Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5285

Search results for: nanostructured materials

5285 SO2 Sensing Performance of Nanostructured CdSnO3 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

Authors: R. H. Bari

Abstract:

The nanostructured thin films of CdSnO3 are sensitive to change in their environment. CdSnO3 is successfully used as gas sensor due to the dependence of the electrical conductivity on the ambient gas composition. Nanostructured CdSnO3 thin films of different substrate temperature (300 0C, 350 0C, 400 0C and 450 0C) were deposited onto heated glass substrate by simple spray pyrolysis (SP) technique. Sensing elements of nanostructured CdSnO3 were annealed at 500 0C for 1 hrs. Characterization includes a different analytical technique such as, X-ray diffractogram (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The average grain size observed from XRD and FF-SEM was found to be less than 18.36 and 23 nm respectively. The films sprayed at substrate temperature for 400 0C was observed to be most sensitive (S = 530) to SO2 for 500 ppm at 300 0C. The response and recovery time is 4 sec, 8 sec respectively.

Keywords: nanostructured CdSnO3, spray pyrolysis, SO2 gas sensing, quick response

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5284 Development of Nanostructured Materials for the Elimination of Emerging Pollutants in Water through Adsorption Processes

Authors: J. Morillo, Otal E., A. Caballero, R. M. Pereñiguez, J. Usero

Abstract:

The present work shows in the first place, the manufacture of the perovskitic material used as adsorbent, by means of two different methods to obtain two types of perovskites (LaFeO₃ and BiFeO₃). The results of this work show the characteristics of this manufactured material, as well as the synthesis yields obtained, achieving a better result for the self-combustion synthesis. Secondly, from the manufactured perovskites, an adsorption system has been developed, at the laboratory level, for the adsorption of the emerging pollutants Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin and Ibuprofen.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, emerging pollutants, water, adsorption processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
5283 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko

Abstract:

COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
5282 Low Nonlinear Effects Index-Guiding Nanostructured Photonic Crystal Fiber

Authors: S. Olyaee, M. Seifouri, A. Nikoosohbat, M. Shams Esfand Abadi

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCFs) can be used in optical communications as transmission lines. For this reason, the PCFs with low confinement loss, low chromatic dispersion, and low nonlinear effects are highly suitable transmission media. In this paper, we introduce a new design of index-guiding nanostructured photonic crystal fiber (IG-NPCF) with ultra-low chromatic dispersion, low nonlinearity effects, and low confinement loss. Relatively low dispersion is achieved in the wavelength range of 1200 to 1600nm using the proposed design. According to the new structure of nanostructured PCF presented in this study, the chromatic dispersion slope is -30(ps/km.nm) and the confinement loss reaches below 10-7 dB/km. While in the wavelength range mentioned above at the same time an effective area of more than 50.2μm2 is obtained.

Keywords: optical communication systems, nanostructured, index-guiding, dispersion, confinement loss, photonic crystal fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
5281 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
5280 Alpha-To-Omega Phase Transition in Bulk Nanostructured Ti and (α+β) Ti Alloys

Authors: Askar Kilmametov, Julia Ivanisenko, Boris Straumal, Horst Hahn

Abstract:

The high-pressure α- to ω-phase transition was discovered in elemental Ti and Zr fifty years ago using static high pressure and then observed to appear between 2 and 12 GPa at room temperature, depending on the experimental technique, the pressure environment, and the sample purity. The fact that ω-phase is retained in a metastable state in ambient condition after the removal of the pressure has been used to check the changes in magnetic and superconductive behavior, electron band structure and mechanical properties. However, the fundamental knowledge on a combination of both mechanical treatment and high applied pressure treatments for ω-phase formation in Ti alloys is currently lacking and has to be studied in relation to improved mechanical properties of bulk nanostructured states. In the present study, nanostructured (α+β) Ti alloys containing β-stabilizing elements such as Co, Fe, Cr, Nb were performed by severe plastic deformation, namely high pressure torsion (HPT) technique. HPT-induced α- to ω-phase transformation was revealed in dependence on applied pressure and shear strains by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The transformation kinetics was compared with the kinetics of pressure-induced transition. Orientation relationship between α-, β- and ω-phases was taken into consideration and analyzed according to theoretical calculation proposed earlier. The influence of initial state before HPT appeared to be considerable for subsequent α- to ω-phase transition. Thermal stability of the HPT-induced ω-phase was discussed as well in the frame of mechanical behavior of Ti and Ti-based alloys produced by shear deformation under high applied pressure.

