Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 62

Search results for: dentistry

62 MR-Implantology: Exploring the Use for Mixed Reality in Dentistry Education

Authors: Areej R. Banjar, Abraham G. Campbell


The use of Mixed Reality (MR) in teaching and training is growing popular and can improve students’ ability to perform technical procedures. This short paper outlines the creation of an interactive educational MR 3D application that aims to improve the quality of instruction for dentistry students. This application is called MRImplantology and aims to teach the fundamentals and preoperative planning of dental implant placement. MRImplantology uses cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images as the source for 3D dental models that dentistry students will be able to freely manipulate within a 3D MR world to aid their learning process.

Keywords: augmented reality, education, dentistry, cone-beam computed tomography CBCT, head mounted display HMD, mixed reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
61 An Intelligent Tutoring System Enriched with 3D Virtual Reality for Dentistry Students

Authors: Meltem Eryılmaz


With the emergence of the COVID-19 infection outbreak, the socio-cultural, political, economic, educational systems dynamics of the world have gone through a major change, especially in the educational field, specifically dentistry preclinical education, where the students must have a certain amount of real-time experience in endodontics and other various procedures. The totality of the digital and physical elements that make our five sense organs feel as if we really exist in a virtual world is called virtual reality. Virtual reality, which is very popular today, has started to be used in education. With the inclusion of developing technology in education and training environments, virtual learning platforms have been designed to enrich students' learning experiences. The field of health is also affected by these current developments, and the number of virtual reality applications developed for students studying dentistry is increasing day by day. The most widely used tools of this technology are virtual reality glasses. With virtual reality glasses, you can look any way you want in a world designed in 3D and navigate as you wish. With this project, solutions that will respond to different types of dental practices of students who study dentistry with virtual reality applications are produced. With this application, students who cannot find the opportunity to work with patients in distance education or who want to improve themselves at home have unlimited trial opportunities. Unity 2021, Visual Studio 2019, Cardboard SDK are used in the study.

Keywords: dentistry, intelligent tutoring system, virtual reality, online learning, COVID-19

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60 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra


Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: bioreactors, biological process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry, stem cells

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59 [Keynote Talk]: From Clinical Practice to Academic Setup, 'Quality Circles' for Quality Outputs in Both

Authors: Vandita Mishra


From the management of patients, reception, record, and assistants in a clinical practice; to the management of ongoing research, clinical cases and department profile in an academic setup, the healthcare provider has to deal with all of it. The victory lies in smooth running of the show in both the above situations with an apt solution of problems encountered and smooth management of crisis faced. Thus this paper amalgamates dental science with health administration by means of introduction of a concept for practice management and problem-solving called 'Quality Circles'. This concept uses various tools for problem solving given by experts from different fields. QC tools can be applied in both clinical and academic settings in dentistry for better productivity and for scientifically approaching the process of continuous improvement in both the categories. When approached through QC, our organization showed better patient outcomes and more patient satisfaction. Introduced in 1962 by Kaoru Ishikawa, this tool has been extensively applied in certain fields outside dentistry and healthcare. By exemplification of some clinical cases and virtual scenarios, the tools of Quality circles will be elaborated and discussed upon.

Keywords: academics, dentistry, healthcare, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
58 Dental Education in Brazil: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Fabiane Alves Farias Guimarães, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti-Pires, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira de Mello


Introduction: Considering the last changes in Brazilian Health and Higher Educational Systems, the production of scientific knowledge regarding dental education and training has been increasing. The National Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate courses in Dentistry established in 2002 the principles and procedures to perform a more generalist dental professional profile. Objectives: To perform a systematic review of the Brazilian scientific literature about dental education and training. Methods: The systematic review was conducted considering the Lilacs - Latin American Literature in Health Sciences and SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online data bases, using the combination of key words dentistry, education, teaching or training. It was select original research articles, published between 2010 and 2013, in Portuguese. Results: Based on the selection criteria, it was found 23 articles. In order to organize the outcomes, the analysis was separated in three themes: Ethical aspects of education (3 articles), integrating dental service with training (10 articles) and Dental education and the Brazilian curriculum guidelines (10 articles). Most of the studies were published between 2011 and 2012 (35% each) and were held in public universities. The studied populations included dental students, teachers, universities directors, health managers and dentists. The qualitative methodological approach was predominant. Conclusion: It was possible to identify a transience time in Brazilian undergraduate courses in Dentistry after curricular changes. The produced literature shows some advances, as the incorporation of ethical values on dental education and the inclusion of new practices environments for students by integrating education and training in diversified dental services scenarios.

