Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 22019

Search results for: FTIR analysis

22019 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Duzgun, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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22018 Tga Analysis on the Decomposition of Active Material of Aquilaria Malaccencis

Authors: Nurshafika Adira Bt Audi Ashraf, Habsah Alwi


This study describes the series of analysis conducted after the use of Vacuum far Infra Red. Parameter including the constant drying temperature at 40°C with pressure difference (-400 bar, -500 bar and -600 bar) and constant drying pressure at -400 bar with difference temperature (40°C, 50°C and 60°C). The dried leaves with constant temperature and constant pressure is compared with the fresh leaves via several analysis including TGA, FTIR and Chromameter. Results indicated that the fresh leaves shows three degradation stages while temperature constant shows four stages of degradation and at constant pressure of -400 bar, five stages of degradation is shown. However, at the temperature constant with pressure -500 bar, five degradation stages are identified and at constant pressure with temperature 40°C, three stage of degradation is presence. It is assumed that it is due to the difference size of the sample as the particle size is decrease, the peak temperature shown in TG curves is also decrease which lead to the rapid ignition. Based on the FTIR analysis, fresh leaves gives the high presence of O-H and C=O group where both of the constant parameters give the absence of those due to the drying effects. In color analysis, the constant drying parameters (pressure and temperature) both shows that as the temperature increases, the average total of color change is also increases.

Keywords: chromameter, FTIR, TGA, Vaccum far infrared dying

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22017 Effect of Extrusion Processing Parameters on Protein in Banana Flour Extrudates: Characterisation Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Surabhi Pandey, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao


Extrusion processing is a high-temperature short time (HTST) treatment which can improve protein quality and digestibility together with retaining active nutrients. In-vitro protein digestibility of plant protein-based foods is generally enhanced by extrusion. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of extrusion cooking on in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and conformational modification of protein in green banana flour extrudates. Green banana flour was extruded through a co-rotating twin-screw extruder varying the moisture content, barrel temperature, screw speed in the range of 10-20 %, 60-80 °C, 200-300 rpm, respectively, at constant feed rate. Response surface methodology was used to optimise the result for IVPD. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided a convenient and powerful means to monitor interactions and changes in functional and conformational properties of extrudates. Results showed that protein digestibility was highest in extrudate produced at 80°C, 250 rpm and 15% feed moisture. FTIR analysis was done for the optimised sample having highest IVPD. FTIR analysis showed that there were no changes in primary structure of protein while the secondary protein structure changed. In order to explain this behaviour, infrared spectroscopy analysis was carried out, mainly in the amide I and II regions. Moreover, curve fitting analysis showed the conformational changes produced in the flour due to protein denaturation. The quantitative analysis of the changes in the amide I and II regions provided information about the modifications produced in banana flour extrudates.

Keywords: extrusion, FTIR, protein conformation, raw banana flour, SDS-PAGE method

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22016 Isolation and Molecular IdentıFıCation of Polyethylene Degrading Bacteria From Soil and Degradation Detection by FTIR Analysis

Authors: Morteza Haghi, Cigdem Yilmazbas, Ayse Zeynep Uysal, Melisa Tepedelen, Gozde Turkoz Bakirci


Today, the increase in plastic waste accumulation is an inescapable consequence of environmental pollution; the disposal of these wastes has caused a significant problem. Variable methods have been utilized; however, biodegradation is the most environmentally friendly and low-cost method. Accordingly, the present study aimed to isolate the bacteria capable of biodegradation of plastics. In doing so, we applied the liquid carbon-free basal medium (LCFBM) prepared with deionized water for the isolation of bacterial species obtained from soil samples taken from the Izmir Menemen region. Isolates forming biofilms on plastic were selected and named (PLB3, PLF1, PLB1B) and subjected to a degradation test. FTIR analysis, 16s rDNA amplification, sequencing, identification of isolates were performed. Finally, at the end of the process, a mass loss of 16.6% in PLB3 isolate and 25% in PLF1 isolate was observed, while no mass loss was detected in PLB1B isolate. Only PLF1 and PLB1B created transparent zones on plastic texture. Considering the FTIR result, PLB3 changed plastic structure by 13.6% and PLF1 by 17%, while PLB1B did not change the plastic texture. According to the 16s rDNA sequence analysis, FLP1, PLB1B, and PLB3 isolates were identified as Streptomyces albogriseolus, Enterobacter cloacae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively.

