Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

Search results for: quantification

411 Toward Subtle Change Detection and Quantification in Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging

Authors: Mohammad Esmaeilpour

Abstract:

One of the important open problems in the field of medical image processing is detection and quantification of small changes. In this poster, we try to investigate that, how the algebraic decomposition techniques can be used for semiautomatically detecting and quantifying subtle changes in Magnetic Resonance (MR) neuroimaging volumes. We mostly focus on the low-rank values of the matrices achieved from decomposing MR image pairs during a period of time. Besides, a skillful neuroradiologist will help the algorithm to distinguish between noises and small changes.

Keywords: magnetic resonance neuroimaging, subtle change detection and quantification, algebraic decomposition, basis functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
410 CO2 Emissions Quantification of the Modular Bridge Superstructure

Authors: Chanhyuck Jeon, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Many industries put emphasis on environmentally-friendliness as environmental problems are on the rise all over the world. Among themselves, the Modular Bridge research is going on. Also performing cross-section optimization and duration reducing, this research aims at developing the modular bridge with Environment-Friendliness and economic feasibility. However, the difficulty lies in verifying environmental effectiveness because there are no field applications of the modular bridge until now. Therefore, this thesis is categorized according to the form of the modular bridge superstructure and assessed CO₂ emission quantification per work types and materials according to each form to verify the environmental effectiveness of the modular bridge.

Keywords: modular bridge, CO2 emission, environmentally friendly, quantification, carbon emission factor, LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
409 Quantification and Thermal Behavior of Rice Bran Oil, Sunflower Oil and Their Model Blends

Authors: Harish Kumar Sharma, Garima Sengar

Abstract:

Rice bran oil is considered comparatively nutritionally superior than different fats/oils. Therefore, model blends prepared from pure rice bran oil (RBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) were explored for changes in the different physicochemical parameters. Repeated deep fat frying process was carried out by using dried potato in order to study the thermal behaviour of pure rice bran oil, sunflower oil and their model blends. Pure rice bran oil and sunflower oil had shown good thermal stability during the repeated deep fat frying cycles. Although, the model blends constituting 60% RBO + 40% SFO showed better suitability during repeated deep fat frying than the remaining blended oils. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils, physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): SnF (sunflower oil) was carried by different methods. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition and iodine value can be used for the quantification. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification.

Keywords: rice bran oil, sunflower oil, frying, quantification

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408 Disposable PANI-CeO2 Sensor for the Electrocatalytic Simultaneous Quantification of Amlodipine and Nebivolol

Authors: Nimisha Jadon, Rajeev Jain, Swati Sharma

Abstract:

A chemically modified carbon paste sensor has been developed for the simultaneous determination of amlodipine (AML) and nebivolol (NBV). Carbon paste electrode (CPE) was fabricated by the addition of Gr/PANI-CeO2. Gr/PANI-CeO2/CPE has achieved excellent electrocatalytic activity and sensitivity. AML and NBV exhibited oxidation peaks at 0.70 and 0.90 V respectively on Gr/ PANI-CeO2/CPE. The linearity range of AML and NBV was 0.1 to 1.6 μgmL-1 in BR buffer (pH 8.0). The Limit of detection (LOD) was 20.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 30.0 ngmL-1 for NBV and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 80.0 ngmL-1 for AML and 100 ngmL-1 for NBV respectively. These analyses were also determined in pharmaceutical formulation and human serum and good recovery was obtained for the developed method.

Keywords: amlodipine, nebivolol, square wave voltammetry, carbon paste electrode, simultaneous quantification

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407 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Shipra Shukla, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti

Abstract:

Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Cassia tora, phenolic compounds, quantification, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

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406 Method Development and Validation for Quantification of Active Content and Impurities of Clodinafop Propargyl and Its Enantiomeric Separation by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Kamlesh Vishwakarma, Bipul Behari Saha, Sunilkumar Sing, Abhishek Mishra, Sreenivas Rao

Abstract:

A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method has been developed for complete analysis of Clodinafop Propargyl. Clodinafop Propargyl enantiomers were separated on chiral column, Chiral Pak AS-H (250 mm. 4.6mm x 5µm) with mobile phase n-hexane: IPA (96:4) at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 230 nm. Clodinafop Propagyl content and impurity quantification was done with reverse phase HPLC. The present study describes a HPLC method using simple mobile phase for the quantification of Clodinafop Propargyl and its impurities. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, convenient and effective. Moreover, the lower solvent consumption along with short analytical run time led to a cost effective analytical method.