Keywords: Teaching, Dental Students, Human resources in dentistry

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57 Future Applications of 4D Printing in Dentistry

Authors: Hosamuddin Hamza


The major concept of 4D printing is self-folding under thermal and humidity changes. This concept relies on understanding how the microstructures of 3D-printed models can undergo spontaneous shape transformation under thermal and moisture changes. The transformation mechanism could be achieved by mixing, in a controllable pattern, a number of materials within the printed model, each with known strain/shrinkage properties. 4D printing has a strong potential to be applied in dentistry as the technology could produce dynamic and adaptable materials to be used as functional objects in the oral environment under the continuously changing thermal and humidity conditions. The motion criteria could override the undesired dimensional changes, thermal instability, polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. 4D printing could produce restorative materials being self-adjusted spontaneously without further intervention from the dentist or patient; that is, the materials could be capable of fixing its failed portions, compensating for some lost tooth structure, while avoiding microleakage or overhangs at the margins. In prosthetic dentistry, 4D printing could provide an option to manage the influence of bone and soft tissue imbalance during mastication (and at rest) with high predictability of the type/direction of forces. It can also produce materials with better fitting and retention characteristics than conventional or 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that 4D-printed objects, having dynamic properties, could provide some cushion as they undergo self-folding compensating for any thermal changes or mechanical forces such as traumatic forces.

Keywords: functional material, self-folding material, 3D printing, 4D printing

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56 Learn Better to Earn Better: Importance of CPD in Dentistry

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Nandita Shenoy


Maintaining lifelong knowledge and skills is essential for safe clinical practice. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is an established method that can facilitate lifelong learning. It focuses on maintaining or developing knowledge, skills and relationships to ensure competent practice.To date, relatively little has been done to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence to identify subjects of interest among practising dentist. Hence the aim of our study was to identify areas in clinical practice that would be favourable for continuing professional dental education amongst practicing dentists. Participants of this study consisted of the practicing dental surgeons of Mangalore, a city in Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka. 95% of our practitioners felt that regular updating as a one day program once in 3-6 months is required, to keep them abreast in clinical practice. 60% of subjects feel that CPD programs enrich their theoretical knowledge and helps in patient care. 27% of them felt that CPD programs should be related to general dentistry. Most of them felt that CPD programs should not be charged nominally between one to two thousand rupees. The acronym ‘CPD’ should be seen in a broader view in which professionals continuously enhance not only their knowledge and skills, but also their thinking,understanding and maturity; they grow not only as professionals, but also as persons; their development is not restricted to their work roles, but may also extend to new roles and responsibilities.

Keywords: continuing professional development, competent practice, dental education, practising dentist

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55 Diagnosis of Gingivitis Based on Correlations of Laser Doppler Data and Gingival Fluid Cytology

Authors: A. V. Belousov, Yakushenko


One of the main problems of modern dentistry is development a reliable method to detect inflammation in the gums on the stages of diagnosis and assessment of treatment efficacy. We have proposed a method of gingival fluid intake, which successfully combines accessibility, excluding the impact of the annoying and damaging the gingival sulcus factors and provides reliable results (patent of RF№ 2342956 Method of gingival fluid intake). The objects of the study were students - volunteers of Dentistry Faculty numbering 75 people aged 20-21 years. Cellular composition of gingival fluid was studied using microscope "Olympus CX 31" (Japan) with the calculation of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI). Assessment of gingival micro circulation was performed using the apparatus «LAKK–01» (Lazma, Moscow). Cytological investigation noted the highly informative of epithelial leukocyte index (ELI), which demonstrated changes in the mechanisms of protection gums. The increase of ELI occurs during inhibition mechanisms of phagocytosis and activation of epithelial desquamation. The cytological data correlate with micro circulation indicators obtained by laser Doppler flowmetry. We have identified and confirmed the correlations between parameters laser Doppler flowmetry and data cytology gingival fluid in patients with gingivitis.

Keywords: gingivitis, laser doppler flowmetry, gingival fluid cytology, epithelial leukocyte index (ELI)

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
54 Development of a Biomaterial from Naturally Occurring Chloroapatite Mineral for Biomedical Applications

Authors: H. K. G. K. D. K. Hapuhinna, R. D. Gunaratne, H. M. J. C. Pitawala


Hydroxyapatite is a bioceramic which can be used for applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its structural similarity with the mineral phase of mammalian bones and teeth. In this study, it was synthesized, chemically changing natural Eppawala chloroapatite mineral as a value-added product. Sol-gel approach and solid state sintering were used to synthesize products using diluted nitric acid, ethanol and calcium hydroxide under different conditions. Synthesized Eppawala hydroxyapatite powder was characterized using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in order to find out its composition, crystallinity, presence of functional groups, bonding type, surface morphology, microstructural features, and thermal dependence and stability, respectively. The XRD results reflected the formation of a hexagonal crystal structure of hydroxyapatite. Elementary composition and microstructural features of products were discussed based on the XRF and SEM results of the synthesized hydroxyapatite powder. TGA and DSC results of synthesized products showed high thermal stability and good material stability in nature. Also, FTIR spectroscopy results confirmed the formation of hydroxyapatite from apatite via the presence of hydroxyl groups. Those results coincided with the FTIR results of mammalian bones including human bones. The study concludes that there is a possibility of producing hydroxyapatite using commercially available Eppawala chloroapatite in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: dentistry, Eppawala chlorapatite, hydroxyapatite, orthopedics