Keywords: polyethylene, biodegradation, bacteria, 16s rDNA, FTIR

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22015 Development and Characterization of Biodegradable Films Based on Biopolymer Extracted From Natural Sources

Authors: Dalila Hammiche, Lisa Klaai, Sonia Imzi, Amar Boukerrou


The fight against plastic pollution implies the development of polymers as alternatives to synthetic polymers. Starch is a natural polymer that can easily be plasticized by means of additives. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize biodegradable biofilms based on starch, plasticized by glycerol (20 and 30%). The elaboration of the biofilms was carried out by the casting method under simple conditions. The samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy analysis with Fourier transform (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis, and biodegradability test. Infrared spectral analysis showed that the 30% and 20% glycerol films have the same chemical structure and no functional group changes occurred. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that a 30% glycerol film has higher thermal stability than a 20% glycerol film. Biodegradability test showed that the lower the percentage of glycerol, the more easily the biofilm degrades.

Keywords: starch, natural sources, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis, biodegradability test

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22014 CO₂ Absorption Studies Using Amine Solvents with Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

Authors: Avoseh Funmilola, Osman Khalid, Wayne Nelson, Paramespri Naidoo, Deresh Ramjugernath


The increasing global atmospheric temperature is of great concern and this has led to the development of technologies to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion are major sources of greenhouse gases. One of the ways to reduce the emission of CO₂ from flue gases is by post combustion capture process and this can be done by absorbing the gas into suitable chemical solvents before emitting the gas into the atmosphere. Alkanolamines are promising solvents for this capture process. Vapour liquid equilibrium of CO₂-alkanolamine systems is often represented by CO₂ loading and partial pressure of CO₂ without considering the liquid phase. The liquid phase of this system is a complex one comprising of 9 species. Online analysis of the process is important to monitor the concentrations of the liquid phase reacting and product species. Liquid phase analysis of CO₂-diethanolamine (DEA) solution was performed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. A robust Calibration was performed for the CO₂-aqueous DEA system prior to an online monitoring experiment. The partial least square regression method was used for the analysis of the calibration spectra obtained. The models obtained were used for prediction of DEA and CO₂ concentrations in the online monitoring experiment. The experiment was performed with a newly built recirculating experimental set up in the laboratory. The set up consist of a 750 ml equilibrium cell and ATR-FTIR liquid flow cell. Measurements were performed at 400°C. The results obtained indicated that the FTIR spectroscopy combined with Partial least square method is an effective tool for online monitoring of speciation.

Keywords: ATR-FTIR, CO₂ capture, online analysis, PLS regression

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22013 Dielectric Properties of PANI/h-BN Composites

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Emrah Cakmakci


Polyaniline (PANI), the most studied member of the conductive polymers, has a wide range of uses from several electronic devices to various conductive high-technology applications. Boron nitride (BN) is a boron and nitrogen containing compound with superior chemical and thermal resistance and thermal conductivity. Even though several composites of PANI was prepared in literature, the preparation of h-BN/PANI composites is rare. In this work PANI was polymerized in the presence of different amounts of h-BN (1, 3 and 5% with respect to PANI) by using 0.1 M solution of NH4S2O8 in HCl as the oxidizing agent and conductive composites were prepared. Composites were structurally characterized with FTIR spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Thermal properties of conductive composites were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dielectric measurements were performed in the frequency range of 106–108 Hz at room temperature. The corresponding bands for the benzenoid and quinoid rings at around 1593 and 1496 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra of the composites proved the formation of polyaniline. Together with the FTIR spectra, XRD analysis also revealed the existence of the interactions between PANI and h-BN. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the composites increased with the increasing amount of PANI (from 87 to 101). TGA revealed that the char yield of the composites increased as the amount of h-BN was increased in the composites. Finally the dielectric permittivity of 3 wt.%h-BN-containing composite was measured and found as approximately 17. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: dielectric permittivity, h-BN, PANI, thermal analysis

