Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 93

Search results for: transmittance

93 Calibration Model of %Titratable Acidity (Citric Acid) for Intact Tomato by Transmittance SW-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, S. Kumchoo

Abstract:

The acidity (citric acid) is one of the chemical contents that can refer to the internal quality and the maturity index of tomato. The titratable acidity (%TA) can be predicted by a non-destructive method prediction by using the transmittance short wavelength (SW-NIR). Spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. The set of 167 tomato samples divided into groups of 117 tomatoes sample for training set and 50 tomatoes sample for test set were used to establish the calibration model to predict and measure %TA by partial least squares regression (PLSR) technique. The spectra were pretreated with MSC pretreatment and it gave the optimal result for calibration model as (R = 0.92, RMSEC = 0.03%) and this model obtained high accuracy result to use for %TA prediction in test set as (R = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.05%). From the result of prediction in test set shown that the transmittance SW-NIR spectroscopy technique can be used for a non-destructive method for %TA prediction of tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, quality, prediction, transmittance, titratable acidity, citric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
92 Prediction of the Transmittance of Various Bended Angles Lightpipe by Using Neural Network under Different Sky Clearness Condition

Authors: Li Zhang, Yuehong Su

Abstract:

Lightpipe as a mature solar light tube technique has been employed worldwide. Accurately assessing the performance of lightpipe and evaluate daylighting available has been a challenging topic. Previous research had used regression model and computational simulation methods to estimate the performance of lightpipe. However, due to the nonlinear nature of solar light transferring in lightpipe, the methods mentioned above express inaccurate and time-costing issues. In the present study, a neural network model as an alternative method is investigated to predict the transmittance of lightpipe. Four types of commercial lightpipe with bended angle 0°, 30°, 45° and 60° are discussed under clear, intermediate and overcast sky conditions respectively. The neural network is generated in MATLAB by using the outcomes of an optical software Photopia simulations as targets for networks training and testing. The coefficient of determination (R²) for each model is higher than 0.98, and the mean square error (MSE) is less than 0.0019, which indicate the neural network strong predictive ability and the use of the neural network method could be an efficient technique for determining the performance of lightpipe.

Keywords: neural network, bended lightpipe, transmittance, Photopia

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
91 Optical and Electrochromic Properties of All-Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO₃ and Ni(OH)₂

Authors: Ta-Huang Sun, Ming-Hao Hsieh, Min-Chuan Wang, Der-Jun Jan

Abstract:

Electrochromism refers to the persistent and reversible change of optical properties by an applied voltage pulse. There are many transition metal oxides exhibiting electrochromism, e.g. oxides of W, Ni, Ir, V, Ti, Co and Mo. Organic materials especially some conducting polymers such as poly(aniline), poly(3, 4-propylene- dioxythiophene) also received much attention for electrochromic (EC) applications. Electrochromic materials attract considerable interest because of their potential applications, such as information displays, smart windows, variable reflectance mirrors, and variable-emittance thermal radiators. In this study, the EC characteristics are investigated on an all-solid-state EC device composed of a-WO₃ and Ni(OH)₂ with a Ta₂O₅ protective layer which is prepared by magnetron sputtering. It is found that the transmittance modulation increases with decreasing the film thickness of Ta₂O₅. On the other hand, the transmittance modulation is 57% as the Ni(OH)₂/ITO is prepared by the linear-sweep potential cycling of the sputter-deposited Ta₂O₅/NiO/ITO in a 0.5 M LiClO₄+H₂O electrolyte. However, when Ni(OH)₂/ITO is prepared by a 0.01 M HCl electrolyte, the transmittance modulation of EC device can be improved to 61%.

Keywords: electrochromic device, tungsten oxide, nickel, Ta₂O₅

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
90 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, mold, quality, prediction, transmittance

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
89 Detection of Internal Mold Infection of Intact For Tomatoes by Non-Destructive, Transmittance VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, N. Prathengjit

Abstract:

The external characteristics of tomatoes, such as freshness, color and size are typically used in quality control processes for tomatoes sorting. However, the internal mold infection of intact tomato cannot be sorted based on a visible assessment and destructive method alone. In this study, a non-destructive technique was used to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes by using transmittance visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra for 200 samples contained 100 samples for normal tomatoes and 100 samples for mold infected tomatoes were acquired in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. This data was used in conjunction with partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method to generate a classification model for tomato quality between groups of internal mold infection of intact tomato samples. For this task, the data was split into two groups, 140 samples were used for a training set and 60 samples were used for a test set. The spectra of both normal and internally mold infected tomatoes showed different features in the visible wavelength range. Combined spectral pretreatments of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) and smoothing (Savitzky-Golay) gave the optimal calibration model in training set, 85.0% (63 out of 71 for the normal samples and 56 out of 69 for the internal mold samples). The classification accuracy of the best model on the test set was 91.7% (29 out of 29 for the normal samples and 26 out of 31 for the internal mold tomato samples). The results from this experiment showed that transmittance VIS-NIR spectroscopy can be used as a non-destructive technique to predict the internal mold infection of intact tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, mold, quality, prediction, transmittance