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
53 Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields Can Increase the Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings

Authors: Ghazal Mortazavi, S. M. J. Mortazavi


Electricians, power line engineers and power station workers, welders, aluminum reduction workers, MRI operators and railway workers are occupationally exposed to different levels of electromagnetic fields. Mercury is among the most toxic metals. Dental amalgam fillings cause significant exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Today, substantial evidence indicates that mercury even at low doses may lead to toxicity. Increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings after exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones has been previously shown by our team. Moreover, our recent studies on the effects of stronger magnetic fields entirely confirmed our previous findings. From the other point of view, we have also shown that papers which reported no increased release of mercury after MRI, may have some methodological flaws. Over the past several years, our lab has focused on the health effects of exposure of laboratory animals and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones and their base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, and MRI. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our studies, our findings lead us to this conclusion that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in workers with dental amalgam fillings can lead to elevated levels of mercury. Studies which reported that exposure to mercury can be a risk factor of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to the accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) in the brain and those reported that long-term occupational exposure to high levels of electromagnetic fields can increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in male workers support our concept and confirm the significant role of the occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in increasing the mercury level in workers with amalgam fillings.

Keywords: occupational exposure, electromagnetic fields, workers, mercury release, dental amalgam, restorative dentistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
52 Dental Students' Acquired Knowledge of the Pre-Contemplation Stage of Change

Authors: S. Curtin, A. Trace


Introduction: As patients can often be ambivalent about or resistant to any change in their smoking behavior the traditional ‘5 A’ model may be limited as it assumes that patients are ready and motivated to change. However, there is a stage model that is helpful to give guidance for dental students: the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This model allows students to understand the tasks and goals for the pre-contemplation stage. The TTM was introduced in early stages as a core component of a smoking cessation programme that was integrated into a Behavioral Science programme as applied to dentistry. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and illustrate the students’ current level of knowledge from the questions the students generated in order to engage patients in the tasks and goals of the pre-contemplation stage. Method: N=47 responses of fifth-year undergraduate dental students. These responses were the data set for this study and related to their knowledge base of appropriate questions for a dentist to ask at the pre-contemplation stage of change. A deductive -descriptive analysis was conducted on the data. The goals and tasks of the pre-contemplation stage of the TTM provided a template for this deductive analysis. Results: 51% of students generated relevant, open, exploratory questions for the pre-contemplation stage, whilst 100% of students generated closed questions. With regard to those questions appropriate for the pre-contemplation stage, 19% were open and exploratory, while 66% were closed questions. A deductive analysis of the open exploratory questions revealed that 53% of the questions addressed increased concern about the current pattern of behavior, 38% of the questions concerned increased awareness of a need for change and only 8% of the questions dealt with the envisioning of the possibility of change. Conclusion: All students formulated relevant questions for the pre-contemplation stage, and half of the students generated the open, exploratory questions that increased patients’ awareness of the need to change. More training is required to facilitate a shift in the formulation from closed to open questioning, especially given that, traditionally, smoking cessation was modeled on the ‘5 As’, and that the general training for dentists supports an advisory and directive approach.

Keywords: behaviour change, pre-contemplation stage, trans-theoretical model, undergraduate dentistry students

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
51 Pediatric Emergency Dental Visits at King Abdulaziz University Dental Hospital during the COVID-19 Lockdown: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Sara Alhabli, Eman Elashiry, Osama Felemban, Abdullah Almushayt, Faisal Dardeer, Ahmed Mohammad, Fajr Orri, Nada Bamashmous