Keywords: bulk nanostructured materials, high pressure phase transitions, severe plastic deformation, titanium alloys

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5279 Preparation of 1D Nano-Polyaniline/Dendritic Silver Composites

Authors: Wen-Bin Liau, Wan-Ting Wang, Chiang-Jen Hsiao, Sheng-Mao Tseng

Abstract:

In this paper, an interesting and easy method to prepare one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is reported. It is well known that the morphology of metal particle is a very important factor to influence the properties of polymer-metal composites. Usually, the dendritic silver is prepared by kinetic control in reduction reaction. It is not a thermodynamically stable structure. It is the goal to reduce silver ion to dendritic silver by polyaniline polymer via kinetic control and form one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites. The preparation is a two steps sequential reaction. First step, the polyaniline networks composed of nano fibrillar polyaniline are synthesized from aniline monomers aqueous with ammonium persulfate as the initiator at room temperature. In second step, the silver nitrate is added into polyaniline networks dispersed in deionized water. The dendritic silver is formed via reduction by polyaniline networks under the kinetic control. The formation of polyaniline is discussed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanosheets, nanotubes, nanospheres, nanosticks, and networks are observed via TEM. Then, the mechanism of formation of one-dimensional nanostructured polyaniline/dendritic silver composites is discussed. The formation of dendritic silver is observed by TEM and X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: 1D nanostructured polyaniline, dendritic silver, synthesis

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5278 Photoelectrochemical Study of Nanostructured Acropora-Like Lead Sulfide Thin Films

Authors: S. Kaci, A. Keffous, O. Fellahi, I. Bozetine, H. Menari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of Acropora-like lead sulfide nanostructured thin films using chemical bath deposition. The method has the strong points of low temperature and no surfactant, comparing with the other method. The preferential growth directions of the broad branches were indexed as along (200) directions. The photoelectrochemical property of the as-deposited thin films was also investigated. Photoelectrochemical characterization was performed in the aim to determine the flat band potential (Vfb) and to confirm the n-type character of PbS, elucidated from the J(V) curves both in the dark and under illumination. The apparition of the photocurrent Jph started at a potential VON of −0.41 V/ECS and increased towards the anodic direction, which is typical of n-type behavior. The near infrared absorbance spectrum displayed an absorbance edge at 1959 nm, showing blue shift comparing to bulk PbS (3020 nm). These nanostructured lead sulfide thin films may have potential application as dispersed photoelectrode capable of generating H2 under visible light.

Keywords: lead sulfide, nanostructures, photo-conversion, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
5277 Structural and Phase Transformations of Pure and Silica Treated Nanofibrous Al₂O₃

Authors: T. H. N. Nguyen, A. Khodan, M. Amamra, J-V. Vignes, A. Kanaev

Abstract:

The ultraporous nanofibrous alumina (NOA, Al2O3·nH2O) was synthesized by oxidation of laminated aluminium plates through a liquid mercury-silver layer in a humid atmosphere ~80% at 25°C. The material has an extremely high purity (99%), porosity (90%) and specific area (300 m2/g). The subsequent annealing of raw NOA permits obtaining pure transition phase (γ and θ) nanostructured materials. In this combination, we report on chemical, structural and phase transformations of pure and modified NOA by an impregnation of trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) during thermal annealing in the temperature range between 20 and 1650°C. The mass density, specific area, average diameter and specific area are analysed. The 3D model of pure NOA monoliths and silica modified NOA is proposed, which successfully describes the evolution of specific area, mass density and phase transformations. Activation energies of the mass transport in two regimes of surface diffusion and bulk sintering were obtained based on this model. We conclude about a common origin of modifications of the NOA morphology, chemical composition and phase transition.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, alumina (Al₂O₃), morphology, phase transitions