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22012 Statistical Discrimination of Blue Ballpoint Pen Inks by Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR

Authors: Mohamed Izzharif Abdul Halim, Niamh Nic Daeid


Determining the source of pen inks used on a variety of documents is impartial for forensic document examiners. The examination of inks is often performed to differentiate between inks in order to evaluate the authenticity of a document. A ballpoint pen ink consists of synthetic dyes in (acidic and/or basic), pigments (organic and/or inorganic) and a range of additives. Inks of similar color may consist of different composition and are frequently the subjects of forensic examinations. This study emphasizes on blue ballpoint pen inks available in the market because it is reported that approximately 80% of questioned documents analysis involving ballpoint pen ink. Analytical techniques such as thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, UV-vis spectroscopy, luminescence spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy have been used in the analysis of ink samples. In this study, application of Diamond Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) FTIR is straightforward but preferable in forensic science as it offers no sample preparation and minimal analysis time. The data obtained from these techniques were further analyzed using multivariate chemometric methods which enable extraction of more information based on the similarities and differences among samples in a dataset. It was indicated that some pens from the same manufactures can be similar in composition, however, discrete types can be significantly different.

Keywords: ATR FTIR, ballpoint, multivariate chemometric, PCA

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22011 Influence of Hydrolytic Degradation on Properties of Moisture Membranes Used in Fire-Protective Clothing

Authors: Rachid El Aidani, Phuong Nguyen-Tri, Toan Vu-Khanh


This study intends to show the influence of the hydrolytic degradation on the properties of the e-PTFE/NOMEX® membranes used in fire-protective clothing. The modification of water vapour permeability, morphology and chemical structure was examined by MOCON Permatran, electron microscopy scanning (SEM), and ATR-FTIR, respectively. A decrease in permeability to water vapour of the aged samples was observed following closure of transpiration pores. Analysis of fiber morphology indicates the appearance of defects at the fibers surface with the presence of micro cavities as well as the of fibrils. ATR-FTIR analysis reveals the presence of a new absorption band attributed to carboxylic acid terminal groups generated during the amide bond hydrolysis.

Keywords: hydrolytic ageing, moisture membrane, water vapor permeability, morphology

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22010 Comparison of Process Slaughtered on Beef Cattle Based on Level of Cortisol and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Authors: Pudji Astuti, C. P. C. Putro, C. M. Airin, L. Sjahfirdi, S. Widiyanto, H. Maheshwari


Stress of slaughter animals starting long before until at the time of process of slaughtering which cause misery and decrease of meat quality. Meanwhile, determination of animal stress using hormonal such as cortisol is expensive and less practical so that portable stress indicator for cows based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) must be provided. The aims of this research are to find out the comparison process of slaughter between Rope Casting Local (RCL) and Restraining Box Method (RBM) by measuring of cortisol and wavelength in FTIR methods. Thirty two of male Ongole crossbred cattle were used in this experiment. Blood sampling was taken from jugular vein when they were rested and repeated when slaughtered. All of blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 20 minutes to get serum, and then divided into two parts for cortisol assayed using ELISA and for measuring the wavelength using FTIR. The serum then measured at the wavelength between 4000-400 cm-1 using MB3000 FTIR. Band data absorption in wavelength of FTIR is analyzed descriptively by using FTIR Horizon MBTM. For RCL, average of serum cortisol when the animals rested were 11.47 ± 4.88 ng/mL, when the time of slaughter were 23.27 ± 7.84 ng/mL. For RBM, level of cortisol when rested animals were 13.67 ± 3.41 ng/mL and 53.47 ± 20.25 ng/mL during the slaughter. Based on student t-Test, there were significantly different between RBM and RCL methods when beef cattle were slaughtered (P < 0.05), but no significantly different when animals were rested (P > 0.05). Result of FTIR with the various of wavelength such as methyl group (=CH3) 2986cm-1, methylene (=CH2) 2827 cm-1, hydroxyl (-OH) 3371 cm-1, carbonyl (ketones) (C=O) 1636 cm-1, carboxyl (COO-1) 1408 cm-1, glucosa 1057 cm-1, urea 1011 cm-1have been obtained. It can be concluded that the RCL slaughtered method is better than the RBM method based on the increase of cortisol as an indicator of stress in beef cattle (P<0.05). FTIR is really possible to be used as stub of stress tool due to differentiate of resting and slaughter condition by recognizing the increase of absorption and the separation of component group at the wavelength.