Background: In December of 2019, the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first appeared and quickly spread to become a worldwide pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and types of pediatric dental emergencies during the COVID-19 lockdown in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, at the University Dental Hospital (UDH) of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) and identified the management provided for these dental emergency visits. Materials and Methods: Data collection was done retrospectively from electronic dental records for children aged 0-18 that attended the UDH emergency clinic during the period from March 1st, 2020, to September 30th, 2020. An electronic form formulated specifically for this study was used to collect the required data from electronic patient records, including demographic data, emergency classification, management, and referrals. Results: A total of 3146 patients were seen at the emergency clinics during this period, of which 661 were children (21%). Types of emergency conditions included 0.8% emergency cases, 34% urgent, and 65.2% non-urgent conditions. Severe dental pain (73.1%) and abscesses (20%) were the most common urgent dental conditions. Most non-urgent conditions presented for initial or periodic visits, recalls, or routine radiographs (74%). Treatments rarely involved restorations, with 8% among urgent conditions and 5.4% among non-urgent conditions. Antibiotics were only prescribed to 6.9% of urgent conditions. Conclusions: The largest group of children presenting at the emergency dental clinics were found to be children with non-urgent conditions. Tele dentistry can be a solution to avoid large numbers of non-urgent patients presenting to emergency clinics. Additionally, dental care for non-urgent conditions during the pandemic should focus more on procedures with less aerosol generation.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, dental emergencies, oral health, pediatric dentistry, children

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50 Prevalence of Oral Tori in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George


Oral tori are localized non-neoplastic protuberances of maxilla and mandible. Torus palatinus (TP) is found on the midline of the roof of mouth existing as single growth or in clusters. Torus mandibularis(TM) is located on the lingual aspect of the mandible commonly between canine and premolar region. Etiology of their presence was not clear and was found to be multifactorial. Their variations in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and also the characteristics of TP and TM have become the interest of multiple studies. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) among patients who have visited outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College. 108 patients were examined for the presence of oral tori at the outpatient department, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College. Factors such as age, gender, ethnicity of the patients and size, shape, location of the oral tori were studied. For TP, Malays (62.96%) have been found to have the highest prevalence than Chinese (43.3%) and Indians (35.71%). For TM, Chinese (7.46%) had predominated compared to Malays (7.41%) and Indians (0%). There is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. For Torus palatinus, the most common size was Grade 1(1-3mm), most common location was molar region, and the most common shape was spindle. For Torus mandibularis, the most frequent location was canine premolar region and exists in unilateral single or bilateral single fashion. The overall prevalence rates were 47.2% for TP and 6.48% for TM. However, there is no significant association between occurrence of TP and TM with age, gender and ethnicity. The results showed variations in clinical characteristics and support the findings that occurrence of tori is a dynamic phenomenon which is multifactorial owing to the environmental factors such as stress from occlusion and dietary habits. It could be due to the genetic make-up of the individual.

Keywords: torus palatinus, torus mandibularis, age, gender

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49 Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Surface Roughness of Nanofilled and Microhybrid Composites

Authors: Solmaz Eskandarion, Haniyeh Eftekhar, Amin Fallahi


Introduction: Nowadays cosmetic dentistry has gained greater attention because of the changing demands of dentistry patients. Composite resin restorations play an important role in the field of esthetic restorations. Due to the variation between the resin composites, it is important to be aware of their mechanical properties and surface roughness. So, the aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties (surface hardness, compressive strength, diametral tensile strength) and surface roughness of four kinds of resin composites after thermal aging process. Materials and Method: 10 samples of each composite resins (Gradia-direct (GC), Filtek Z250 (3M), G-ænial (GC), Filtek Z350 (3M- filtek supreme) prepared for evaluation of each properties (totally 120 samples). Thermocycling (with temperature 5 and 55 degree of centigrade and 10000 cycles) were applied. Then, the samples were tested about their compressive strength and diametral tensile strength using UTM. And surface hardness was evaluated with Microhardness testing machine. Either surface roughness was evaluated with Scanning electron microscope after surface polishing. Result: About compressive strength (CS), Filtek Z250 showed the highest value. But there were not any significant differences between 4 groups about CS. Either Filtek Z250 detected as a composite with highest value of diametral tensile strength (DTS) and after that highest to lowest DTS was related to: Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct. And about DTS all of the groups showed significant differences (P<0.05). Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) of Filtek Z250 was the greatest. After that Filtek Z350, G-ænial and Gradia-direct followed it. The surface roughness of nano-filled composites was less than Microhybrid composites. Either the surface roughness of GC Ganial was a little greater than Filtek Z250. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is not any evident significant difference between the groups amoung their mechanical properties. But it seems that Filtek Z250 showed slightly better mechanical properties. About surface roughness, nanofilled composites were better that Microhybrid.