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5276 Effects of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Ni-17Cr Alloy

Authors: B. J. Babalola, M. B. Shongwe

Abstract:

Spark Plasma Sintering technique is a novel processing method that produces limited grain growth and highly dense variety of materials; alloys, superalloys, and carbides just to mention a few. However, initial particle size and spark plasma sintering parameters are factors which influence the grain growth and mechanical properties of sintered materials. Ni-Cr alloys are regarded as the most promising alloys for aerospace turbine blades, owing to the fact that they meet the basic requirements of desirable mechanical strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation. The conventional method of producing this alloy often results in excessive grain growth and porosity levels that are detrimental to its mechanical properties. The effect of sintering temperature was evaluated on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanostructured Ni-17Cr alloy. Nickel and chromium powder were milled using high energy ball milling independently for 30 hours, milling speed of 400 revs/min and ball to powder ratio (BPR) of 10:1. The milled powders were mixed in the composition of Nickel having 83 wt % and chromium, 17 wt %. This was sintered at varied temperatures from 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. The structural characteristics such as porosity, grain size, fracture surface and hardness were analyzed by scan electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Archimedes densitometry, micro-hardness tester. The corresponding results indicated an increase in the densification and hardness property of the alloy as the temperature increases. The residual porosity of the alloy reduces with respect to the sintering temperature and in contrast, the grain size was enhanced. The study of the mechanical properties, including hardness, densification shows that optimum properties were obtained for the sintering temperature of 1100°C. The advantages of high sinterability of Ni-17Cr alloy using milled powders and microstructural details were discussed.

Keywords: densification, grain growth, milling, nanostructured materials, sintering temperature

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5275 Study of the Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr₃₅Ni₁₅ Powder Alloy Developed by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: Salim Triaa, Fella Kali-Ali

Abstract:

Nanostructured Fe₅₀Cr3₃₅Ni₁₅ alloys were prepared from pure elemental powders using high energy mechanical alloying. The mixture powders obtained are characterized by several techniques. X-ray diffraction analysis revelated the formation of the Fe₁Cr₁ compound with BBC structure after one hour of milling. A second compound Fe₃Ni₂ with FCC structure was observed after 12 hours of milling. The size of crystallite determined by Williamson Hall method was about 5.1 nm after 48h of mill. SEM observations confirmed the growth of crushed particles as a function of milling time, while the homogenization of our powders into different constituent elements was verified by the EDX analysis.

Keywords: Fe-Cr-Ni alloy, mechanical alloying, nanostructure, SEM, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
5274 Growth Nanostructured CdO Thin Film via Solid-Vapor Deposition

Authors: A. S. Obaid, K. H. T. Hassan, A. M. Asij, B. M. Salih, M. Bououdina

Abstract:

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) thin films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation method on Si (111) substrate at room temperature using CdCl2 as a source of Cd. Detailed structural properties of the films are presented using XRD and SEM. The films was pure polycrystalline CdO phase with high crystallinity. The lattice constant average crystallite size of the nanocrystalline CdO thin films were calculated. SEM image confirms the formation nanostructure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectra of CdO thin films shows the presence of Cd and O peaks only, no additional peaks attributed to impurities or contamination are observed.

Keywords: nanostructured CdO, solid-vapor deposition, quantum size effect, cadmium oxide

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5273 Formation of Nanostructured Surface Layers of a Material with TiNi-Based Shape Memory by Diffusion Metallization

Authors: Zh. M. Blednova, P. O. Rusinov

Abstract:

Results of research on the formation of the surface layers of a material with shape memory effect (SME) based on TiNi diffusion metallization in molten Pb-Bi under isothermal conditions in an argon atmosphere are presented. It is shown that this method allows obtaining of uniform surface layers in nanostructured state of internal surfaces on the articles of complex shapes with stress concentrators. Structure, chemical and phase composition of the surface layers provide a manifestation of TiNi shape memory. The average grain size of TiNi coatings ranges between 60 ÷ 160 nm.