Keywords: cows, cortisol, FTIR, RBM, RCL, stress indicator

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22009 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues

Authors: Irlana C. do Mar, Thayna A. Ferreira, Dayane S. Rezende, Bruno A. M. Figueira, José M. R. Mercury


This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.

Keywords: Mn residues , Octahedral Molecular Sieve, Synthesis, Characterization

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22008 Preparation and Characterizations of Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Christian Chinweuba Onoyima, Edith Bolanle Agbaji, Victor Olatunji Ajibola


Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are presently impacting diverse areas, specifically in biomedical sciences. In this research, hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate has been prepared, and characterized, with emphasis on the influence of sodium alginate on its characteristics. In situ wet chemical precipitation method was used in the preparation. The prepared nanocomposite was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), with image analysis, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The FTIR study shows peaks characteristics of hydroxyapatite and confirmed formation of the nanocomposite via chemical interaction between sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite. Image analysis shows the nanocomposites to be of irregular morphologies which did not show significant change with increasing sodium alginate addition, while particle size decreased with increase in sodium alginate addition (359.46 nm to 109.98 nm). From the XRD data, both the crystallite size and degree of crystallinity also decreased with increasing sodium alginate composition (32.36 nm to 9.47 nm and 72.87% to 1.82% respectively), while the specific surface area and microstrain increased with increasing sodium alginate composition (0.0041 to 0.0139 and 58.99 m²/g to 201.58 m²/g respectively). The results show that the formulation with 50%wt of sodium alginate (HASA-50%wt), possess exceptional characteristics for biomedical applications such as drug delivery.

Keywords: nanocomposite, sodium alginate, hydroxyapatite, biomedical, FTIR, XRD, SEM

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22007 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Hydrogels Based on Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa


Firstly, synthesis of N-Quaternized Chitosan (NQC), then it was proven by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis. The degree of quaternization(DQ 35% ) was determined by equation. Secondly, synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of NQC and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, SEM, XRD,and TGA. Swellability in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions applied on NQC / PVA hydrogels and swelling rate(Wt%) and metal ions uptake was done on it.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions uptake, N-quaternized chitosan, poly (vinyl alcohol), swellability

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22006 Control of Microbial Pollution Using Biodegradable Polymer

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa


Introduction: Microbial pollution is global problem threatening the human health. It is resulted by pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and other pathogenic strains. They cause a dangerous effect on human health, so great efforts have been exerted to produce new and effective antimicrobial agents. Nowadays, natural polysaccharides, such as chitosan and its derivatives are used as antimicrobial agents. The aim of our work is to synthesize of a biodegradable polymer such as N-quaternized chitosan (NQC) then Characterization of NQC by using different analysis techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and using it as an antibacterial agent against different pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Synthesis of NQC using dimethylsulphate. Results: FTIR technique exhibited absorption peaks of NQC, SEM images illustrated that surface of NQC was smooth and antibacterial results showed that NQC had a high antibacterial effect. Discussion: NQC was prepared and it was proved by FTIR technique and SEM images antibacterial results exhibited that NQC was an antibacterial agent.