Keywords: mechanical properties, surface roughness, resin composite, compressive strength, thermal aging

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48 Incidental Findings in the Maxillofacial Region Detected on Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Zeena Dcosta, Junaid Ahmed, Ceena Denny, Nandita Shenoy


In the field of dentistry, there are many conditions which warrant the requirement of three-dimensional imaging that can aid in diagnosis and therapeutic management. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is considered highly accurate in producing a three-dimensional image of an object and provides a complete insight of various findings in the captured volume. But, most of the clinicians focus primarily on the teeth and jaws and numerous unanticipated clinically significant incidental findings may be missed out. Rapid integration of CBCT into the practice of dentistry has led to the detection of various incidental findings. However, the prevalence of these incidental findings is still unknown. Thus, the study aimed to discern the reason for referral and to identify incidental findings on the referred CBCT scans. Patient’s demographic data such as age and gender was noted. CBCT scans of multiple fields of views (FOV) were considered. The referral for CBCT scans was broadly classified into two major categories: diagnostic scan and treatment planning scan. Any finding on the CBCT volumes, other than the area of concern was recorded as incidental finding which was noted under airway, developmental, pathological, endodontics, TMJ, bone, soft tissue calcifications and others. Few of the incidental findings noted under airway were deviated nasal septum, nasal turbinate hypertrophy, mucosal thickening and pneumatization of sinus. Developmental incidental findings included dilaceration, impaction, pulp stone and gubernacular canal. Resorption of teeth and periapical pathologies were noted under pathological incidental findings. Root fracture along with over and under obturation was noted under endodontics. Incidental findings under TMJ were flattening, erosion and bifid condyle. Enostosis and exostosis were noted under bone lesions. Tonsillolth, sialolith and calcified styloid ligament were noted under soft tissue calcifications. Incidental findings under others included foreign body, fused C1- C2 vertebrae, nutrient canals, and pneumatocyst. Maxillofacial radiologists should be aware of possible incidental findings and should be vigilant about comprehensively evaluating the entire captured volume, which can help in early diagnosis of any potential pathologies that may go undetected. Interpretation of CBCT is truly an art and with the experience, we can unravel the secrets hidden in the grey shades of the radiographic image.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, incidental findings, maxillofacial region, radiologist

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47 Using Health Literacy and Medico-Legal Guidance to Improve Restorative Dentistry Patient Information Leaflets

Authors: Hasneet K. Kalsi, Julie K. Kilgariff


Introduction: Within dentistry, the process for gaining informed consent has become more complex. To consent for treatment, patients must understand all reasonable treatment options and associated risks and benefits. Consenting is therefore deeply embedded in health literacy. Patients attending for dental consultation are often presented with an array of information and choices, yet studies show patients recall less than half of the information provided immediately after. Appropriate and comprehensible patient information leaflets (PILs) may be useful aid memories. In 2016 the World Health Organisation set improving health literacy as a global priority. Soon after, Scotland’s 2017-2025 Making it Easier: A Health Literacy Action Plan followed. This project involved the review of Restorative PILs used within Dundee Dental Hospital to assess the Content and Readability. Method: The current PIL on Root Canal Treatment (RCT) was created in 2011. This predates the Montgomery vs. NHS Lanarkshire case, a ruling which significantly impacted dental consenting processes, as well as General Dental Council’s (GDC’s) Standards for the Dental Team and Faculty of General Dental Practice’s Good Practice Guidance on Clinical Examination and Record-Keeping. Current evidence-based guidance, including that stipulated by the GDC, was reviewed. A 20-point Essential Content Checklist was designed to conform to best practice guidance for valid consenting processes. The RCT leaflet was scored against this to ascertain if the content was satisfactory. Having ensured the content satisfied medicolegal requirements, health literacy considerations were reviewed regarding readability. This was assessed using McLaughlin’s Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) formula, which identifies school stages that would have to be achieved to comprehend the PIL. The sensitivity of the results to alternative readability methods were assessed. Results: The PIL was not sufficient for modern consenting processes and reflected a suboptimal level of health literacy. Evaluation of the leaflet revealed key content was missing, including information pertaining to risks and benefits. Only five points out of the 20-point checklist were present. The readability score was 16, equivalent to a level 2 in National Adult Literacy Standards/Scottish Credit and Qualification Framework Level 5; 62% of Scottish adults are able to read to this standard. Discussion: Assessment of the leaflet showed it was no longer fit for purpose. Reasons include a lack of pertinent information, a text-heavy leaflet lacking flow, and content errors. The SMOG score indicates a high level of comprehension is required to understand this PIL, which many patients may not possess. A new PIL, compliant with medicolegal and health literacy guidance, was designed with patient-driven checklists, notes spaces for annotations/ questions and areas for clinicians to highlight important case-specific information. It has been tested using the SMOG formula. Conclusion: PILs can be extremely useful. Studies show that interactive use can enhance their effectiveness. PILs should reflect best practice guidance and be understood by patients. The 2020 leaflet designed and implemented aims to fulfill the needs of a modern healthcare system and its service users. It embraces and embeds Scotland’s Health Literacy Action Plan within the consenting process. A review of further leaflets using this model is ongoing.