Keywords: diffusion metallization, nikelid titanium surface layers, shape memory effect, nanostructures

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5272 Characterization of Nanostructured and Conventional TiAlN and AlCrN Coated ASTM-SA213-T-11 Boiler Steel

Authors: Vikas Chawla, Buta Singh Sidhu, Amita Rani, Amit Handa

Abstract:

The main objective of the present work is microstructural and mechanical characterization of the conventional and nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings deposited on T-11 boiler steel. In case of conventional coatings, Al-Cr and Ti-Al metallic powders were deposited using plasma spray process followed by gas nitriding of the surface which was done in the lab with optimized parameters after conducting several trials on plasma-sprayed coated specimens. The physical vapor deposition process (PAPVD) was employed for depositing nanostructured TiAlN and AlCrN coatings. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) attachment, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis and the X-Ray mapping analysis techniques have been used to study surface and cross-sectional morphology of the coatings. The surface roughness and micro-hardness were also measured. A good adhesion of the conventional thick TiAlN and AlCrN coatings was found. The coatings under study are recommended for the applications to super-heater and re-heater tubes of the boilers based upon the outcomes of the research work.

Keywords: nanostructure, physical vapour deposition, oxides, thin films, electron microscopy

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5271 X-Ray Diffraction and Mӧssbauer Studies of Nanostructured Ni45Al45Fe10 Powders Elaborated by Mechanical Alloying

Authors: N. Ammouchi

Abstract:

We have studied the effect of milling time on the structural and hyperfine properties of Ni45Al45Fe10 compound elaborated by mechanical alloying. The elaboration was performed by using the planetary ball mill at different milling times. The as milled powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mӧssbauer spectroscopy. From XRD diffraction spectra, we show that the β NiAl(Fe) was completely formed after 24 h of milling time. When the milling time increases, the lattice parameter increases, whereas the grain size decreases to a few nanometres and the mean level of microstrains increases. The analysis of Mӧssbauer spectra indicates that, in addition to a ferromagnetic phase, α-Fe, a paramagnetic disordered phase Ni Al (Fe) solid solution is observed after 2h and only this phase is present after 12h.

Keywords: NiAlFe, nanostructured powders, X-ray diffraction, Mӧssbauer spectroscopy

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5270 SnSₓ, Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Nanostructured Thin Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells

Authors: Elena A. Outkina, Marina V. Meledina, Aliaksandr A. Khodin

Abstract:

Nanostructured thin films of SnSₓ, Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) semiconductors were fabricated by chemical processing to produce thin-film photoactive layers for photocells as a prospective lowest-cost and environment-friendly alternative to Si, Cu(In, Ga)Se₂, and other traditional solar cells materials. To produce SnSₓ layers, the modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique were investigated, including successive cyclic dipping into Na₂S solution and SnCl₂, NaCl, triethanolamine solution. To fabricate CZTS layers, the cyclic dipping into CuSO₄ with ZnSO₄, SnCl₂, and Na₂S solutions was used with intermediate rinsing in distilled water. The nano-template aluminum/alumina substrate was used to control deposition processes. Micromorphology and optical characteristics of the fabricated layers have been investigated. Analysis of 2D-like layers deposition features using nano-template substrate is presented, including the effect of nanotips in a template on surface charge redistribution and transport.