Keywords: Clodinafop Propargyl, method, validation, HPLC-UV

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
405 Simultaneous Extraction and Estimation of Steroidal Glycosides and Aglycone of Solanum

Authors: Karishma Chester, Sarvesh Paliwal, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

Solanumnigrum L. (Family: Solanaceae), is an important Indian medicinal plant and have been used in various traditional formulations for hepato-protection. It has been reported to contain significant amount of steroidal glycosides such as solamargine and solasonine as well as their aglycone part solasodine. Being important pharmacologically active metabolites of several members of Solanaceae these markers have been attempted various times for their extraction and quantification but separately for glycoside and aglycone part because of their opposite polarity. Here, we propose for the first time simultaneous extraction and quantification of aglycone (solasodine)and glycosides (solamargine and solasonine) inleaves and berries of S.nigrumusing solvent extraction followed by HPTLC analysis. Simultaneous extraction was carried out by sonication in mixture of chloroform and methanol as solvent. The quantification was done using silica gel 60F254HPTLC plates as stationary phase and chloroform: methanol: acetone: 0.5 % ammonia (7: 2.5: 1: 0.4 v/v/v/v) as mobile phaseat 400 nm, after derivatization with an isaldehydesul furic acid reagent. The method was validated as per ICH guideline for calibration, linearity, precision, recovery, robustness, specificity, LOD, and LOQ. The statistical data obtained for validation showed that method can be used routinely for quality control of various solanaceous drugs reported for these markers as well as traditional formulations containing those plants as an ingredient.

Keywords: solanumnigrum, solasodine, solamargine, solasonine, quantification

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404 Quantification of Lustre in Textile Fibers by Image Analysis

Authors: Neelesh Bharti Shukla, Suvankar Dutta, Esha Sharma, Shrikant Ralebhat, Gurudatt Krishnamurthy

Abstract:

A key component of the physical attribute of textile fibers is lustre. It is a complex phenomenon arising from the interaction of light with fibers, yarn and fabrics. It is perceived as the contrast difference between the bright areas (specular reflection) and duller backgrounds (diffused reflection). Lustre of fibers is affected by their surface structure, morphology, cross-section profile as well as the presence of any additives/registrants. Due to complexities in measurements, objective measurements such as gloss meter do not give reproducible quantification of lustre. Other instruments such as SAMBA hair systems are expensive. In light of this, lustre quantification has largely remained subjective, judged visually by experts, but prone to errors. In this development, a physics-based approach was conceptualized and demonstrated. We have developed an image analysis based technique to quantify visually observed differences in lustre of fibers. Cellulosic fibers, produced with different approaches, with visually different levels of lustre were photographed under controlled optics. These images were subsequently analyzed using a configured software system. The ratio of Intensity of light from bright (specular reflection) and dull (diffused reflection) areas was used to numerically represent lustre. In the next step, the set of samples that were not visually distinguishable easily were also evaluated by the technique and it was established that quantification of lustre is feasible.

Keywords: lustre, fibre, image analysis, measurement

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403 Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Related Substance in Gentamicin Drug Substances

Authors: Sofiqul Islam, V. Murugan, Prema Kumari, Hari

Abstract:

Gentamicin is a broad spectrum water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by the fermentation process of microorganism known as Micromonospora purpurea. It is widely used for the treatment of infection caused by both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Gentamicin consists of a mixture of aminoglycoside components like C1, C1a, C2a, and C2. The molecular structure of Gentamicin and its related substances showed that it has lack of presence of chromophore group in the molecule due to which the detection of such components were quite critical and challenging. In this study, a simple Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method using ultraviolet (UV) detector was developed and validated for quantification of the related substances present in Gentamicin drug substances. The method was achieved by using Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) with isocratic elution composed of methanol: water: glacial acetic acid: sodium hexane sulfonate in the ratio 70:25:5:3 % v/v/v/w as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, column temperature was maintained at 30 °C and detection wavelength of 330 nm. The four components of Gentamicin namely Gentamicin C1, C1a, C2a, and C2 were well separated along with the related substance present in Gentamicin. The Limit of Quantification (LOQ) values were found to be at 0.0075 mg/mL. The accuracy of the method was quite satisfactory in which the % recovery was resulted between 95-105% for the related substances. The correlation coefficient (≥ 0.995) shows the linearity response against concentration over the range of Limit of Quantification (LOQ). Precision studies showed the % Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values less than 5% for its related substance. The method was validated in accordance with the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline with various parameters like system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, limit of quantification, and robustness. This proposed method was easy and suitable for use for the quantification of related substances in routine analysis of Gentamicin formulations.