Keywords: consent, health literacy, patient information leaflet, restorative dentistry

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46 Assessing the Competence of Oral Surgery Trainees: A Systematic Review

Authors: Chana Pavneet


Background: In more recent years in dentistry, a greater emphasis has been placed on competency-based education (CBE) programmes. Undergraduate and postgraduate curriculums have been reformed to reflect these changes, and adopting a CBE approach has shown to be beneficial to trainees and places an emphasis on continuous lifelong learning. The literature is vast; however, very little work has been done specifically to the assessment of competence in dentistry and even less so in oral surgery. The majority of the literature tends to opinion pieces. Some small-scale studies have been undertaken in this area researching assessment tools which can be used to assess competence in oral surgery. However, there is a lack of general consensus on the preferable assessment methods. The aim of this review is to identify the assessment methods available and their usefulness. Methods: Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of systematic reviews) were searched. PRISMA guidelines were followed to identify relevant papers. Abstracts of studies were reviewed, and if they met the inclusion criteria, they were included in the review. Papers were reviewed against the critical appraisal skills programme (CASP) checklist and medical education research quality instrument (MERQSI) to assess their quality and identify any bias in a systematic manner. The validity and reliability of each assessment method or tool were assessed. Results: A number of assessment methods were identified, including self-assessment, peer assessment, and direct observation of skills by someone senior. Senior assessment tended to be the preferred method, followed by self-assessment and, finally, peer assessment. The level of training was shown to affect the preferred assessment method, with one study finding peer assessment more useful in postgraduate trainees as opposed to undergraduate trainees. Numerous tools for assessment were identified, including a checklist scale and a global rating scale. Both had their strengths and weaknesses, but the evidence was more favourable for global rating scales in terms of reliability, applicability to more clinical situations, and easier to use for examiners. Studies also looked into trainees’ opinions on assessment tools. Logbooks were not found to be significant in measuring the competence of trainees. Conclusion: There is limited literature exploring the methods and tools which assess the competence of oral surgery trainees. Current evidence shows that the most favourable assessment method and tool may differ depending on the stage of training. More research is required in this area to streamline assessment methods and tools.

Keywords: competence, oral surgery, assessment, trainees, education

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45 Radiographic Evaluation of Odontogenic Keratocyst: A 14 Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Nor Hidayah Reduwan, Jira Chindasombatjaroen, Suchaya Pornprasersuk-Damrongsri, Sopee Pomsawat


INTRODUCTION: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remain as a controversial pathologic entity under the scrutiny of many researchers and maxillofacial surgeons alike. The high recurrence rate and relatively aggressive nature of this lesion demand a meticulous analysis of the radiographic characteristic of OKC leading to the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the radiographic characteristic of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) using conventional radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients histopathologically diagnosed as OKC from 2003 to 2016 by Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology Department were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs of these cases from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry Mahidol University were retrieved. Assessment of the location, shape, border, cortication, locularity, the relationship of lesion to embedded tooth, displacement of adjacent tooth, root resorption and bony expansion of the lesion were conducted. RESULTS: Radiographs of 91 patients (44 males, 47 females) with the mean age of 31 years old (10 to 84 years) were analyzed. Among all patients, 5 cases were syndromic patients. Hence, a total of 103 OKCs were studied. The most common location was at the ramus of mandible (32%) followed by posterior maxilla (29%). Most cases presented as a well-defined unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated border. The lesion was in associated with embedded tooth in 48 lesions (47%). Eighty five percent of embedded tooth are impacted 3rd molar. Thirty-seven percentage of embedded tooth were entirely encapsulated in the lesion. The lesion attached to the embedded tooth at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) in 40% and extended to part of root in 23% of cases. Teeth displacement and root resorption were found in 29% and 6% of cases, respectively. Bony expansion in bucco-lingual dimension was seen in 63% of cases. CONCLUSION: OKCs were predominant in the posterior region of the mandible with radiographic features of a well-defined, unilocular radiolucency with smooth and corticated margin. The lesions might relate to an embedded tooth by surrounding an entire tooth, attached to the CEJ level or extending to part of root. Bony expansion could be found but teeth displacement and root resorption were not common. These features might help in giving the differential diagnosis.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, imaging dentistry, odontogenic keratocyst, radiographic features

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44 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release for Stainless Steel between Artificial Saliva and Breadfruit Leaf Extracts

Authors: Mirna Febriani


The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is the leaves of breadfruit. The method used for this research using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric test. The results showed that the difference of chromium ion releases on soaking in saliva and breadfruit leaf extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statically calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed the significant difference. The conclusion of this study shows that breadfruit leaf extract can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, breadfruit leaf