Keywords: kesterite, nanotemplate, SILAR, solar cell, tin sulphide

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
5269 Hysteresis Behavior and Microstructure in Nanostructured Alloys Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-Co

Authors: Laslouni Warda, M. Azzaz

Abstract:

The intermetallic-based on transition metal compounds present interesting magnetic properties for the technological applications (permanent magnets, magnetic recording…). Cu70 Fe18Co12 and Cu70 Fe30 nanostructured with crystallite size vary from 10 a 12 nanometers have been developed by a mechanical milling method. For Cu-Fe samples, the iron and copper distribution was clear. The distribution showed a homogeneous distribution of iron and copper in a Cu-Fe obtained after 36 h milling. The structural properties have been performed with X-ray diffraction. With increasing milling times, Fe and Co diffuse into the Cu matrix, which accelerates the formation of the magnetic nanostructure Cu- Fe-Co and Cu-Fe alloys. The magnetic behavior is investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The two alloys nanocrystals possess ferromagnetic character at room temperature

Keywords: Cu-Fe-Co, Cu-Fe, nanocrystals, SEM, hysteresis loops, VSM, anisotropy theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
5268 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
5267 Exchange Bias in Ceramics: From Polyol Made CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs to Nanostructured Ceramics

Authors: N. Flores-Martinez, G. Franceschin, T. Gaudisson, J.-M. Greneche, R. Valenzuela-Monjaras, S. Ammar

Abstract:

Tailoring bulk materials keeping their nanoscale properties is the daydream of material scientists. But especially in magnetism, this single desire can revolutionize our everyday life. Now, thanks to the methods of synthesis, based on the combination of colloidal chemistry (CC) to flash sintering (FS), customizing magnets becomes each time more 'easy', 'cheap' and 'clean'. Although by CC we can obtain straightway nanopowders with good magnetic featuring, like exchange bias (EB) phenomenon, it does not result so attractive for applications. Since a solid material is simple to manipulate and integrate in a device, many consolidation methods have been tested aiming to keep the nanopowders characteristics after consolidation. Unfortunately, the lack of structural crystalline arrangement and the grain growth worsen the magnetic properties. In this work, we exhibit, for the first-time author’s best knowledge, the EB in sintered ceramics, starting from CoFe₂O₄[email protected] NPs obtained by CC. Despite the fact that EB field is about 28 mT in ceramics and it is not yet considered for applications, this work opens an alternative in the permanent magnets fabrication through a FS method, the spark plasma sintering, starting from CC synthesized nanopowders.

Keywords: core-shell nanoparticles, exchange bias, nanostructured ceramics, spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5266 Information Visualization Methods Applied to Nanostructured Biosensors

Authors: Osvaldo N. Oliveira Jr.

Abstract:

The control of molecular architecture inherent in some experimental methods to produce nanostructured films has had great impact on devices of various types, including sensors and biosensors. The self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) and the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques, for example, are now routinely used to produce tailored architectures for biosensing where biomolecules are immobilized with long-lasting preserved activity. Enzymes, antigens, antibodies, peptides and many other molecules serve as the molecular recognition elements for detecting an equally wide variety of analytes. The principles of detection are also varied, including electrochemical methods, fluorescence spectroscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In this presentation an overview will be provided of biosensors made with nanostructured films to detect antibodies associated with tropical diseases and HIV, in addition to detection of analytes of medical interest such as cholesterol and triglycerides. Because large amounts of data are generated in the biosensing experiments, use has been made of computational and statistical methods to optimize performance. Multidimensional projection techniques such as Sammon´s mapping have been shown more efficient than traditional multivariate statistical analysis in identifying small concentrations of anti-HIV antibodies and for distinguishing between blood serum samples of animals infected with two tropical diseases, namely Chagas´ disease and Leishmaniasis. Optimization of biosensing may include a combination of another information visualization method, the Parallel Coordinate technique, with artificial intelligence methods in order to identify the most suitable frequencies for reaching higher sensitivity using impedance spectroscopy. Also discussed will be the possible convergence of technologies, through which machine learning and other computational methods may be used to treat data from biosensors within an expert system for clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: clinical diagnosis, information visualization, nanostructured films, layer-by-layer technique

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5265 Study of Nanocrystalline Al Doped Zns Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

Authors: Hamid Merzouk, Djahida Touati-Talantikite, Amina Zaabar

Abstract:

New nanosized materials are in huge expansion worldwide. They play a fundamental role in various industrial applications thanks their unique and functional properties. Moreover, in recent years, a great effort has been made to the design and control fabrication of nanostructured semiconductors such zinc sulphide. In recent years, much attention has been accorded in doped and co-doped ZnS to improve the ZnS films quality. We present in this work the preparation and characterization of ZnS and Al doped ZnS thin films. Nanoparticles ZnS and Al doped ZnS films are prepared by chemical bath deposition method (CBD), for various dopant concentrations. Thin films are deposed onto commercial microscope glass slides substrates. Thiourea is used as sulfide ion source, zinc acetate as zinc ion source and manganese acetate as manganese ion source in alkaline bath at 90 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses are carried out at room temperature on films and powders with a powder diffractometer, using CuKα radiation. The average grain size obtained from the Debye–Scherrer’s formula is around 10 nm. Films morphology is examined by scanning electron microscopy. IR spectra of representative sample are recorded with the FTIR between 400 and 4000 cm-1.The transmittance (70 %) is performed with the UV–VIS spectrometer in the wavelength range 200–800 nm. This value is enhanced by Al doping.

Keywords: ZnS, nanostructured semiconductors, thin films, chemical bath deposition

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5264 Nanoparticles Modification by Grafting Strategies for the Development of Hybrid Nanocomposites

Authors: Irati Barandiaran, Xabier Velasco-Iza, Galder Kortaberria

Abstract:

Hybrid inorganic/organic nanostructured materials based on block copolymers are of considerable interest in the field of Nanotechnology, taking into account that these nanocomposites combine the properties of polymer matrix and the unique properties of the added nanoparticles. The use of block copolymers as templates offers the opportunity to control the size and the distribution of inorganic nanoparticles. This research is focused on the surface modification of inorganic nanoparticles to reach a good interface between nanoparticles and polymer matrices which hinders the nanoparticle aggregation. The aim of this work is to obtain a good and selective dispersion of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles into different types of block copolymers such us, poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA), poly(styrene-b-ε-caprolactone) (PS-b-PCL) poly(isoprene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PI-b-PMMA) or poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-methyl methacrylate) (SBM) by using different grafting strategies. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been surface-modified with polymer or block copolymer brushes following different grafting methods (grafting to, grafting from and grafting through) to achieve a selective location of nanoparticles into desired domains of the block copolymers. Morphology of fabricated hybrid nanocomposites was studied by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with the aim to reach well-ordered nanostructured composites different annealing methods were used. Additionally, nanoparticle amount has been also varied in order to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle content in the morphology of the block copolymer. Nowadays different characterization methods were using in order to investigate magnetic properties of nanometer-scale electronic devices. Particularly, two different techniques have been used with the aim of characterizing synthesized nanocomposites. First, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) was used to investigate qualitatively the magnetic properties taking into account that this technique allows distinguishing magnetic domains on the sample surface. On the other hand, magnetic characterization by vibrating sample magnetometer and superconducting quantum interference device. This technique demonstrated that magnetic properties of nanoparticles have been transferred to the nanocomposites, exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior similar to that of the maghemite nanoparticles at room temperature. Obtained advanced nanostructured materials could found possible applications in the field of dye-sensitized solar cells and electronic nanodevices.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy, block copolymers, grafting techniques, iron oxide nanoparticles

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5263 Preparation of Novel Silicone/Graphene-based Nanostructured Surfaces as Fouling Release Coatings

Authors: Mohamed S. Selim, Nesreen A. Fatthallah, Shimaa A. Higazy, Zhifeng Hao, Ping Jing Mo

Abstract:

As marine fouling-release (FR) surfaces, two new superhydrophobic nanocomposite series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) loaded with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and graphene oxide/boehmite nanorods (GO-γ-AlOOH) nanofillers were created. The self-cleaning and antifouling capabilities were modified by controlling the nanofillers' shapes and distribution in the silicone matrix. With an average diameter of 10-20 nm and a length of 200 nm, γ-AlOOH nanorods showed a single crystallinity. RGO was made using a hydrothermal process, whereas GO-γ-AlOOH nanocomposites were made using a chemical deposition method for use as fouling-release coating materials. These nanofillers were disseminated in the silicone matrix using the solution casting method to explore the synergetic effects of graphene-based materials on the surface, mechanical, and FR characteristics. Water contact angle (WCA), scanning electron, and atomic force microscopes were used to investigate the surface's hydrophobicity and antifouling capabilities (SEM and AFM). The roughness, superhydrophobicity, and surface mechanical characteristics of coatings all increased the homogeneity of the nanocomposite dispersion. To examine the antifouling effects of the coating systems, laboratory tests were conducted for 30 days using specified bacteria.PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite demonstrated superior antibacterial efficacy against several bacterial strains than PDMS/RGO nanocomposite. The high surface area and stabilizing effects of the GO-γ-AlOOH hybrid nanofillers are to blame for this. The biodegradability percentage of the PDMS/GO-γ-AlOOH nanorod composite (3 wt.%) was the lowest (1.6%), while the microbial endurability percentages for gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungi were 86.42%, 97.94%, and 85.97%, respectively. The homogeneity of the GO-γ-AlOOH (3 wt.%) dispersion, which had a WCA of 151° and a rough surface, was the most profound superhydrophobic antifouling nanostructured coating.

Keywords: superhydrophobic nanocomposite, fouling release, nanofillers, surface coating

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5262 Nanostructured Transition Metal Oxides Doped Graphene for High Performance Solid-State Supercapacitor Electrodes

Authors: G. Nyongombe, Guy L. Kabongo, B. M. Mothudi, M. S. Dhlamini

Abstract:

A series of Transition Metals Oxides (TMOs) doped graphene were synthesized and successfully used as supercapacitor electrode materials. The as-synthesized materials exhibited exceptional electrochemical properties owing to the combined properties of its constituents; high surface area and good conductivity were achieved. Several analytical characterization techniques were employed to investigate the morphology, crystal structure atomic arrangement and elemental chemical state in the materials for which scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were conducted, respectively. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the as-synthesized materials were examined by performing cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Furthermore, the effect of doping concentration on the interlayer distance of the graphene materials and the charge transfer resistance are investigated and correlated to the exceptional current density which was multiplied by a factor of ~80 after TMOs doping in graphene. Finally, the resulting high capacitance obtained confirms the contribution of grapheme exceptional electronic conductivity and large surface area on the electrode materials. Such good-performing electrode materials are highly promising for supercapacitors and other energy storage devices.

Keywords: energy density, graphene, supercapacitors, TMOs

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5261 3-D Strain Imaging of Nanostructures Synthesized via CVD

Authors: Sohini Manna, Jong Woo Kim, Oleg Shpyrko, Eric E. Fullerton

Abstract:

CVD techniques have emerged as a promising approach in the formation of a broad range of nanostructured materials. The realization of many practical applications will require efficient and economical synthesis techniques that preferably avoid the need for templates or costly single-crystal substrates and also afford process adaptability. Towards this end, we have developed a single-step route for the reduction-type synthesis of nanostructured Ni materials using a thermal CVD method. By tuning the CVD growth parameters, we can synthesize morphologically dissimilar nanostructures including single-crystal cubes and Au nanostructures which form atop untreated amorphous SiO2||Si substrates. An understanding of the new properties that emerge in these nanostructures materials and their relationship to function will lead to for a broad range of magnetostrictive devices as well as other catalysis, fuel cell, sensor, and battery applications based on high-surface-area transition-metal nanostructures. We use coherent X-ray diffraction imaging technique to obtain 3-D image and strain maps of individual nanocrystals. Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) is a technique that provides the overall shape of a nanostructure and the lattice distortion based on the combination of highly brilliant coherent x-ray sources and phase retrieval algorithm. We observe a fine interplay of reduction of surface energy vs internal stress, which plays an important role in the morphology of nano-crystals. The strain distribution is influenced by the metal-substrate interface and metal-air interface, which arise due to differences in their thermal expansion. We find the lattice strain at the surface of the octahedral gold nanocrystal agrees well with the predictions of the Young-Laplace equation quantitatively, but exhibits a discrepancy near the nanocrystal-substrate interface resulting from the interface. The strain in the bottom side of the Ni nanocube, which is contacted on the substrate surface is compressive. This is caused by dissimilar thermal expansion coefficients between Ni nanocube and Si substrate. Research at UCSD support by NSF DMR Award # 1411335.

