans and investigate the resultant image quality and radiation dose to the eye. Patients who underwent health examinations were selectively enrolled in this study in compliance with the protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the Joint Institutional Review Board at Taipei Medical University. Participants’ brains were scanned with a water-based marker simultaneously by a multislice CT scanner (SOMATON Definition Flash) under a fixed tube current-time setting or automatic tube current modulation (TCM). The lens dose was measured by Gafchromic films, whose dose response curve was previously fitted using thermoluminescent dosimeters, with or without barium sulfate or bismuth-antimony shield laid above. For the assessment of image quality CT images at slice planes that exhibit the interested regions on the zygomatic, orbital and nasal bones of the head phantom as well as the water-based marker were used for calculating the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios. The application of barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shields decreased 24% and 47% of the lens dose on average, respectively. Under topogram-based TCM, the dose saving power of bismuth-antimony shield was mitigated whereas that of barium sulfate shield was enhanced. On the other hand, the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of DSCT images were decreased separately by barium sulfate and bismuth-antimony shield, resulting in an overall reduction of the CNR. In contrast, the integration of topogram-based TCM elevated signal difference between the ROIs on the zygomatic bones and eyeballs while preferentially decreasing the signal-to-noise ratios upon the use of barium sulfate shield. The results of this study indicate that the balance between eye exposure and image quality can be optimized by combining eye shields with topogram-based TCM on the multislice scanner. Eye shielding could change the photon attenuation characteristics of tissues that are close to the shield. The application of both shields on eye protection hence is not recommended for seeking intraorbital lesions.

Keywords: computed tomography, barium sulfate shield, dose saving, image quality

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12 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan

Abstract:

Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: biosorption, environmental, toxic metals, wastewater

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11 The Relationship between the Epithermal Mineralization, Thermalism, and Basement Faults in the Region of Guelma: NE of Algeria

Authors: B. Merdas

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The Guelma region constitutes a vast geothermal field whose local geothermal gradient is very high. Indeed, various thermal and thermo sources emerging in the region, including some at relatively high temperatures. In the mio Pliocene Hammam N'bails, basin emerges a hot spring that leaves develop a thick series of thermal travertine linked to it. Near the thermal emergences has settled a very special mineralization antimony and zinc and lead. The results of analyses of the thermal waters of the source of Hammam N'bails and the associated travertine, show abnormal values in Pb, Sb, Zn, As, and other metals, demonstrating the genetic link between those waters and mineralization. Hammam N'bails mineralizations by their mineral assembling represented and their association with the hot springs, are very similar to epithermal deposits with precious metals (gold and silver) like Senator mine in Turkey or ‘Carlin-type’ in Nevada (USA).

Keywords: hot springs, mineralization; basement faults, Guelma, NE Algeria

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10 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri

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Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay

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9 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal

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Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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8 HPTLC Fingerprinting of steroidal glycoside of leaves and berries of Solanum nigrum L. (Inab-us-salab/makoh)

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh K. Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad

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Inab-us-salab also known as Solanum nigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various unani traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of solanaceae, these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time its fractionation and fingerprinting of aglycone (solasodine) and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) in leaves and berries of S. nigrum using solvent extraction and fractionation followed by HPTLC analysis. The fingerprinting was done using silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5% ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phase at 400 nm, after derivatization with antimony tri chloride reagent for identification of steroidal glycoside. The statistical data obtained can further be validated and can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanum nigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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7 Efficient Mercury Sorbent: Activated Carbon and Metal Organic Framework Hybrid