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43 Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gypsum Composite as Dental Pulp Capping

Authors: Jung-Feng Lin, Wei-Tang Chen, Chung-King Hsu, Chun-Pin Lin, Feng-Huei Lin


One of the objectives of operative dentistry is to maintain pulp health in compromised teeth. Mostly used methods for this purpose are direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, which consist of placement of biocompatible materials and bio-inductors on the exposed pulp tissue to preserve its health and stimulate repair by mineralized tissue formation. In this study, we developed a material (calcium phosphate cement (CPC)/gypsum composite) as the dental pulp capping material for shortening setting time and improving handling properties. We further discussed the influence of five different ratio of gypsum to CPC on HAP conversion, microstructure, setting time, weight loss, pH value, temperature difference, viscosity, mechanical properties, porosity, and biocompatibility.

Keywords: calcium phosphate cement, calcium sulphate hemihydrate, pulp capping, fast setting time

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42 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal


There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

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41 Prevalence of Dens Evaginatus in Adolescent Population of Melaka: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George Pallivathukal


Dens evaginatus (DE) is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by a slender enamel-covered tubercle which projects from the occlusal surface of an otherwise normal premolar. DE can often interfere normal occlusion and can lead to complications like sensitivity, pulpal exposure and temporo mandibular joint problems. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records of patients under the age of 20 who attended the faculty of dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College were examined for DE. Results: The prevalence of DE was 23% among the study group. Males presented with a higher prevalence of 67% and females with 33%. The prevalence of Dens evaginatus was distributed as 28% in maxillary central incisor, 52% in maxillary lateral incisors, 12% in mandibular second premolars. Prevalence in permanent dentitions appeared to be higher than deciduous dentition. The bilateral occurrence of Dens evaginatus is an interesting phenomenon. 57% of the cases of the DE were bilateral.

Keywords: deciduous dentition, dens evaginatus, permanent dentition, prevalence

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40 A Remedy for the Confusing Occlusal Principles - An Approach to a Passionate, In-Depth Understanding of Tooth Surfaces Dynamics

Authors: Kariem Elhelow


The task of optimizing teeth surface relations remains perplexing for many dental practitioners. The well-being of teeth, periodontium, and the musculoskeletal system is closely associated with occlusal stability. Dental occlusion is rather far beyond the simple contact of the occlusal surfaces of the opposite jaws, a fact that turned the word “Occlusion” into one of the most complicated puzzles in dentistry. The literature describing the pathological approaches made the practice of occlusion even more intimidating. Understanding the biomechanics of teeth and jaw movements makes the goals of occlusal rehabilitation very lively and simple to practice. The purpose of this article is to establish a path for understanding and practicing the fundamental occlusal principles in a simple yet in depth way. Relying of the evidence based core would deliver a context for showing that occlusion is not as complicated as literatures might reflect. Conclusion: Maintaining a well-defined picture of what a healthy occlusion should be like is very gratifying to both the operator and the patient, with added worth of predictability, esthetics, and function to the whole treatment.

Keywords: occlusal, temporomandibular joint, prosthetic, dentition

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39 Age Estimation Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Dental Methods on an Archeological Human Sample from the Poor Claire Nunnery in Brussels, Belgium

Authors: Pilar Cornejo Ulloa, Guy Willems, Steffen Fieuws, Kim Quintelier, Wim Van Neer, Patrick Thevissen


Dental age estimation can be performed both in living and deceased individuals. In anthropology, few studies have tested the reliability of dental age estimation methods complementary to the usually applied osteological methods. Objectives: In this study, destructive and non-destructive dental age estimation methods were applied on an archeological sample in order to compare them with the previously obtained anthropological age estimates. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four teeth from 24 individuals were analyzed using Kvaal, Kvaal and Solheim, Bang and Ramm, Lamendin, Gustafson, Maples, Dalitz and Johanson’s methods. Results: A high variability and wider age ranges than the ones previously obtained by the anthropologist could be observed. Destructive methods had a slightly higher agreement than the non-destructive. Discussion: Due to the heterogeneity of the sample and the lack of the real age at death, the obtained results were not representative, and it was not possible to suggest one dental age estimation method over another.