Keywords: CVD, nanostructures, strain, CXRD

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5260 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva

Abstract:

The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, synthesis, mechanochemical activation

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5259 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra

Abstract:

Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: RF Sputtering, silicon carbide, porous silicon, hydrogen gas sensor

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5258 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Indu Lata Kanwar, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5257 Controlled Nano Texturing in Silicon Wafer for Excellent Optical and Photovoltaic Properties

Authors: Deb Kumar Shah, M. Shaheer Akhtar, Ha Ryeon Lee, O-Bong Yang, Chong Yeal Kim

Abstract:

The crystalline silicon (Si) solar cells are highly renowned photovoltaic technology and well-established as the commercial solar technology. Most of the solar panels are globally installed with the crystalline Si solar modules. At the present scenario, the major photovoltaic (PV) market is shared by c-Si solar cells, but the cost of c-Si panels are still very high as compared with the other PV technology. In order to reduce the cost of Si solar panels, few necessary steps such as low-cost Si manufacturing, cheap antireflection coating materials, inexpensive solar panel manufacturing are to be considered. It is known that the antireflection (AR) layer in c-Si solar cell is an important component to reduce Fresnel reflection for improving the overall conversion efficiency. Generally, Si wafer exhibits the 30% reflection because it normally poses the two major intrinsic drawbacks such as; the spectral mismatch loss and the high Fresnel reflection loss due to the high contrast of refractive indices between air and silicon wafer. In recent years, researchers and scientists are highly devoted to a lot of researches in the field of searching effective and low-cost AR materials. Silicon nitride (SiNx) is well-known AR materials in commercial c-Si solar cells due to its good deposition and interaction with passivated Si surfaces. However, the deposition of SiNx AR is usually performed by expensive plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process which could have several demerits like difficult handling and damaging the Si substrate by plasma when secondary electrons collide with the wafer surface for AR coating. It is very important to explore new, low cost and effective AR deposition process to cut the manufacturing cost of c-Si solar cells. One can also be realized that a nano-texturing process like the growth of nanowires, nanorods, nanopyramids, nanopillars, etc. on Si wafer can provide a low reflection on the surface of Si wafer based solar cells. The above nanostructures might be enhanced the antireflection property which provides the larger surface area and effective light trapping. In this work, we report on the development of crystalline Si solar cells without using the AR layer. The Silicon wafer was modified by growing nanowires like Si nanostructures using the wet controlled etching method and directly used for the fabrication of Si solar cell without AR. The nanostructures over Si wafer were optimized in terms of sizes, lengths, and densities by changing the etching conditions. Well-defined and aligned wires like structures were achieved when the etching time is 20 to 30 min. The prepared Si nanostructured displayed the minimum reflectance ~1.64% at 850 nm with the average reflectance of ~2.25% in the wavelength range from 400-1000 nm. The nanostructured Si wafer based solar cells achieved the comparable power conversion efficiency in comparison with c-Si solar cells with SiNx AR layer. From this study, it is confirmed that the reported method (controlled wet etching) is an easy, facile method for preparation of nanostructured like wires on Si wafer with low reflectance in the whole visible region, which has greater prospects in developing c-Si solar cells without AR layer at low cost.

Keywords: chemical etching, conversion efficiency, silicon nanostructures, silicon solar cells, surface modification

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5256 Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose

Authors: Vaibhav Budhiraja, Chandra Mouli Pandey

Abstract:

The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.

Keywords: conducting, electrophoretic, glucose, poly (o-phenylenediamine), poly (1-naphthylamine), ultrasonic

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