Keywords: reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC), high performance liquid chromatography, gentamicin, isocratic, ultraviolet

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402 Quality by Design in the Optimization of a Fast HPLC Method for Quantification of Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Authors: Pedro J. Rolim-Neto, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Fabiana L. A. Santos, Pablo A. Ferreira, Ricardo T. L. Maia-Jr., Magaly A. M. Lyra, Danilo A F. Fonte, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim

Abstract:

Initially developed as an antimalarial agent, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) sulfate is often used as a slow-acting antirheumatic drug in the treatment of disorders of connective tissue. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 37 provides a reversed-phase HPLC method for quantification of HCQ. However, this method was not reproducible, producing asymmetric peaks in a long analysis time. The asymmetry of the peak may cause an incorrect calculation of the concentration of the sample. Furthermore, the analysis time is unacceptable, especially regarding the routine of a pharmaceutical industry. The aiming of this study was to develop a fast, easy and efficient method for quantification of HCQ sulfate by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) based on the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology. This method was optimized in terms of peak symmetry using the surface area graphic as the Design of Experiments (DoE) and the tailing factor (TF) as an indicator to the Design Space (DS). The reference method used was that described at USP 37 to the quantification of the drug. For the optimized method, was proposed a 33 factorial design, based on the QbD concepts. The DS was created with the TF (in a range between 0.98 and 1.2) in order to demonstrate the ideal analytical conditions. Changes were made in the composition of the USP mobile-phase (USP-MP): USP-MP: Methanol (90:10 v/v, 80:20 v/v and 70:30 v/v), in the flow (0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 mL) and in the oven temperature (30, 35, and 40ºC). The USP method allowed the quantification of drug in a long time (40-50 minutes). In addition, the method uses a high flow rate (1,5 mL.min-1) which increases the consumption of expensive solvents HPLC grade. The main problem observed was the TF value (1,8) that would be accepted if the drug was not a racemic mixture, since the co-elution of the isomers can become an unreliable peak integration. Therefore, the optimization was suggested in order to reduce the analysis time, aiming a better peak resolution and TF. For the optimization method, by the analysis of the surface-response plot it was possible to confirm the ideal setting analytical condition: 45 °C, 0,8 mL.min-1 and 80:20 USP-MP: Methanol. The optimized HPLC method enabled the quantification of HCQ sulfate, with a peak of high resolution, showing a TF value of 1,17. This promotes good co-elution of isomers of the HCQ, ensuring an accurate quantification of the raw material as racemic mixture. This method also proved to be 18 times faster, approximately, compared to the reference method, using a lower flow rate, reducing even more the consumption of the solvents and, consequently, the analysis cost. Thus, an analytical method for the quantification of HCQ sulfate was optimized using QbD methodology. This method proved to be faster and more efficient than the USP method, regarding the retention time and, especially, the peak resolution. The higher resolution in the chromatogram peaks supports the implementation of the method for quantification of the drug as racemic mixture, not requiring the separation of isomers.

Keywords: analytical method, hydroxychloroquine sulfate, quality by design, surface area graphic

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401 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz

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Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: hydroxyl, global model, model maintenance, near infrared, polyol

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400 Approach to Quantify Groundwater Recharge Using GIS Based Water Balance Model

Authors: S. S. Rwanga, J. M. Ndambuki

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Groundwater quantification needs a method which is not only flexible but also reliable in order to accurately quantify its spatial and temporal variability. As groundwater is dynamic and interdisciplinary in nature, an integrated approach of remote sensing (RS) and GIS technique is very useful in various groundwater management studies. Thus, the GIS water balance model (WetSpass) together with remote sensing (RS) can be used to quantify groundwater recharge. This paper discusses the concept of WetSpass in combination with GIS on the quantification of recharge with a view to managing water resources in an integrated framework. The paper presents the simulation procedures and expected output after simulation. Preliminary data are presented from GIS output only.