Keywords: archeology, dental age estimation, forensic anthropology, forensic dentistry

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38 SEM Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Acid Etching on Cat Enamel

Authors: C. Gallottini, W. Di Mari, C. De Carolis, A. Dolci, G. Dolci, L. Gallottini, G. Barraco, S. Eramo


The aim of this paper is to summarize the literature on micromorphology and composition of the enamel of the cat and present an original experiment by SEM on how it responds to the etching with ortophosphoric acid for the time recommended in the veterinary literature (30", 45", 60"), derived from research and experience on human enamel; 21 teeth of cat were randomly divided into three groups of 7 (A, B, C): Group A was subjected to etching for 30 seconds by means of orthophosphoric acid to 40% on a circular area with diameter of about 2mm of the enamel coronal; the Groups B and C had the same treatment but, respectively, for 45 and 60 seconds. The samples obtained were observed by SEM to constant magnification of 1000x framing, in particular, the border area between enamel exposed and not exposed to etching to highlight differences. The images were subjected to the analysis of three blinded experienced operators in electron microscopy. In the enamel of the cat the etching for the times considered is not optimally effective for the purpose adhesives and the presence of a thick prismless layer could explain this situation. To improve this condition may clinically in the likeness of what is proposed for the enamel of human deciduous teeth: a bevel or a chamfer of 1 mm on the contour of the cavity to discover the prismatic enamel and increase the bonding surface.

Keywords: cat enamel, SEM, veterinary dentistry, acid etching

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37 Piezosurgery in Periodontics and Oral Implantology

Authors: Neelesh Papineni


Aim: Piezosurgery is a relatively new technique for osteotomy and osteoplasty that uses ultrasonic vibration. The conventional method of treating periodontal cases are by conventional surgeries. However, in this advancing field the use of motor-driven instruments is being considered less invasive. Out of these motor-driven instruments, piezo-electric device has been introduced to the field of periodontics and oral implantology. This article discusses about the wide range of application of piezo-electric device in periodontology, its advantages over conventional surgical therapies and other motor-driven instruments. Results: Piezo- electric has shown better results in aspect of osteotomy, osteoplasty, implants, and any procedure which includes conserving the bone. Also piezo-electric does not cause any kind of damage to the surrounding soft tissue and eliminates the risk of bone necrosis which is a risk factor in other motor driven instruments. Conclusion: In this era of modern dentistry , a successful periodontal and implant surgery requires a sound osseous support. This review gives a pictorial representation about the wide range of application of piezo-electric device in periodontology.

Keywords: piezo-electric, osteotomy, osteoplasty, implantology

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36 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani


The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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35 The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing within Dundee Dental Hospital

Authors: Salma Ainine, Colin Ritchie, Tracey McFee


Background: The societal impact of antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern. The increase in the incidence of resistant bacteria can ultimately be fatal. Objective: To analyse the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in Dundee Dental Hospital, ultimately improving the safety and quality of patient care. Methods: Two examiners independently cross-checked approximately fifty consecutive prescriptions, and corresponding patient case notes, for three data collection cycles between August 2014–September 2015. The Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Program (SDCEP) Drug Prescribing for Dentistry guidelines was the standard utilised. The criteria: clinical justification, regime justification, and review arrangements was measured, and compared to the standard. Results: Cycle one revealed 42% of antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Interventions included: multiple staff meetings, an introduction of a checklist attached to the prescription pack, and production of patient leaflets explaining indications for antibiotics. Cycle two and three revealed 44%, and 30% compliance, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the audit have yet to meet target standards set out in prescribing guidelines. However, steps are being taken and change has occurred on a cultural level.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antibiotic stewardship, dental infection, hygiene standards

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34 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, surface roughness, toothpaste, roughness tester

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33 Applicability of Cameriere’s Age Estimation Method in a Sample of Turkish Adults

Authors: Hatice Boyacioglu, Nursel Akkaya, Humeyra Ozge Yilanci, Hilmi Kansu, Nihal Avcu


The strong relationship between the reduction in the size of the pulp cavity and increasing age has been reported in the literature. This relationship can be utilized to estimate the age of an individual by measuring the pulp cavity size using dental radiographs as a non-destructive method. The purpose of this study is to develop a population specific regression model for age estimation in a sample of Turkish adults by applying Cameriere’s method on panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of 100 panoramic radiographs of Turkish patients (40 men, 60 women) aged between 20 and 70 years. Pulp and tooth area ratios (AR) of the maxilla¬¬ry canines were measured by two maxillofacial radiologists and then the results were subjected to regression analysis. There were no statistically significant intra-observer and inter-observer differences. The correlation coefficient between age and the AR of the maxillary canines was -0.71 and the following regression equation was derived: Estimated Age = 77,365 – ( 351,193 × AR ). The mean prediction error was 4 years which is within acceptable errors limits for age estimation. This shows that the pulp/tooth area ratio is a useful variable for assessing age with reasonable accuracy. Based on the results of this research, it was concluded that Cameriere’s method is suitable for dental age estimation and it can be used for forensic procedures in Turkish adults. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals.

Keywords: age estimation by teeth, forensic dentistry, panoramic radiograph, Cameriere's method

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