Keywords: antimicrobial agent, N-quaternized chitosan chloride, silver nanocomposites, sodium polyacrylate

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22005 Non-Invasive Techniques of Analysis of Painting in Forensic Fields

Authors: Radka Sefcu, Vaclava Antuskova, Ivana Turkova


A growing market with modern artworks of a high price leads to the creation and selling of artwork counterfeits. Material analysis is an important part of the process of assessment of authenticity. Knowledge of materials and techniques used by original authors is also necessary. The contribution presents possibilities of non-invasive methods of structural analysis in research on paintings. It was proved that unambiguous identification of many art materials is feasible without sampling. The combination of Raman spectroscopy with FTIR-external reflection enabled the identification of pigments and binders on selected artworks of prominent Czech painters from the first half of the 20th century – Josef Čapek, Emil Filla, Václav Špála and Jan Zrzavý. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of a wide range of white pigments - lead white, zinc white, titanium white, barium white and also Freeman's white as a special white pigment of painting. Good results were obtained for red, blue and most of the yellow areas. Identification of green pigments was often impossible due to strong fluorescence. Oil was confirmed as a binding medium on most of the analyzed artworks via FTIR - external reflection. Collected data present the valuable background for the determination of art materials characteristic for each painter (his palette) and its development over time. Obtained results will further serve as comparative material for the authentication of artworks. This work has been financially supported by the project of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic: The Development of a Strategic Cluster for Effective Instrumental Technological Methods of Forensic Authentication of Modern Artworks (VJ01010004).

Keywords: non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-external reflection, forgeries

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22004 Effects of Small Amount of Poly(D-Lactic Acid) on the Properties of Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Microcrystalline Cellulose/Poly(D-Lactic Acid) Blends

Authors: Md. Hafezur Rahaman, Md. Sagor Hosen, Md. Abdul Gafur, Rasel Habib


This research is a systematic study of effects of poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) on the properties of poly(L-lactic acid)(PLLA)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)/PDLA blends by stereo complex crystallization. Blends were prepared with constant percentage of (3 percent) MCC and different percentage of PDLA by solution casting methods. These blends were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for the confirmation of blends compatibility, Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the analysis of morphology, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) for thermal properties measurement. FTIR Analysis results confirm no new characteristic absorption peaks appeared in the spectrum instead shifting of peaks due to hydrogen bonding help to have compatibility of blends component. Development of three new peaks from XRD analysis indicates strongly the formation of stereo complex crystallinity in the PLLA structure with the addition of PDLA. TGA and DTG results indicate that PDLA can improve the heat resistivity of the PLLA/MCC blends by increasing its degradation temperature. Comparison of DTA peaks also ensure developed thermal properties. Image of SEM shows the improvement of surface morphology.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, poly(l-lactic acid), stereocomplex crystallization, thermal stability

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22003 Beijerinckia indica Extracellular Extract Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities against Clinical Pathogens

Authors: Gopalu Karunakaran, Matheswaran Jagathambal, Nguyen Van Minh, Evgeny Kolesnikov, Denis Kuznetsov


This work investigated the use of Beijerinckia indica extracellular extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using AgNO3. The formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by different methods, such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, EDX, and TEM analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed by the change in color from light yellow to dark brown. The absorbance peak obtained at 430 nm confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. The XRD analysis showed the cubic crystalline phase of the synthesized nanoparticles. FTIR revealed the presence of groups that acts as stabilizing and reducing agents for silver nanoparticles formation. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by TEM analysis. These nanoparticles were found to inhibit pathogenic bacterial strains. This work proved that the bacterial extract is a potential eco-friendly candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles with promising antibacterial and antioxidant properties. 

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, Beijerinckia indica, characterisation, extracellular extracts, silver nanoparticles

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22002 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik


Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

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22001 Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Using Infra-Red-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Ahmad Salman, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J. Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel


Antimicrobial drugs have an important role in controlling illness associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global health-care problem. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing like disk diffusion are time-consuming and other method including E-test, genotyping are relatively expensive. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 550 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 85% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.