Keywords: groundwater, recharge, GIS, WetSpass

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
399 Comparison Between a Droplet Digital PCR and Real Time PCR Method in Quantification of HBV DNA

Authors: Surangrat Srisurapanon, Chatchawal Wongjitrat, Navin Horthongkham, Ruengpung Sutthent

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HBV infection causes a potential serious public health problem. The ability to detect the HBV DNA concentration is of the importance and improved continuously. By using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), several factors in standardized; source of material, calibration standard curve and PCR efficiency are inconsistent. Digital PCR (dPCR) is an alternative PCR-based technique for absolute quantification using Poisson's statistics without requiring a standard curve. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the data set of HBV DNA generated between dPCR and qPCR methods. All samples were quantified by Abbott’s real time PCR and 54 samples with 2 -6 log10 HBV DNA were selected for comparison with dPCR. Of these 54 samples, there were two outlier samples defined as negative by dPCR. Of these two, samples were defined as negative by dPCR, whereas 52 samples were positive by both the tests. The difference between the two assays was less than 0.25 log IU/mL in 24/52 samples (46%) of paired samples; less than 0.5 log IU/mL in 46/52 samples (88%) and less than 1 log in 50/52 samples (96%). The correlation coefficient was r=0.788 and P-value <0.0001. Comparison to qPCR, data generated by dPCR tend to be the overestimation in the sample with low HBV DNA concentration and underestimated in the sample with high viral load. The variation in DNA by dPCR measurement might be due to the pre-amplification bias, template. Moreover, a minor drawback of dPCR is the large quantity of DNA had to be used when compare to the qPCR. Since the technology is relatively new, the limitations of this assay will be improved.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, real time PCR, digital PCR, DNA quantification

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398 Development of Colorimetric Based Microfluidic Platform for Quantification of Fluid Contaminants

Authors: Sangeeta Palekar, Mahima Rana, Jayu Kalambe

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In this paper, a microfluidic-based platform for the quantification of contaminants in the water is proposed. The proposed system uses microfluidic channels with an embedded environment for contaminants detection in water. Microfluidics-based platforms present an evident stage of innovation for fluid analysis, with different applications advancing minimal efforts and simplicity of fabrication. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidics channel is fabricated using a soft lithography technique. Vertical and horizontal connections for fluid dispensing with the microfluidic channel are explored. The principle of colorimetry, which incorporates the use of Griess reagent for the detection of nitrite, has been adopted. Nitrite has high water solubility and water retention, due to which it has a greater potential to stay in groundwater, endangering aquatic life along with human health, hence taken as a case study in this work. The developed platform also compares the detection methodology, containing photodetectors for measuring absorbance and image sensors for measuring color change for quantification of contaminants like nitrite in water. The utilization of image processing techniques offers the advantage of operational flexibility, as the same system can be used to identify other contaminants present in water by introducing minor software changes.

Keywords: colorimetric, fluid contaminants, nitrite detection, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
397 Quantification of Learned Non-Use of the Upper-Limb After a Stroke

Authors: K. K. A. Bakhti, D. Mottet, J. Froger, I. Laffont

Abstract:

Background: After a cerebrovascular accident (or stroke), many patients use excessive trunk movements to move their paretic hand towards a target (while the elbow is maintained flexed) even though they can use the upper-limb when the trunk is restrained. This phenomenon is labelled learned non-use and is known to be detrimental to neuroplasticity and recovery. Objective: The aim of this study is to quantify learned non-use of the paretic upper limb during a hand reaching task using 3D movement analysis. Methods: Thirty-four participants post supratentorial stroke were asked to reach a cone placed in front of them at 80% of their arm length. The reaching movement was repeated 5 times with the paretic hand, and then 5 times with the less-impaired hand. This sequence was first performed with the trunk free, then with the trunk restrained. Learned non-use of the upper-limb (LNUUL) was obtained from the difference of the amount of trunk compensation between the free trunk condition and the restrained trunk condition. Results: LNUUL was significantly higher for the paretic hand, with individual values ranging from 1% to 43%, and one-half of the patients with an LNUUL higher than 15%. Conclusions: Quantification of LNUUL can be used to objectively diagnose patients who need trunk rehabilitation. It can be also used for monitoring the rehabilitation progress. Quantification of LNUUL may guide upper-limb rehabilitation towards more optimal motor recovery avoiding maladaptive trunk compensation and its consequences on neuroplasticity.