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
88 Estimation of Solar Radiation Power Using Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 Bands Model: Case Study of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Benedictus Asriparusa

Abstract:

Solar radiation is a green renewable energy which has the potential to answer the needs of energy problems on the period. Knowing how to estimate the strength of the solar radiation force may be one solution of sustainable energy development in an integrated manner. Unfortunately, a fairly extensive area of Indonesia is still very low availability of solar radiation data. Therefore, we need a method to estimate the exact strength of solar radiation. In this study, author used a model Reference Evaluation of Solar Transmittance, 2 Bands (REST 2). Validation of REST 2 model has been performed in Spain, India, Colorado, Saudi Arabia, and several other areas. But it is not widely used in Indonesia. Indonesian region study area is represented by the area of Semarang, Central Java. Solar radiation values estimated using REST 2 model was then verified by field data and gives average RMSE value of 6.53%. Based on the value, it can be concluded that the model REST 2 can be used to estimate the value of solar radiation in clear sky conditions in parts of Indonesia.

Keywords: estimation, solar radiation power, REST 2, solar transmittance

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
87 Evaluation of TRIS-DMA-NVP Hydrogels for Making Silicone-Based Contact Lenses

Authors: N. P. D. Tran, H. Q. D. Nguyen, M. C. Yang

Abstract:

In this study, contact lenses were prepared through the polymerization of tris-(trimethyl-silyl-propyl-methacrylate) (TRIS), N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), and cross-linked with ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA). The equilibrium water content (EWC), oxygen permeability (Dk), light transmittance, and in vitro cytotoxicity of TRIS-DMA-NVP with various ratios were measured. The results showed that the EWC increased while the Dk decreased with the increase of NVP content. For the sample with 25 wt% NVP, the EWC attained 53% whereas the Dk decreased to 46 barrers. All these lenses exhibited light transmittance over than 95%. In addition, all these lenses exhibited no inhibition to the growth of L292 fibroblasts. Thus, this study showed that TRIS-DMA-NVP can be applicable for making contact lens.

Keywords: DMA, TRIS, NVP, silicone hydrogel, contact lens

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
86 High Aspect Ratio Sio2 Capillary Based On Silicon Etching and Thermal Oxidation Process for Optical Modulator

Authors: Nguyen Van Toan, Suguru Sangu, Tetsuro Saito, Naoki Inomata, Takahito Ono

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of an optical window for an optical modulator toward image sensing applications. An optical window consists of micrometer-order SiO2 capillaries (porous solid) that can modulate transmission light intensity by moving the liquid in and out of porous solid. A high optical transmittance of the optical window can be achieved due to refractive index matching when the liquid is penetrated into the porous solid. Otherwise, its light transmittance is lower because of light reflection and scattering by air holes and capillary walls. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. Therefore, high aspect ratio SiO2 capillaries can be achieved based on silicon capillaries formed by DRIE technique. Large compressive stress of the oxide causes bending of the capillary structure, which is reduced by optimizing the design of device structure. The large stress of the optical window can be released via thin supporting beams. A 7.2 mm x 9.6 mm optical window area toward a fully integrated with the image sensor format is successfully fabricated and its optical transmittance is evaluated with and without inserting liquids (ethanol and matching oil). The achieved modulation range is approximately 20% to 35% with and without liquid penetration in visible region (wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm).

Keywords: thermal oxidation process, SiO2 capillaries, optical window, light transmittance, image sensor, liquid penetration

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85 Influence of Thickness on Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Radio Frequency (RF) Sputtering Technique

Authors: S. Abdullahi, M. Momoh, K. U. Isah

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films of 75.5 nm and 130.5 nm were deposited at room temperature onto chemically and ultrasonically cleaned corning glass substrate by radio frequency technique and annealed at 150°C under nitrogen atmosphere for 60 minutes. The optical properties of the films were ascertained by UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometry. Influence of the thickness of the films on the optical properties was studied keeping other deposition parameters constant. The optical transmittance spectra reveal a maximum transmittance of 81.49% and 84.26% respectively. The band gap of the films is found to be direct allowed transition and decreases with the increase in thickness of the films. The band gap energy (Eg) is in the range of 3.28 eV to 3.31 eV, respectively. These thin films are suitable for solar cell applications.