Keywords: antibiotics, E. coli, FTIR, multivariate analysis, susceptibility

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22000 Synthesis and D.C. Conductivity Measurements of Polyaniline/CopperOxide Nanocomposites

Authors: L. N. Shubha, P. Madhusudana Rao


The Polyaniline / Copper Oxide(PANI / CuO) nanocomposite was prepared by solution mixing of prepared Polyaniline and copper Oxide in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The synthesis involved the formation of dark green colored Polyaniline-Copper Oxide nanocomposite. The synthesized polymer nano composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The characteristic peaks in XRD, FTIR and UV-Visible spectra confirmed the presence of CuO in the polymer structure. SEM analysis revealed formation of PANI/CuO nano composite The D.C. conductivity measurements were performed using two probe method for various temperatures.

Keywords: polyaniline/copper oxide (PANI/CuO) nanocomposite, XRD, SEM, FTIRand DC- conductivity, UV-visible spectra

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21999 Physicochemical Attributes of Pectin Hydrogel and Its Wound Healing Activity

Authors: Nor Khaizan Anuar, Nur Karimah Aziz, Tin Wui Wong, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Wan Rozita Wan Engah


The physicochemical attributes and wound healing activity of pectin hydrogel in rat models, following partial thickness thermal injury were investigated. The pectin hydrogel was prepared by solvent evaporation method with the aid of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The physicochemical properties were mainly evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the wound healing activity was examined by the macroscopic images, wound size reduction and histological evaluation using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for 14 days. The DSC and FTIR analysis suggested that pectin hydrogel exhibited higher extent of polymer-polymer interaction at O-H functional group in comparison to the unprocessed pectin. This was indicated by the increase of endothermic enthalpy values from 139.35 ± 13.06 J/g of unprocessed pectin to 156.23 ± 2.86 J/g of pectin hydrogel, as well as the decrease of FTIR wavenumber corresponding to O-H at 3432.07 ± 0.49 cm-1 of unprocessed pectin to 3412.62 ± 13.06 cm-1 of pectin hydrogel. Rats treated with pectin hydrogel had significantly smaller wound size (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) when compared to the untreated group starting from day 7 until day 14. H&E staining indicated that wounds received pectin hydrogel had more fibroblasts, blood vessels and collagen bundles on day 14 in comparison to the untreated rats.

Keywords: pectin, physicochemical, rats, wound

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21998 Preparation and in vitro Characterisation of Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Injectable Microspheres as Hard Tissue Substitution

Authors: H. Maachou, A. Chagnes, G. Cote


The present work reports the properties of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (Cs/HA: 100/00, 70/30 and 30/70) composite microspheres obtained by emulsification processing route. The morphology of chitosane microspheres was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which shows an aggregate of spherical microspheres with a particle size, determined by optical microscope, ranged from 4 to 10 µm. Thereafter, a biomimetic approach was used to study the in vitro biomineralization of these composites. It concerns the composites immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different times. The deposited calcium phosphate was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and ICP analysis of phosphorus. In fact, the mineral formed on Cs/HA microspheres was a mixture of carbonated HA and β-TCP as showed by FTIR peaks at 1419,5 and 871,8 cm-1 and XRD peak at 29,5°. This formation was induced by the presence of HA in chitosan microspheres. These results are confirmed by SEM micrographs which chow the Ca-P crystals growth in form of cauliflowers. So, these materials are of great interest for bone regeneration applications due to their ability to nucleate calcium phosphates in presence of simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, chitosan, microsphere, composite, bone regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
21997 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
21996 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium and Strontium Doped Sulphate-Hydroxyapatite

Authors: Ammar Z. Alshemary, Yi-Fan Goh, Rafaqat Hussain


Magnesium (Mg2+), strontium (Sr2+) and sulphate ions (SO42-) were successfully substituted into hydroxyapatite (Ca10-x-y MgxSry(PO4)6-z(SO4)zOH2-z) structure through ion exchange process at cationic and anionic sites. Mg2+and Sr2+ ions concentrations were varied between (0.00-0.10), keeping concentration of SO42- ions at z=0.05. [Mg (NO3)2], [Sr (NO3)2] and (Na2SO4) were used as Mg2+, Sr2+, and SO42- sources respectively. The synthesized white precipitate were subjected to heat treatment at 500ºC and finally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the substitution of Mg2+, Sr2+ and SO42- ions into the HA lattice resulted in an increase in the broadness and reduction of XRD peaks. This confirmed that the crystallinity was reduced due to the substitution of ions. Similarly, FTIR result showed the effect of substitution on phosphate bands as well as exchange of hydroxyl group by SO42- ions to balance the charges on HA surface.