Keywords: learned non-use, rehabilitation, stroke, upper limb

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
396 HPTLC Based Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Uraria picta Desv: A Dashmool Species

Authors: Hari O. Saxena, Ganesh

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In the present investigation, chemical fingerprints of methanolic extracts of roots, stem and leaves of Uraria picta were developed using HPTLC technique. These fingerprints will be useful for authentication as well as in differentiating the species from adulterants. These will also serve as a biochemical marker for this valuable species in pharmaceutical industries and plant systemic studies. Roots, stem and leaves of Uraria picta were further evaluated for quantification of an active ingredient lupeol to find out alternatives to roots. Results showed more content of lupeol in stem (0.048%, dry wt.) as compare to roots (0.017%, dry wt.) suggesting the utilization of stem in place of roots. It will avoid uprooting of this prestigious plant which ultimately will promote its conservation.

Keywords: chemical fingerprints, lupeol, quantification, Uraria picta

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
395 Investigation of Complexity Dynamics in a DC Glow Discharge Magnetized Plasma Using Recurrence Quantification Analysis

Authors: Vramori Mitra, Bornali Sarma, Arun K. Sarma

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Recurrence is a ubiquitous feature of any real dynamical system. The states in phase space trajectory of a system have an inherent tendency to return to the same state or its close state after certain time laps. Recurrence quantification analysis technique, based on this fundamental feature of a dynamical system, detects evaluation of state under variation of control parameter of the system. The paper presents the investigation of nonlinear dynamical behavior of plasma floating potential fluctuations obtained by using a Langmuir probe in different magnetic field under the variation of discharge voltages. The main measures of recurrence quantification analysis are considered as determinism, linemax and entropy. The increment of the DET and linemax variables asserts that the predictability and periodicity of the system is increasing. The variable linemax indicates that the chaoticity is being diminished with the slump of magnetic field while increase of magnetic field enhancing the chaotic behavior. Fractal property of the plasma time series estimated by DFA technique (Detrended fluctuation analysis) reflects that long-range correlation of plasma fluctuations is decreasing while fractal dimension is increasing with the enhancement of magnetic field which corroborates the RQA analysis.

Keywords: detrended fluctuation analysis, chaos, phase space, recurrence

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394 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar

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We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

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393 Skull Extraction for Quantification of Brain Volume in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Authors: Marcela De Oliveira, Marina P. Da Silva, Fernando C. G. Da Rocha, Jorge M. Santos, Jaime S. Cardoso, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho

Abstract:

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by neurodegeneration, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to the richness in the information details provided, is the gold standard exam for diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Brain atrophy, the gradual loss of brain volume, is quite extensive in multiple sclerosis, nearly 0.5-1.35% per year, far off the limits of normal aging. Thus, the brain volume quantification becomes an essential task for future analysis of the occurrence atrophy. The analysis of MRI has become a tedious and complex task for clinicians, who have to manually extract important information. This manual analysis is prone to errors and is time consuming due to various intra- and inter-operator variability. Nowadays, computerized methods for MRI segmentation have been extensively used to assist doctors in quantitative analyzes for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the brain volume in MRI of MS patients. We used MRI scans with 30 slices of the five patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria. The computational methods for the analysis of images were carried out in two steps: segmentation of the brain and brain volume quantification. The first image processing step was to perform brain extraction by skull stripping from the original image. In the skull stripper for MRI images of the brain, the algorithm registers a grayscale atlas image to the grayscale patient image. The associated brain mask is propagated using the registration transformation. Then this mask is eroded and used for a refined brain extraction based on level-sets (edge of the brain-skull border with dedicated expansion, curvature, and advection terms). In the second step, the brain volume quantification was performed by counting the voxels belonging to the segmentation mask and converted in cc. We observed an average brain volume of 1469.5 cc. We concluded that the automatic method applied in this work can be used for the brain extraction process and brain volume quantification in MRI. The development and use of computer programs can contribute to assist health professionals in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In future works, we expect to implement more automated methods for the assessment of cerebral atrophy and brain lesions quantification, including machine-learning approaches. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from Brazilian agency Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (number 2019/16362-5).

Keywords: brain volume, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, skull stripper

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392 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification

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391 Quantification Model for Capability Evaluation of Optical-Based in-Situ Monitoring System for Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) Process

Authors: Song Zhang, Hui Wang, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum

Abstract:

Due to the increasing demand for quality assurance and reliability for additive manufacturing, the development of an advanced in-situ monitoring system is required to monitor the process anomalies as input for further process control. Optical-based monitoring systems, such as CMOS cameras and NIR cameras, are proved as effective ways to monitor the geometrical distortion and exceptional thermal distribution. Therefore, many studies and applications are focusing on the availability of the optical-based monitoring system for detecting varied types of defects. However, the capability of the monitoring setup is not quantified. In this study, a quantification model to evaluate the capability of the monitoring setups for the LPBF machine based on acquired monitoring data of a designed test artifact is presented, while the design of the relevant test artifacts is discussed. The monitoring setup is evaluated based on its hardware properties, location of the integration, and light condition. Methodology of data processing to quantify the capacity for each aspect is discussed. The minimal capability of the detectable size of the monitoring set up in the application is estimated by quantifying its resolution and accuracy. The quantification model is validated using a CCD camera-based monitoring system for LPBF machines in the laboratory with different setups. The result shows the model to quantify the monitoring system's performance, which makes the evaluation of monitoring systems with the same concept but different setups possible for the LPBF process and provides the direction to improve the setups.

Keywords: data processing, in-situ monitoring, LPBF process, optical system, quantization model, test artifact

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
390 Real-Time Episodic Memory Construction for Optimal Action Selection in Cognitive Robotics

Authors: Deon de Jager, Yahya Zweiri, Dimitrios Makris

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The three most important components in the cognitive architecture for cognitive robotics is memory representation, memory recall, and action-selection performed by the executive. In this paper, action selection, performed by the executive, is defined as a memory quantification and optimization process. The methodology describes the real-time construction of episodic memory through semantic memory optimization. The optimization is performed by set-based particle swarm optimization, using an adaptive entropy memory quantification approach for fitness evaluation. The performance of the approach is experimentally evaluated by simulation, where a UAV is tasked with the collection and delivery of a medical package. The experiments show that the UAV dynamically uses the episodic memory to autonomously control its velocity, while successfully completing its mission.

Keywords: cognitive robotics, semantic memory, episodic memory, maximum entropy principle, particle swarm optimization

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389 Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Methyl Mercaptan in Air Samples from a Waste Management Facilities

Authors: R. F. Vieira, S. A. Figueiredo, O. M. Freitas, V. F. Domingues, C. Delerue-Matos

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The presence of sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans is one of the reasons for waste-water treatment and waste management being associated with odour emissions. In this context having a quantifying method for these compounds helps in the optimization of treatment with the goal of their elimination, namely biofiltration processes. The aim of this study was the development of a method for quantification of odorous gases in waste treatment plants air samples. A method based on head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography - flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) was used to analyse H2S and Metil Mercaptan (MM). The extraction was carried out with a 75-μm Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber coating at 22 ºC for 20 min, and analysed by a GC 2010 Plus A from Shimadzu with a sulphur filter detector: splitless mode (0.3 min), the column temperature program was from 60 ºC, increased by 15 ºC/min to 100 ºC (2 min). The injector temperature was held at 250 ºC, and the detector at 260 ºC. For calibration curve a gas diluter equipment (digital Hovagas G2 - Multi Component Gas Mixer) was used to do the standards. This unit had two input connections, one for a stream of the dilute gas and another for a stream of nitrogen and an output connected to a glass bulb. A 40 ppm H2S and a 50 ppm MM cylinders were used. The equipment was programmed to the selected concentration, and it automatically carried out the dilution to the glass bulb. The mixture was left flowing through the glass bulb for 5 min and then the extremities were closed. This method allowed the calibration between 1-20 ppm for H2S and 0.02-0.1 ppm and 1-3.5 ppm for MM. Several quantifications of air samples from inlet and outlet of a biofilter operating in a waste management facility in the north of Portugal allowed the evaluation the biofilters performance.

Keywords: biofiltration, hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans, quantification

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388 Voxel Models as Input for Heat Transfer Simulations with Siemens NX Based on X-Ray Microtomography Images of Random Fibre Reinforced Composites

Authors: Steven Latré, Frederik Desplentere, Ilya Straumit, Stepan V. Lomov

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A method is proposed in order to create a three-dimensional finite element model representing fibre reinforced insulation materials for the simulation software Siemens NX. VoxTex software, a tool for quantification of µCT images of fibrous materials, is used for the transformation of microtomography images of random fibre reinforced composites into finite element models. An automatic tool was developed to execute the import of the models to the thermal solver module of Siemens NX. The paper describes the numerical tools used for the image quantification and the transformation and illustrates them on several thermal simulations of fibre reinforced insulation blankets filled with low thermal conductive fillers. The calculation of thermal conductivity is validated by comparison with the experimental data.