Keywords: optical constants, RF sputtering, Urbach energy, zinc oxide thin film

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84 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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83 Anti-Reflective Nanostructured TiO2/SiO2 Multilayer Coatings

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and also nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

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82 Sol-Gel SiO2-TiO2 Multilayer Coatings for Anti-Reflective Applications

Authors: Najme Lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

Abstract:

Multilayer structure of thin films by the sol–gel process attracts great attention for antireflection applications. In this paper, antireflective nanometric multilayer SiO2-TiO2 films are formed on both sides of the glass substrates by combining the sol–gel method and the dip-coating technique. SiO2 and TiO2 sols were prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutylorthotitanate (TBOT) as precursors and nitric acid as catalyst. Prepared coatings were investigated by Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier-transformed infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) and UV–visible spectrophotometer. After evaluation, all of SiO2 top layer coatings showed excellent antireflection in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm where the transmittance of glass substrate is significantly lower. By increasing the number of double TiO2-SiO2 layers, the transmission of the coated glass increases due to applied multilayer coating properties. 6-layer sol–gel TiO2-SiO2 shows the highest visible transmittance about 99.25% at the band of 550-650 nm.

Keywords: thin films, optical properties, sol-gel, multilayer

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81 Investigating Optical Properties of Unsaturated Polyurethane Matrix and Its Glass Fiber Composite Under Extreme Temperatures

Authors: Saad Ahmed, Sanjeev Khannaa

Abstract:

Glass fiber reinforced polymers are widely used in structural systems as load-bearing elements at both high and low temperatures. This investigation presents the evaluation of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyurethane under harsh conditions of changing temperature and moisture content. This study Explores how these parameters affect the optical properties of the polymer matrix and the composite. Using the hand layup method, the polyurethane resin was modified by E-glass fibers (15 vol. %) to manufacture fiber-reinforced composite. This work includes the preparation of glass-like polyurethane resin sheets and estimates all light transmittance properties at high and very low temperatures and wet conditions. All-optical properties were retested to evaluate the level of improvement or failure. The results found that when comprising reinforced composite fiber to the unreinforced specimens, the reinforced composite shows a fair optical property at high temperatures and good performance at low temperatures.

Keywords: unsaturated polyurethane, extreme temperatures, light transmittance, haze number

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
80 The Effect of the Deposition Parameters on the Microstructural and Optical Properties of Mn-Doped GeTe Chalcogenide Materials

Authors: Adam Abdalla Elbashir Adam, Xiaomin Cheng, Xiang Shui Miao

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of the magnetron sputtering system parameters on the optical properties of the Mn doped GeTe were investigated. The optical properties of the Ge1-xMnxTe thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing the transmittance and reflectance data. The energy band gaps of the amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films with different thicknesses were calculated. The obtained results demonstrated that the energy band gap values of the amorphous films are quite different and they are dependent on the films thicknesses. The extinction coefficients of amorphous Mn-doped GeTe thin films as function of wavelength for different thicknesses were measured. The results showed that the extinction coefficients of all films are varying inversely with their optical transmission. Moreover, the results emphasis that, not only the microstructure, electrical and magnetic properties of Mn doped GeTe thin films vary with the films thicknesses but also the optical properties differ with the film thickness.

Keywords: phase change magnetic materials, transmittance, absorbance, extinction coefficients

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79 Investigation of the Morphology and Optical Properties of CuAlO₂ Thin Film

Authors: T. M. Aminu, A. Salisu, B. Abdu, H. U. Alhassan, T. H. Dharma

Abstract:

Thin films of CuAlO2 were deposited on clean glass substrate using the chemical solution deposition (sol-gel) method of deposition with CuCl and AlCl3 taken as the starting materials. CuCl was dissolved in HCl while AlCl₃ in distilled water, pH value of the mixture was controlled by addition of NaOH. The samples were annealed at different temperatures in order to determine the effect of annealing temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of the deposited CuAlO₂ thin film. The surface morphology reveals an improved crystalline as annealing temperature increases. The results of the UV-vis and FT-IR spectrophotometry indicate that the absorbance for all the samples decreases sharply from a common value of about 89% at about 329 nm to a range of values of 56.2%-35.2% and the absorption / extinction coefficients of the films decrease with increase in annealing temperature from 1.58 x 10⁻⁶ to1.08 x 10⁻⁶ at about 1.14eV in the infrared region to about 1.93 x 10⁻⁶ to 1.29 x 10⁻⁶ at about 3.62eV in the visible region, the transmittance, reflectance and band gaps vary directly with annealing temperature, the deposited films were found to be suitable in optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: copper aluminium-oxide (CuAlO2), absorbance, transmittance, reflectance, band gaps