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, substitution, characterization, XRD, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
21995 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
21994 Anthocyanin Complex: Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

Authors: Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Kedsarin Saodaeng, Aroonsri Priprem, Teerasak Damrongrungruang


Complexation of anthocyanins to mimic natural copigmentation process was investigated. Cyanidin-rich extracts from Zea mays L. CeritinaKulesh. anddelphinidin-rich extracts from ClitoriaternateaL. were used to form 4 anthocyanin complexes, AC1, AC2, AC3, and AC4, in the presence of several polyphenols and a trace metal. Characterizations of the ACs were conducted by UV, FTIR, DSC/TGA and morphological observations. Bathochromic shifts of the UV spectra of 4 formulas of ACs were observed at peak wavelengths of about 510-620 nm by 10 nm suggesting complex formation.FTIR spectra of the ACs indicate shifts of peaks from 1,733 cm-1 to 1,696 cm-1 indicating interactions and a decrease in the peak areas within the wavenumber of 3,400-3,500 cm-1 indicating changes in hydrogen bonding.Thermal analysis of all of the ACs suggests increases in melting temperature after complexation. AC with the highest melting temperature was morphologically observed by SEM and TEM to be crystal-like particles within a range of 50 to 200 nm. Particle size analysis of the AC by laser diffraction gave a range of 50-600 nm, indicating aggregation. This AC was shown to have no cytotoxic effect on cultured HGEPp0.5 and HGF (all p> 0.05) by MTT. Therefore, complexation of anthocyanins was simple and self-assembly process, potentially resulting in nanosized particles of anthocyanin complex.

Keywords: anthocyanins, complexation, purple corn cops, butterfly pea, physicochemical characteristics, cytotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
21993 SEM and FTIR Study of Adsorption Characteristics Using Xanthate (KIBX) Synthesized Collectors on Sphalerite

Authors: Zohir Nedjar, Djamel Barkat


Thiols such as alkyl xanthates are commonly used as collectors in the froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Under the concen-tration, pH and Eh conditions relevant to flotation, the thermodynamically favoured reaction between a thiol and a sulfide mineral surface is charge transfechemisorption in which the collector becomes bonded to metal atoms in the outermost layer of the sulfide lattice. The adsorption of potassium isobutyl xanthate (KIBX 3.10-3M) on sphalerite has been also studied using electrochemical potential, FTIR technique and SEM. Non activated minerals and minerals activated with copper sulfate (10-4 M) and copper nitrate (10-4 M) have been investigated at pH = 7.5. Surface species have been identified by FTIR and correlated with SEM. After copper sulfate activation, copper xanthate exists on all of the minerals studied. Neutral pH is most favorable for potassium isobutyl xanthate adsorption on sphalerite.

Keywords: flotation, adsorption, xanthate KIBX, sphalerite

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
21992 Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Colocasia esculenta (L.) Leaves

Authors: Amit Keshav, Alok Sharma, Bidyut Mazumdar


Colocasia esculenta leaves and roots are widely used in Asian countries, such as, India, Srilanka and Pakistan, as food and feed material. The root is high in carbohydrates and rich in zinc. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season. Leaf juice is stimulant, expectorant, astringent, appetizer, and otalgia. Looking at the medicinal uses of the plant leaves; phytochemicals were extracted from the plant leaves and were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to find the functional groups. Phytochemical analysis of Colocasia esculenta (L.) leaf was studied using three solvents (methanol, chloroform, and ethanol) with soxhlet apparatus. Powder of the leaves was employed to obtain the extracts, which was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for phytochemical content using standard methods. Phytochemical constituents were abundant in the leave extract. Leaf was found to have various phytochemicals such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, oxalates and phenols etc., which could have lot of medicinal benefits such as reducing headache, treatment of congestive heart failure, prevent oxidative cell damage etc. These phytochemicals were identified using UV spectrophotometer and results were presented. In order to find the antioxidant activity of the extract, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method was employed using ascorbic acid as standard. DPPH scavenging activity of ascorbic acid was found to be 84%, whereas for ethanol it was observed to be 78.92%, for methanol: 76.46% and for chloroform: 72.46%. Looking at the high antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta may be recommended for medicinal applications. The characterizations of functional groups were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Colocasia esculenta, leaves, characterization, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
21991 Detection and Identification of Antibiotic Resistant UPEC Using FTIR-Microscopy and Advanced Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Uraib Sharaha, Ahmad Salman, Eladio Rodriguez-Diaz, Elad Shufan, Klaris Riesenberg, Irving J. Bigio, Mahmoud Huleihel