Keywords: analysis, modelling, thermal, voxel

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387 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual

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Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: biosensor, diffraction, ferritin, immunoassay

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386 Understanding Stock-Out of Pharmaceuticals in Timor-Leste: A Case Study in Identifying Factors Impacting on Pharmaceutical Quantification in Timor-Leste

Authors: Lourenco Camnahas, Eileen Willis, Greg Fisher, Jessie Gunson, Pascale Dettwiller, Charlene Thornton

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Stock-out of pharmaceuticals is a common issue at all level of health services in Timor-Leste, a small post-conflict country. This lead to the research questions: what are the current methods used to quantify pharmaceutical supplies; what factors contribute to the on-going pharmaceutical stock-out? The study examined factors that influence the pharmaceutical supply chain system. Methodology: Privett and Goncalvez dependency model has been adopted for the design of the qualitative interviews. The model examines pharmaceutical supply chain management at three management levels: management of individual pharmaceutical items, health facilities, and health systems. The interviews were conducted in order to collect information on inventory management, logistics management information system (LMIS) and the provision of pharmaceuticals. Andersen' behavioural model for healthcare utilization also informed the interview schedule, specifically factors linked to environment (healthcare system and external environment) and the population (enabling factors). Forty health professionals (bureaucrats, clinicians) and six senior officers from a United Nations Agency, a global multilateral agency and a local non-governmental organization were interviewed on their perceptions of factors (healthcare system/supply chain and wider environment) impacting on stock out. Additionally, policy documents for the entire healthcare system, along with population data were collected. Findings: An analysis using Pozzebon’s critical interpretation identified a range of difficulties within the system from poor coordination to failure to adhere to policy guidelines along with major difficulties with inventory management, quantification, forecasting, and budgetary constraints. Weak logistics management information system, lack of capacity in inventory management, monitoring and supervision are additional organizational factors that also contributed to the issue. There were various methods of quantification of pharmaceuticals applied in the government sector, and non-governmental organizations. Lack of reliable data is one of the major problems in the pharmaceutical provision. Global Fund has the best quantification methods fed by consumption data and malaria cases. There are other issues that worsen stock-out: political intervention, work ethic and basic infrastructure such as unreliable internet connectivity. Major issues impacting on pharmaceutical quantification have been identified. However, current data collection identified limitations within the Andersen model; specifically, a failure to take account of predictors in the healthcare system and the environment (culture/politics/social. The next step is to (a) compare models used by three non-governmental agencies with the government model; (b) to run the Andersen explanatory model for pharmaceutical expenditure for 2 to 5 drug items used by these three development partners in order to see how it correlates with the present model in terms of quantification and forecasting the needs; (c) to repeat objectives (a) and (b) using the government model; (d) to draw a conclusion about the strength.

Keywords: inventory management, pharmaceutical forecasting and quantification, pharmaceutical stock-out, pharmaceutical supply chain management

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385 Quantified Metabolomics for the Determination of Phenotypes and Biomarkers across Species in Health and Disease

Authors: Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf, Lipu Wang, Ketty Boyle, Nadine Makley, Ian Burton, Anissa Belkaid, Mohamed Touaibia, Marc E. Surrette

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Metabolic changes are one of the major factors in the development of a variety of diseases in various species. Metabolism of agricultural plants is altered the following infection with pathogens sometimes contributing to resistance. At the same time, pathogens use metabolites for infection and progression. In humans, metabolism is a hallmark of cancer development for example. Quantified metabolomics data combined with other omics or clinical data and analyzed using various unsupervised and supervised methods can lead to better diagnosis and prognosis. It can also provide information about resistance as well as contribute knowledge of compounds significant for disease progression or prevention. In this work, different methods for metabolomics quantification and analysis from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that are used for investigation of disease development in wheat and human cells will be presented. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra are used extensively for metabolic profiling due to their high reliability, wide range of applicability, speed, trivial sample preparation and low cost. This presentation will describe a new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that combines alignment of spectra of standards to sample spectra followed by multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ spectra. Several different alignment methods were tested and multivariate linear regression result has been compared with other quantification methods. Quantified metabolomics data can be analyzed in the variety of ways and we will present different clustering methods used for phenotype determination, network analysis providing knowledge about the relationships between metabolites through metabolic network as well as biomarker selection providing novel markers. These analysis methods have been utilized for the investigation of fusarium head blight resistance in wheat cultivars as well as analysis of the effect of estrogen receptor and carbonic anhydrase activation and inhibition on breast cancer cell metabolism. Metabolic changes in spikelet’s of wheat cultivars FL62R1, Stettler, MuchMore and Sumai3 following fusarium graminearum infection were explored. Extensive 1D 1H and 2D NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. Quantification data is compared to results obtained using other published methods. Fusarium infection induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. Quantitative metabolomics has been used for the investigation of the effect of targeted enzyme inhibition in cancer. In this work, the effect of 17 β -estradiol and ferulic acid on metabolism of ER+ breast cancer cells has been compared to their effect on ER- control cells. The effect of the inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase on the observed metabolic changes resulting from ER activation has also been determined. Metabolic profiles were studied using 1D and 2D metabolomic NMR experiments, combined with the identification and quantification of metabolites, and the annotation of the results is provided in the context of biochemical pathways.