Authors: Yongseok Hong, Kurt Louis Solis

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In the present study, a hybrid sorbent using the metal organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, and powdered activated carbon (pAC) is synthesized to remove cationic and anionic metals simultaneously. UiO-66 is an octahedron-shaped MOF with a Zr₆O₄(OH)₄ metal node and 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDC) organic linker. Zr-based MOFs are attractive for trace element remediation in wastewaters, because Zr is relatively non-toxic as compared to other classes of MOF and, therefore, it will not cause secondary pollution. Most remediation studies with UiO-66 target anions such as fluoride, but trace element oxyanions such as arsenic, selenium, and antimony have also been investigated. There have also been studies involving mercury removal by UiO-66 derivatives, however these require post-synthetic modifications or have lower effective surface areas. Activated carbon is known for being a readily available, well-studied, effective adsorbent for metal contaminants. Solvothermal method was employed to prepare hybrid sorbent from UiO66 and activated carbon, which could be used to remove mercury and selenium simultaneously. The hybrid sorbent was characterized using FSEM-EDS, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. The results showed that UiO66 and activated carbon are successfully composited. From BET studies, the hybrid sorbent has a SBET of 1051 m² g⁻¹. Adsorption studies were performed, where the hybrid showed maximum adsorption of 204.63 mg g⁻¹ and 168 mg g⁻¹ for Hg (II) and selenite, respectively, and follows the Langmuir model for both species. Kinetics studies have revealed that the Hg uptake of the hybrid is pseudo-2nd order and has rate constant of 5.6E-05 g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and the selenite uptake follows the simplified Elovich model with α = 2.99 mg g⁻¹ min⁻¹, β = 0.032 g mg⁻¹.

Keywords: adsorption, flue gas wastewater, mercury, selenite, metal organic framework

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6 Towards the Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties by Controlling the Thermoelectrical Nature of Grain Boundaries in Polycrystalline Materials

Authors: Angel Fabian Mijangos, Jaime Alvarez Quintana

Abstract:

Waste heat occurs in many areas of daily life because world’s energy consumption is inefficient. In general, generating 1 watt of power requires about 3 watt of energy input and involves dumping into the environment the equivalent of about 2 watts of power in the form of heat. Therefore, an attractive and sustainable solution to the energy problem would be the development of highly efficient thermoelectric devices which could help to recover this waste heat. This work presents the influence on the thermoelectric properties of metallic, semiconducting, and dielectric nanoparticles added into the grain boundaries of polycrystalline antimony (Sb) and bismuth (Bi) matrixes in order to obtain p- and n-type thermoelectric materials, respectively, by hot pressing methods. Results show that thermoelectric properties are significantly affected by the electrical and thermal nature as well as concentration of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, by optimizing the amount of the nanoparticles on the grain boundaries, an oscillatory behavior in ZT as function of the concentration of the nanoscale constituents is present. This effect is due to energy filtering mechanism which module the quantity of charge transport in the system and affects thermoelectric properties. Accordingly, a ZTmax can be accomplished through the addition of the appropriate amount of nanoparticles into the grain boundaries region. In this case, till three orders of amelioration on ZT is reached in both systems compared with the reference sample of each one. This approach paves the way to pursuit high performance thermoelectric materials in a simple way and opens a new route towards the enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit.

Keywords: energy filtering, grain boundaries, thermoelectric, nanostructured materials

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5 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

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Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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4 Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process

Authors: Lakshmikanth Reddy, Bhavin Desai, Chandrakala Kari, Sanjay Sarkar, Pradeep Binu

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The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.

Keywords: copper, selenium, copper selenide, sludge, roasting, SeO₂

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3 Dietary Exposure of Heavy Metals through Cereals Commonly Consumed by Dhaka City Residents

Authors: A. Md. Bayejid Hosen, B. M Zakir Hossain Howlader, C. Yearul Kabir

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Contamination of soil and agricultural products by heavy metals resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concern. Dietary exposure to heavy metals has been associated with toxic and adverse health effects. The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to Pb, Cd and Hg. The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of heavy metals in cereals collected from different wholesale markets of Dhaka City. One hundred and sixty cereal samples were collected and analyzed for determination of heavy metals. Heavy metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A total of six heavy metals– lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and antimony were estimated. The average concentrations of heavy metals in cereals fall within the safe limit established by regulatory organizations except for Pb (152.4 μg/100g) and Hg (15.13 μg/100g) which exceeded the safe limits. BARI gom-26 was the highest source of Pb (304.1 μg/100g) whereas Haski-29 rice variety contained the highest amount of Hg (60.85 μg/100g). Though all the cereal varieties contained approximately same amount of Cr the naizer sail varieties contained huge amount of Cr (171.8 μg/100g). Among all the cereal samples miniket rice varieties contained the least amount of heavy metals. The concentration of Cr (63.24 μg/100g), Cd (5.54 μg/100g) and As (3.26 μg/100g) in all cereals were below the safe limits. The daily intake of heavy metals was determined using the total weight of cereals consumed each day multiplied by the concentrations of heavy metals in cereals. The daily intake was compared with provisional maximum tolerable daily intake set by different regulatory organizations. The daily intake of Cd (23.0 μg), Hg (63.0 μg) and as (13.6 μg) through cereals were below the risk level except for Pb (634.0 μg) and Cr (263.1 μg). As the main meal of average Bangladeshi people is boiled rice served with some sorts of vegetables, our findings indicate that the residents of Dhaka City are at risk from Pb and Cr contamination. Potential health risks from exposure to heavy metals in self-planted cereals need more attention.