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78 Effect of Gel Concentration on Physical Properties of an Electrochromic Device

Authors: Sharan K. Indrakar, Aakash B. Prasad, Arash Takshi, Sesha Srinivasan, Elias K. Stefanakos

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In this work, we present an exclusive study on the effect of the feeding ratio of polyaniline-based redox-active gel layer on electrical and optical properties of innovative electrochromic devices (ECs). An electrochromic device consisting of polyaniline (PANI) has a redox-active gel electrolyte placed between two conducting transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates. The redox-active composite gel is a mixture of different concentrations of aniline (monomer), a water-soluble polymer poly (vinyl alcohol), hydrochloric acid, and an oxidant. The EC device shows the color change from dark green to transparent for the applied potential between -0.5 V to +2.0 V. The coloration and decoloration of the ECs were tested for electrochemical behavior using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The optical transparency of the EC devices was examined at two different biasing voltage conditions under UV-visible spectroscopic technique; the result showed 65% transmittance at 564 nm and zero transmittance when the cell was biased at 0.0 V and 2.0 V, the synthesized mol fraction gel was analyzed for surface morphology and structural properties by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformer spectroscopy.

Keywords: electrochromic, gel electrolyte, polyaniline, conducting polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
77 Comparison of Artificial Neural Networks and Statistical Classifiers in Olive Sorting Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: İsmail Kavdır, M. Burak Büyükcan, Ferhat Kurtulmuş

Abstract:

Table olive is a valuable product especially in Mediterranean countries. It is usually consumed after some fermentation process. Defects happened naturally or as a result of an impact while olives are still fresh may become more distinct after processing period. Defected olives are not desired both in table olive and olive oil industries as it will affect the final product quality and reduce market prices considerably. Therefore it is critical to sort table olives before processing or even after processing according to their quality and surface defects. However, doing manual sorting has many drawbacks such as high expenses, subjectivity, tediousness and inconsistency. Quality criterions for green olives were accepted as color and free of mechanical defects, wrinkling, surface blemishes and rotting. In this study, it was aimed to classify fresh table olives using different classifiers and NIR spectroscopy readings and also to compare the classifiers. For this purpose, green (Ayvalik variety) olives were classified based on their surface feature properties such as defect-free, with bruised defect and with fly defect using FT-NIR spectroscopy and classification algorithms such as artificial neural networks, ident and cluster. Bruker multi-purpose analyzer (MPA) FT-NIR spectrometer (Bruker Optik, GmbH, Ettlingen Germany) was used for spectral measurements. The spectrometer was equipped with InGaAs detectors (TE-InGaAs internal for reflectance and RT-InGaAs external for transmittance) and a 20-watt high intensity tungsten–halogen NIR light source. Reflectance measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe (type IN 261) which covered the wavelengths between 780–2500 nm, while transmittance measurements were performed between 800 and 1725 nm. Thirty-two scans were acquired for each reflectance spectrum in about 15.32 s while 128 scans were obtained for transmittance in about 62 s. Resolution was 8 cm⁻¹ for both spectral measurement modes. Instrument control was done using OPUS software (Bruker Optik, GmbH, Ettlingen Germany). Classification applications were performed using three classifiers; Backpropagation Neural Networks, ident and cluster classification algorithms. For these classification applications, Neural Network tool box in Matlab, ident and cluster modules in OPUS software were used. Classifications were performed considering different scenarios; two quality conditions at once (good vs bruised, good vs fly defect) and three quality conditions at once (good, bruised and fly defect). Two spectrometer readings were used in classification applications; reflectance and transmittance. Classification results obtained using artificial neural networks algorithm in discriminating good olives from bruised olives, from olives with fly defect and from the olive group including both bruised and fly defected olives with success rates respectively changing between 97 and 99%, 61 and 94% and between 58.67 and 92%. On the other hand, classification results obtained for discriminating good olives from bruised ones and also for discriminating good olives from fly defected olives using the ident method ranged between 75-97.5% and 32.5-57.5%, respectfully; results obtained for the same classification applications using the cluster method ranged between 52.5-97.5% and between 22.5-57.5%.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, statistical classifiers, NIR spectroscopy, reflectance, transmittance

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76 Property of Fermented Sweet Potato Flour and Its Suitability for Composite Noodle

Authors: Neti Yuliana, Srisetyani, Siti Nurdjanah, Dewi Sartika, Yoan Martiansari, Putri Nabila