Antimicrobial drugs have played an indispensable role in controlling illness and death associated with infectious diseases in animals and humans. However, the increasing resistance of bacteria to a broad spectrum of commonly used antibiotics has become a global healthcare problem. Many antibiotics had lost their effectiveness since the beginning of the antibiotic era because many bacteria have adapted defenses against these antibiotics. Rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of a clinical isolate is often crucial for the optimal antimicrobial therapy of infected patients and in many cases can save lives. The conventional methods for susceptibility testing require the isolation of the pathogen from a clinical specimen by culturing on the appropriate media (this culturing stage lasts 24 h-first culturing). Then, chosen colonies are grown on media containing antibiotic(s), using micro-diffusion discs (second culturing time is also 24 h) in order to determine its bacterial susceptibility. Other methods, genotyping methods, E-test and automated methods were also developed for testing antimicrobial susceptibility. Most of these methods are expensive and time-consuming. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy is rapid, safe, effective and low cost method that was widely and successfully used in different studies for the identification of various biological samples including bacteria; nonetheless, its true potential in routine clinical diagnosis has not yet been established. The new modern infrared (IR) spectrometers with high spectral resolution enable measuring unprecedented biochemical information from cells at the molecular level. Moreover, the development of new bioinformatics analyses combined with IR spectroscopy becomes a powerful technique, which enables the detection of structural changes associated with resistivity. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FTIR microscopy in tandem with machine learning algorithms for rapid and reliable identification of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in time span of few minutes. The UTI E.coli bacterial samples, which were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF and examined for their susceptibility by the routine assay (micro-diffusion discs), are obtained from the bacteriology laboratories in Soroka University Medical Center (SUMC). These samples were examined by FTIR microscopy and analyzed by advanced statistical methods. Our results, based on 700 E.coli samples, were promising and showed that by using infrared spectroscopic technique together with multivariate analysis, it is possible to classify the tested bacteria into sensitive and resistant with success rate higher than 90% for eight different antibiotics. Based on these preliminary results, it is worthwhile to continue developing the FTIR microscopy technique as a rapid and reliable method for identification antibiotic susceptibility.

Keywords: antibiotics, E.coli, FTIR, multivariate analysis, susceptibility, UTI

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
21990 Elaboration and Characterization of PP/TiO2 Composites

Authors: F. Z. Benabid, S. Kridi, F. Zouai, D. Benachour


The aim of present work is to characterize the PP/TiO2 blends as composites, and study the effect of TiO2 on properties of different compositions and the evaluation of the effectiveness of the method used for filler treatment. Nanocomposite samples were synthesized by molten route in an internal mixer. The TiO2 nanoparticles were treated with stearic acid in order to obtain a good dispersion, and the demonstration of the effectiveness of the treatment on the morphology and roughness of the nanofiller was established by microstructural analysis by FTIR and AFM. The various developed nanocomposite compositions were characterized by different methods; i.e. FTIR, XRD, SEM and optical microscopy. Rheological, dielectric and mechanical studies were also performed. The results showed a remarkable increase in the impact strength results which increased about 39% compared to neat PP. The rheological study showed an increase in the fluidity in all developed composite compositions, involved by the good dispersion of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: composites, PP, TiO2, comixing, mechanical treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 204