Keywords: contamination, dietary exposure, heavy metals, human health, ICP-MS

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2 The Study of the Absorption and Translocation of Chromium by Lygeum spartum in the Mining Region of Djebel Hamimat and Soil-Plant Interaction

Authors: H. Khomri, A. Bentellis

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Since century of the Development Activities extraction and a dispersed mineral processing Toxic metals and much more contaminated vast areas occupied by what they natural outcrops. New types of metalliferous habitats are so appeared. A species that is Lygeum spartum attracted our curiosity because apart from its valuable role in desertification, it is apparently able to exclude antimony and other metals can be. This species, green leaf blades which are provided as cattle feed, would be a good subject for phytoremediation of mineral soils. The study of absorption and translocation of chromium by the Lygeum spartum in the mining region of Djebel Hamimat and the interaction soil-plant, revealed that soils of this species living in this region are alkaline, calcareous majority in their fine texture medium and saline in their minority. They have normal levels of organic matter. They are moderately rich in nitrogen. They contain total chromium content reaches a maximum of 66,80 mg Kg^(-1) and a total absence of soluble chromium. The results of the analysis of variance of the difference between bare soils and soils appear Lygeum spartum made a significant difference only for the silt and organic matter. But for the other variables analyzed this difference is not significant. Thus, this plant has only one action on the amendment, only the levels of silt and organic matter in soils. The results of the multiple regression of the chromium content of the roots according to all soil variables studied did appear that among the studied variables included in the model, only the electrical conductivity and clay occur in the explanation of contents chromium in roots. The chromium content of the aerial parts analyzed by regression based on all studied soil variables allows us to see only the variables: electrical conductivity and content of chromium in the root portion involved in the explanation of the content chromium in the aerial part.

Keywords: absorption, translocation, analysis of variance, chrome, Lygeum spartum, multiple regression, the soil variables

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1 Anatomical and Histochemical Investigation of the Leaf of Vitex agnus-castus L.

Authors: S. Mamoucha, J. Rahul, N. Christodoulakis

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Introduction: Nature has been the source of medicinal agents since the dawn of the human existence on Earth. Currently, millions of people, in the developing world, rely on medicinal plants for primary health care, income generation and lifespan improvement. In Greece, more than 5500 plant taxa are reported while about 250 of them are considered to be of great pharmaceutical importance. Among the plants used for medical purposes, Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) is known since ancient times. It is a small tree or shrub, widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin up to the Central Asia. It is also known as chaste tree or monks pepper. Theophrastus mentioned the shrub several times, as ‘agnos’ in his ‘Enquiry into Plants’. Dioscorides mentioned the use of V. agnus-castus for the stimulation of lactation in nursing mothers and the treatment of several female disorders. The plant has important medicinal properties and a long tradition in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, diuretic, digestive and insecticidal agent. Materials and methods: Leaves were cleaned, detached, fixed, sectioned and investigated with light and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Histochemical tests were executed as well. Specific histochemical reagents (osmium tetroxide, H2SO4, vanillin/HCl, antimony trichloride, Wagner’ s reagent, Dittmar’ s reagent, potassium bichromate, nitroso reaction, ferric chloride and di methoxy benzaldehyde) were used for the sub cellular localization of secondary metabolites. Results: Light microscopical investigations of the elongated leaves of V. agnus-castus revealed three layers of palisade parenchyma, just below the single layered adaxial epidermis. The spongy parenchyma is rather loose. Adaxial epidermal cells are larger in magnitude, compared to those of the abaxial epidermis. Four different types of capitate, secreting trichomes, were localized among the abaxial epidermal cells. Stomata were observed at the abaxial epidermis as well. SEM revealed the interesting arrangement of trichomes. Histochemical treatment on fresh and plastic embedded tissue sections revealed the nature and the sites of secondary metabolites accumulation (flavonoids, steroids, terpenes). Acknowledgment: This work was supported by IKY - State Scholarship Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Keywords: Vitex agnus-castus, leaf anatomy, histochemical reagents, secondary metabolites

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