Abstract:

Naturally sweet potato flour usually requires a modification process to improve its inherent property for expanding its application in food system. The study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour (SPF), to increase its utilization for composite noodle production, trough fermentation of sweet potato slices before its flouring process. Fermentation were prepared with five different starters: pickle brine, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides , and mixed of Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Sacharomyces cerevisiae. Samples were withdrawn every 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The fermented flours were characterized for swelling power, solubility, paste transmittance, pH, sensory properties (acidic aroma and whiteness), and the amount of broken composite noodle strips. The results indicated that there was no significant effect of different starters on fermented SPF characteristic and on the amount of broken noodle strip, while length of fermentation significantly affected. Longer fermentation, reaching 48-72 h, increased swelling power, pH, acidic aroma and whiteness of flour and reduced solubility, paste transmittance, and the amount of broken noodle strip. The results suggested that fermentation within 48-72 h period of time could provide great composite SPF for noodle.

Keywords: starters, fermented flour, sweet potato, composite noodle

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75 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Grown by Modified Chemical Surface Deposition Method

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali

Abstract:

We report on deposition of smooth, pinhole-free, low-surface roughness ( < 4nm) and high optical quality cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films on glass substrates using our new method based on chemical surface deposition principle. In this method, cadmium acetate and thiourea are used as reactants under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-vis transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. Interestingly, we found that XRD pattern of the deposited films has dramatically changed when the growth temperature was raised during the reaction. Namely, the XRD measurements reveal a structural change of CdS film from Cubic to Hexagonal phase upon increase in the growth temperature from 75 °C to 200 °C. Furthermore, the deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed from observation of both sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Also, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap and crystal structure of the deposited CdS films; can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands alignments between CdS and other light harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of all-solution processed solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: thin film, CdS, new method, optical properties

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74 Effect of Fire Retardant Painting Product on Smoke Optical Density of Burning Natural Wood Samples

Authors: Abdullah N. Olimat, Ahmad S. Awad, Faisal M. AL-Ghathian

Abstract:

Natural wood is used in many applications in Jordan such as furniture, partitions constructions, and cupboards. Experimental work for smoke produced by the combustion of certain wood samples was studied. Smoke generated from burning of natural wood, is considered as a major cause of death in furniture fires. The critical parameter for life safety in fires is the available time for escape, so the visual obscuration due to smoke release during fire is taken into consideration. The effect of smoke, produced by burning of wood, depends on the amount of smoke released in case of fire. The amount of smoke production, apparently, affects the time available for the occupants to escape. To achieve the protection of life of building occupants during fire growth, fire retardant painting products are tested. The tested samples of natural wood include Beech, Ash, Beech Pine, and white Beech Pine. A smoke density chamber manufactured by fire testing technology has been used to perform measurement of smoke properties. The procedure of test was carried out according to the ISO-5659. A nonflammable vertical radiant heat flux of 25 kW/m2 is exposed to the wood samples in a horizontal orientation. The main objective of the current study is to carry out the experimental tests for samples of natural woods to evaluate the capability to escape in case of fire and the fire safety requirements. Specific optical density, transmittance, thermal conductivity, and mass loss are main measured parameters. Also, comparisons between samples with paint and with no paint are carried out between the selected samples of woods.

Keywords: extinction coefficient, optical density, transmittance, visibility

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73 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Some Physical Properties of Doubly doped Tin Oxide Thin Films

Authors: Ahmet Battal, Demet Tatar, Bahattin Düzgün

Abstract:

Various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are mostly used much applications due to many properties such as cheap, high transmittance/electrical conductivity etc. One of the clearest among TCOs, indium tin oxide (ITO), is the most widely used in many areas. However, as ITO is expensive and very low regarding reserve, other materials with suitable properties (especially SnO2 thin films) are be using instead of it. In this report, tin oxide thin films doubly doped with antimony and fluorine (AFTO) were deposited by spray at different substrate temperatures on glass substrate. It was investigated their structural, optical, electrical and luminescence properties. The substrate temperature was varied from 320 to 480 ˚C at the interval of 40 (±5) ºC. X-ray results were shown that the films are polycrystalline with tetragonal structure and oriented preferentially along (101), (200) and (210) directions. It was observed that the preferential orientations of crystal growth are not dependent on substrate temperature, but the intensity of preferential orientation was increased with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. After this substrate temperature, they decreased. So, substrate temperature impact structure of these thin films. It was known from SEM analysis, the thin films have rough and homogenous and the surface of the films was affected by the substrate temperature i.e. grain size are increasing with increasing substrate temperature until 400 ºC. Also, SEM and AFM studies revealed the surface of AFTO thin films to be made of nanocrystalline particles. The average transmittance of the films in the visible range is 70-85%. Eg values of the films were investigated using the absorption spectra and found to be in the range 3,20-3,93 eV. The electrical resistivity decreases with increasing substrate temperature, then the electrical resistivity increases. PL spectra were found as a function of substrate temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, emission spectra shift a little bit to a UV region. Finally, tin oxide thin films were successfully prepared by this method and a spectroscopic characterization of the obtained films was performed. It was found that the films have very good physical properties. It was concluded that substrate temperature impacts thin film structure.

