Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4607

Search results for: ageing population

4607 Spatial Resilience of the Ageing Population in the Romanian Functional Urban Areas

Authors: Marinela Istrate, Ionel Muntele, Alexandru Bănică

Abstract:

The authors propose the identification, analysis and prognosis of the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the elderly population in the functional urban areas. The present paper takes into account the analysis of some representative indicators (the weight of the elderly population, ageing index, dynamic index of economic ageing of productive population etc.) and the elaboration of an integrated indicator that would help differentiate the population ageing forms in the 48 functional urban areas that were defined based on demographic and social-economic criteria for all large and medium cities in Romania.

Keywords: ageing, demographic transition, functional urban areas, spatial resilience

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4606 Ageing Population and Generational Turn-Over in the Italian Labour Market: Towards a Sustainable Solidarity

Authors: Marianna Russo

Abstract:

Ageing population and youth unemployment are the major challenges that Western Countries – and Italy in particular – are facing in recent years. These phenomena have a significant impact not only on the labour market and the welfare system, but also on the organisational models of work. Therefore, in Italy, in the past few years, there have been some attempts to regulate the management of generational turn-over: intergenerational pacts, early retirement incentives, solidarity contracts, etc. In particular, this paper aims to focus on the expansive solidarity contracts, that were introduced in the Italian legal system for the first time in 1984. Indeed, they have been little used during the thirty years of their lives, so the Legislative Decree no. 148/2015, implementing the so-called Jobs Act, has given them another opportunity. The paper tries to analyse the rules and the empirical data, looking for a sustainable model of generational turn-over management.

Keywords: ageing population, generational turn-over, Italian jobs' act, solidarity contracts

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4605 Human Resource Utilization Models for Graceful Ageing

Authors: Chuang-Chun Chiou

Abstract:

In this study, a systematic framework of graceful ageing has been used to explore the possible human resource utilization models for graceful ageing purpose. This framework is based on the Chinese culture. We call ‘Nine-old’ target. They are ageing gracefully with feeding, accomplishment, usefulness, learning, entertainment, care, protection, dignity, and termination. This study is focused on two areas: accomplishment and usefulness. We exam the current practices of initiatives and laws of promoting labor participation. That is to focus on how to increase Labor Force Participation Rate of the middle aged as well as the elderly and try to promote the elderly to achieve graceful ageing. Then we present the possible models that support graceful ageing.

Keywords: human resource utilization model, labor participation, graceful ageing, employment

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4604 New Types of Fitness Equipment for Seniors-Based on Beginning Movement Load Training

Authors: Chia-Chi Chen, Tai-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

Ageing society has been spread around the world. The global population is not only ageing but also declining. The structure of population has changed, which has a significant impact on both the economies and industries. Thus, how to be a healthy senior citizen to relieve the burden to the family and society will be a popular issue. Although fitness equipment manufacturing industry has been mature, the ageing population is still increasing. Therefore, this study aims to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for senior citizens, based on BMLT presented by Dr. Koyama Hirofumi. The analysis of current fitness equipment on the market and the future trend will be applied in the study. With the coming of information age, senior citizens in the future are the users of information product for sure, and the new style of fitness equipment will be combined with information technology as well. Through this study, it is believed to design an innovative style of fitness equipment for seniors and help them live heartier and happier lives.

Keywords: aging society, BMLT (Beginning Movement Load Training), seniors, new style of fitness equipment

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4603 Thermal Ageing Effect on Mechanical Behavior of Polycarbonate

Authors: H. Babou, S. Ridjla, B. Amerate, R. Ferhoum, M. Aberkane

Abstract:

This work is devoted to the experimental study of thermal ageing effect on the mechanical and micro structural behavior of polycarbonate (PC). A simple compression tests, micro hardness and an IRTF analysis were completed in order to characterize the response of material on specimens after ageing at a temperature of order 100 C° and for serval maintain duration 72, 144 and 216 hours. These investigations showed a decrease of the intrinsic properties of polycarbonate (Young modulus, yield stress, etc.); the superposition of spectra IRTF shows that the intensity of chemical connections C=C, C-O, CH3 and C-H are influenced by the duration of thermal ageing; in addition, an increase of 30 % of micro hardness was detected after 216 hour of ageing.