Keywords: metabolic biomarkers, metabolic network, metabolomics, multivariate linear regression, NMR quantification, quantified metabolomics, spectral alignment

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384 Quantification of the Variables of the Information Model for the Use of School Terminology from 1884 to 2014 in Dalmatia

Authors: Vinko Vidučić, Tanja Brešan Ančić, Marijana Tomelić Ćurlin

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Prior to quantifying the variables of the information model for using school terminology in Croatia's region of Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014, the most relevant model variables had to be determined: historical circumstances, standard of living, education system, linguistic situation, and media. The research findings show that there was no significant transfer of the 1884 school terms into 1949 usage; likewise, the 1949 school terms were not widely used in 2014. On the other hand, the research revealed that the meaning of school terms changed over the decades. The quantification of the variables will serve as the groundwork for creating an information model for using school terminology in Dalmatia from 1884 to 2014 and for defining direct growth rates in further research.

Keywords: education system, historical circumstances, linguistic situation, media, school terminology, standard of living

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383 Statistical Pattern Recognition for Biotechnological Process Characterization Based on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: S. Fröhlich, M. Herold, M. Allmer

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Early stage quantitative analysis of host cell protein (HCP) variations is challenging yet necessary for comprehensive bioprocess development. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) provides a high-end technology for accurate identification alongside with quantitative information. Hereby we describe a flexible HRMS assay platform to quantify HCPs relevant in microbial expression systems such as E. Coli in both up and downstream development by means of MVDA tools. Cell pellets were lysed and proteins extracted, purified samples not further treated before applying the SMART tryptic digest kit. Peptides separation was optimized using an RP-UHPLC separation platform. HRMS-MSMS analysis was conducted on an Orbitrap Velos Elite applying CID. Quantification was performed label-free taking into account ionization properties and physicochemical peptide similarities. Results were analyzed using SIEVE 2.0 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) and SIMCA (Umetrics AG). The developed HRMS platform was applied to an E. Coli expression set with varying productivity and the corresponding downstream process. Selected HCPs were successfully quantified within the fmol range. Analysing HCP networks based on pattern analysis facilitated low level quantification and enhanced validity. This approach is of high relevance for high-throughput screening experiments during upstream development, e.g. for titer determination, dynamic HCP network analysis or product characterization. Considering the downstream purification process, physicochemical clustering of identified HCPs is of relevance to adjust buffer conditions accordingly. However, the technology provides an innovative approach for label-free MS based quantification relying on statistical pattern analysis and comparison. Absolute quantification based on physicochemical properties and peptide similarity score provides a technological approach without the need of sophisticated sample preparation strategies and is therefore proven to be straightforward, sensitive and highly reproducible in terms of product characterization.

Keywords: process analytical technology, mass spectrometry, process characterization, MVDA, pattern recognition

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382 Direct Growth Rates of the Information Model for Traffic at the Service of Sustainable Development of Tourism in Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County 2014-2020

Authors: Vinko Viducic, Jelena Žanic Mikulicic, Maja Racic, Kristina Sladojevic

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The research presented in this paper has been focused on analyzing the impact of traffic on the sustainable development of tourism in Croatia's Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County by the year 2020, based on the figures and trends reported in 2014 and using the relevant variables that characterise the synergy of traffic and tourism in, speaking from the geographic viewpoint, the most problematic county in the Republic of Croatia. The basic hypothesis has been confirmed through scientifically obtained research results, through the quantification of the model's variables and the direct growth rates of the designed model. On the basis of scientific insights into the sustainable development of traffic and tourism in Dubrovacko-Neretvanska County, it is possible to propose a new information model for traffic at the service of the sustainable development of tourism in the County for the period 2014-2020.

Keywords: environment protection, hotel industry, private sector, quantification

Procedia PDF Downloads 160