Keywords: thin films, spray pyrolysis, SnO2, doubly doped

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72 An Improved Atmospheric Correction Method with Diurnal Temperature Cycle Model for MSG-SEVIRI TIR Data under Clear Sky Condition

Authors: Caixia Gao, Chuanrong Li, Lingli Tang, Lingling Ma, Yonggang Qian, Ning Wang

Abstract:

Knowledge of land surface temperature (LST) is of crucial important in energy balance studies and environment modeling. Satellite thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is the primary source for retrieving LST at the regional and global scales. Due to the combination of atmosphere and land surface of received radiance by TIR sensors, atmospheric effect correction has to be performed to remove the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance. Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) provides measurements every 15 minutes in 12 spectral channels covering from visible to infrared spectrum at fixed view angles with 3km pixel size at nadir, offering new and unique capabilities for LST, LSE measurements. However, due to its high temporal resolution, the atmosphere correction could not be performed with radiosonde profiles or reanalysis data since these profiles are not available at all SEVIRI TIR image acquisition times. To solve this problem, a two-part six-parameter semi-empirical diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) model has been applied to the temporal interpolation of ECMWF reanalysis data. Due to the fact that the DTC model is underdetermined with ECMWF data at four synoptic times (UTC times: 00:00, 06:00, 12:00, 18:00) in one day for each location, some approaches are adopted in this study. It is well known that the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance has a relationship with water vapour content (WVC). With the aid of simulated data, the relationship could be determined under each viewing zenith angle for each SEVIRI TIR channel. Thus, the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance are preliminary removed with the aid of instantaneous WVC, which is retrieved from the brightness temperature in the SEVIRI channels 5, 9 and 10, and a group of the brightness temperatures for surface leaving radiance (Tg) are acquired. Subsequently, a group of the six parameters of the DTC model is fitted with these Tg by a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares algorithm (denoted as DTC model 1). Although the retrieval error of WVC and the approximate relationships between WVC and atmospheric parameters would induce some uncertainties, this would not significantly affect the determination of the three parameters, td, ts and β (β is the angular frequency, td is the time where the Tg reaches its maximum, ts is the starting time of attenuation) in DTC model. Furthermore, due to the large fluctuation in temperature and the inaccuracy of the DTC model around sunrise, SEVIRI measurements from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunrise are excluded. With the knowledge of td , ts, and β, a new DTC model (denoted as DTC model 2) is accurately fitted again with these Tg at UTC times: 05:57, 11:57, 17:57 and 23:57, which is atmospherically corrected with ECMWF data. And then a new group of the six parameters of the DTC model is generated and subsequently, the Tg at any given times are acquired. Finally, this method is applied to SEVIRI data in channel 9 successfully. The result shows that the proposed method could be performed reasonably without assumption and the Tg derived with the improved method is much more consistent with that from radiosonde measurements.

Keywords: atmosphere correction, diurnal temperature cycle model, land surface temperature, SEVIRI

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71 Structural and Optical Study of Cu doped ZnS Thin Films Nanocrystalline by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, D. T. Talantikite, H. Haddad, Amel Tounsi

Abstract:

ZnS is an important II-VI binary compound with large band-gap energy at room temperature. We present in this work preparation and characterization of ZnS and Cu doped ZnS thin films. The depositions are performed by a simple chemical bath deposition route. Structural properties are carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical transmittance is investigated by the UV-visible spectroscopy at room temperature.

Keywords: chemical, bath, method, Cu, doped, ZnS, thin, films

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70 Low-Surface Roughness and High Optical Quality CdS Thin Film Deposited on Heated Substrate Using Room-Temperature Chemical Solution

Authors: A. Elsayed, M. H. Dewaidar, M. Ghali, M. Elkemary

Abstract:

The high production cost of the conventional solar cells requires the search for economic methods suitable for solar energy conversion. Cadmium Sulfide (CdS) is one of the most important semiconductors used in photovoltaics, especially in large area solar cells; and can be prepared in a thin film form by a wide variety of deposition techniques. The preparation techniques include vacuum evaporation, sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. Other techniques, based on chemical solutions, are also used for depositing CdS films with dramatically low-cost compared to other vacuum-based methods. Although this technique is widely used during the last decades, due to simplicity and low-deposition temperature (~100°C), there is still a strong need for more information on the growth process and its relation with the quality of the deposited films. Here, we report on deposition of high-quality CdS thin films; with low-surface roughness ( < 3.0 nm) and sharp optical absorption edge; on low-temperature glass substrates (70°C) using a new method based on the room-temperature chemical solution. In this method, a mixture solution of cadmium acetate and thiourea at room temperature was used under special growth conditions for deposition of CdS films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were used to examine the crystal structure properties of the deposited CdS films. In addition, UV-VIS transmittance and low-temperature (4K) photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed for quantifying optical properties of the deposited films. The deposited films show high optical quality as confirmed by observation of both, sharp edge in the transmittance spectra and strong PL intensity at room temperature. Furthermore, we found a strong effect of the growth conditions on the optical band gap of the deposited films; where remarkable red-shift in the absorption edge with temperature is clearly seen in both transmission and PL spectra. Such tuning of both optical band gap of the deposited CdS films can be utilized for tuning the electronic bands' alignments between CdS and other light-harvesting materials, like CuInGaSe or CdTe, for potential improvement in the efficiency of solar cells devices based on these heterostructures.

Keywords: chemical deposition, CdS, optical properties, surface, thin film

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69 Comparative Studies on Thin Film of ZnO Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis and Sputtering Technique

Authors: Musa Momoh, A. U. Moreh, A. M. Bayawa, Sanusi Abdullahi, I. Atiku

Abstract:

In this study, thin films of ZnO were synthesized by two techniques namely RF sputtering and spray pyrolysis. The films were deposited on corning glass. The primary materials used are 99.99% pure. The optical and structural properties of the samples were studied. It has been noted that the samples deposited by Spray pyrolysis have and average transmittance, refractive index and extinction coefficient as 80-90%, 1.33-1.44 and 13.11-27.52 respectively. Those deposited by sputtering method are 34-80%, 1.51-1.52 and 3.15-3.28. The XRD patterns of the samples show that they are polycrystalline.

Keywords: zinc oxide, spray pyrolysis, rf sputtering, optical properties, electrical properties

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68 Elaboration and Characterization of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: A. Attaf, I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi

Abstract:

Hexagonal tin disulfide (SnS2) films were deposited by spray ultrasonic technique on glass substrates at different experimental conditions. The effect of deposition time (2, 4, 6, and 7 min) on different properties of SnS2 thin films was investigated by XRD and UV spectroscopy visible spectrum. X-ray diffraction study detected the preferential orientation growth of SnS2 compound having structure along (001) plane increased with the deposition time. The results of UV spectroscopy visible spectrum showed that films deposited at 4 min have high transmittance, up to 60%, in the visible region.

Keywords: structural and optical properties, tin sulfide, thin films, ultrasonic spray

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67 Effect of Deposition Time on Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Tin Sulfide Thin Films Deposited by Spray Ultrasonic

Authors: I. Bouhaf Kharkhachi, A. Attaf

Abstract:

Tin sulfide thin films on glass substrate were prepared by spray ultrasonic technique, at different experimental conditions. The influence of deposition time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 min) on different properties of thin films, such us, (XRD) and (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum was investigated. X-ray diffraction showing that thin films crystallized in SnS, SnS2, and Sn2S3 phases. The results of (UV) spectroscopy visible spectrum show that films deposited at 4 min are large transmittance 60% in the visible region.

Keywords: SnS, thin films, ultrasonic spray, X-ray diffraction, UV spectroscopy visible

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66 Nanostructured Fluorine Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolisys Technique: Effect of Starting Solution Composition and Substrate Temperature on the Physical Characteristics

Authors: Esmeralda Chávez Vargas, M. de la L. Olvera, A. Maldonado

Abstract:

The doping it is believed as follows, at high concentration fluorine in ZnO: F films is incorporated to the lattice by substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions; at middle fluorine concentrations, F ions may form interstitials, whereas for low concentrations it is increased the carriers and mobility could be explained by the surface passivation effect of fluorine. ZnO:F thin films were deposited on sodocalcic glass substratesat 425 °C , 450°C, 475 during 8, 12, 15 min from a 0.2 M solution. Doping concentration in the starting solutions was varied, namely, [F]/[F+Zn] = 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 at. %; solvent composition was varied as well, 100:100; 50:50; 100:50(acetic acid: water: methanol ratios, in volume). In this work it is reported the characterization results of fluorine doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) thin films deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique, using zinc acetate and ammonium fluorine as Zn an F precursors, respectively. The effect of varying the fluorine concentration in the starting solutions, the solvent composition, and the ageing time of the starting solutions, on the electrical resistivity, optical transmittance, structure and surface morphology was analyzed. In order to have a quantitative evaluation of the ZnO:F thin films for its application as transparent electrodes, the Figure of Merit was estimated from the Haacke´s formula. After a thoroughly study, it can be found that optimal conditions for the deposition of transparent and conductive ZnO:F thin films on sodocalcic substrates, were as follows; substrate temperature: solution molar concentration 0.2, doping concentration in the starting solution of [F]/[Zn]= 60 at. %, (water content)/(acetic acid) in starting solution: [H2O/ CH3OH]= 50:50, substrate temperature: 450 °C. The effects of aging of the starting solution has also been analyzed thoroughly and it has been found a dramatic effect on the electric resistivity of the material, aged by 40 days, show an electrical resitivity as low as 120 Ω/□, with a transmittance around 80% in the visible range. X-ray diffraction spectra show a polycrystalline of ZnO (wurtzite structure) where the amount of fluorine doping affects to preferential orientation (002 plane). Therefore, F introduction in lattice is by the substitution of O-2 ions by F-1 ions. The results show that ZnO:F thin films are potentially adequate for application as transparent conductive oxide in thin film solar cells.

Keywords: TCOs, transparent electrodes, ultrasonic spray pyrolysis, zinc oxide, ZnO:F

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65 Sol–Gel Derived Durable Antireflective Multilayered TiO2/SiO2 Coating for Solar Glass

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi

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In this paper, multilayer TiO2-SiO2 containing PDMS coatings were produced. Also, the effect of triton as a porosity maker on single and multilayer silica and titania coatings was investigated. The results showed stability of optical triton containing coatings disappears with time. Because of the presence of triton in solution improve the wetting properties of PDMS sols and helps lead to instability by water absorption. However; without triton, antireflective multilayer coatings with high transmittance 98% and excellent durability were prepared by sol–gel process using poly dimethyl siloxane as additive. This coating can be used as well as in solar applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, thin film, anti-reflective, titania-silica, PDMS, triton

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64 Life Cycle Assessment-Based Environmental Assessment of the Production and Maintenance of Wooden Windows

Authors: Pamela Del Rosario, Elisabetta Palumbo, Marzia Traverso

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The building sector plays an important role in addressing pressing environmental issues such as climate change and resource scarcity. The energy performance of buildings is considerably affected by the external envelope. In fact, a considerable proportion of the building energy demand is due to energy losses through the windows. Nevertheless, according to literature, to pay attention only to the contribution of windows to the building energy performance, i.e., their influence on energy use during building operation, could result in a partial evaluation. Hence, it is important to consider not only the building energy performance but also the environmental performance of windows, and this not only during the operational stage but along its complete life cycle. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) according to ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006+A1:2018 is one of the most adopted and robust methods to evaluate the environmental performance of products throughout their complete life cycle. This life-cycle based approach avoids the shift of environmental impacts of a life cycle stage to another, allowing to allocate them to the stage in which they originated and to adopt measures that optimize the environmental performance of the product. Moreover, the LCA method is widely implemented in the construction sector to assess whole buildings as well as construction products and materials. LCA is regulated by the European Standards EN 15978:2011, at the building level, and EN 15804:2012+A2:2019, at the level of construction products and materials. In this work, the environmental performance of wooden windows was assessed by implementing the LCA method and adopting primary data. More specifically, the emphasis is given to embedded and operational impacts. Furthermore, correlations are made between these environmental impacts and aspects such as type of wood and window transmittance. In the particular case of the operational impacts, special attention is set on the definition of suitable maintenance scenarios that consider the potential climate influence on the environmental impacts. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted, and expert consultation was carried out. The study underlined the variability of the embedded environmental impacts of wooden windows by considering different wood types and transmittance values. The results also highlighted the need to define appropriate maintenance scenarios for precise assessment results. It was found that both the service life and the window maintenance requirements in terms of treatment and its frequency are highly dependent not only on the wood type and its treatment during the manufacturing process but also on the weather conditions of the place where the window is installed. In particular, it became evident that maintenance-related environmental impacts were the highest for climate regions with the lowest temperatures and the greatest amount of precipitation.

Keywords: embedded impacts, environmental performance, life cycle assessment, LCA, maintenance stage, operational impacts, wooden windows

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