Keywords: amorphous polymer, polycarbonate, mechanical behavior, compression test, thermal ageing

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4602 Policy and System Research for Health of Ageing Population

Authors: Sehrish Ather

Abstract:

Introduction: To improve organizational achievements through the production of new knowledge, health policy and system research is the basic requirement. An aging population is always the source of the increased burden of chronic diseases, disabilities, mental illnesses, and other co-morbidities; therefore the provision of quality health care services to every group of the population should be achieved by making strong policy and system research for the betterment of health care system. Unfortunately, the whole world is lacking policies and system research for providing health care to their elderly population. Materials and Methods: A literature review of published studies on aging diseases was done, ranging from the year 2011-2018. Geriatric, population, health policy, system, and research were the key terms used for the search. Databases searched were Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Ovid, and Research Gate. Grey literature was searched from various websites, including IHME, Library of the University of Lahore, World Health Organization (Ageing and Life Course), and Personal communication with Neuro-physicians. After careful reviewing published and un-published information, it was decided to carry on with commentary. Results and discussion: Most of the published studies have highlighted the need to advocate the funders of health policy and stakeholders of healthcare system research, and it was detected as a major issue, research on policy and healthcare system to provide health care to 'geriatric population' was found as highly neglected area. Conclusion: It is concluded that physicians are more involved with the policy and system research regarding any type of diseases, but scientists and researchers of basic and social science are less likely to be involved in methods used for health policy and system research due to lack of funding and resources. Therefore ageing diseases should be considered as a priority, and comprehensive policy and system research should be initiated for diseases of the geriatric population.

Keywords: geriatric population, health care system, health policy, system research

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4601 Active Ageing a Way Forward to Healthy Ageing Among the Rural Elderly Women

Authors: Hannah Evangeline Sangeetha

Abstract:

Ageing is an inevitable change in the life span of an individual. India’s old age population has increased from 19 million in 1947 to 100 million in the 21st century. The United Nations World Population ageing reports that the grey population has immensely increased from 9.2% in 1990 to 11.7 % in 2013, and it’s expected to triple by the year 2050 growing from 737 million to over 2 billion persons 60 years of age and older. Ageing is a period of physical, mental and social decline which brings a host of challenges to the individual and the family. Hence it requires attention at the micro, mezzo and the macro levels of the society. The concepts of healthy and successful aging are being used to help people to change their negative attitude towards aging. This perspective is important to make people realize their potentialities to bring about a change in the minds of senior citizens as well as the society. The objective of this study was to understand the level of active ageing among the rural elderly women and its impact on the quality of life. 330 elderly women from 12 villages of Sriperumbudur associated with the Mobile medical care of Help age India were interviewed using census method. The study revealed the following findings; most respondents in this study were young old between the age group of 60 to 75 years. All the three major religious groups were represented, 85.5percent were Hindus. Majority of the respondents 73.3percent had no education. It was interesting to know that majority of the respondents were self reliant (83.94 percent) and 82.73 percent of them very independent and took care of them by themselves (activities of daily living) without any support from their families. 76.9 percent of the senior women worked based on their competencies, 75.5 percent of them were involved in plenty of activities everyday including their occupation and household chores, which enabled them to be physically active. The chi square values that there is a significant association between the overall active ageing score, religion &number of members in the family. The other demographic variables like age, occupation, income marital status, age at marriage, number of children in the family and Socio –Economic Status were not significantly associated with the overall active aging score. The p-value 0.032 showed Social network and being self-reliant are significantly associated. The study surprisingly shows that most women enjoyed freedom and Independence in their family which is a positive indicator of active ageing.

Keywords: active ageing, quality of life, independence, self reliance

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4600 Policy and Practice of Later-Life Learning in China: A Critical Document Discourse Analysis

Authors: Xue Wu

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, a series of policies and practices have been implemented in China in response to the unprecedented rate of ageing population. The paper provides a detailed narrative of what later-life learning policy discourses have been advocated and gives a description on relevant practical issues during the past three decades. The research process based on the discourse approach with a systematic review of the government-issued documents. It finds that the main practices taken by central government at various levels were making University of the Aged (UA) available in all urban and rural regions to consolidate the newly student enrollments; focusing social-recreational, leisure and cultural activities on 55-75 age group; and utilizing various methods including voluntary works and tourism to improve older adults’ physical and mental wellness. Although there were greater achievements with 30 years of development, many problems still exist. Finding reveals that the curriculum should be modified to meet the needs of the local development, to promote older adults’ contact and contribution to the community, and to enhance technical competences of those in rural areas involving in agricultural production. Central government should also integrate resources from all sectors of the society for further developing later-life learning in China. The result of this paper highlights the value to promote community-based later-life learning for building a society for active ageing and ageing in place.

Keywords: ageing population, China, later-life learning, policy, University of the Aged

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4599 Ageing, the Reality, and Its Gender Dimension

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

Abstract:

The image of old age in Bangladesh is associated with graying of hair, wrinkling of skin, with poor physical health, and decreased ability to work. The common expression “bura hoechi”, to be aged, means to be limited in terms of performing economically productive activities, known as ‘work’. For ‘old-old’ age, there is a saying, “uthan akhon onek dure”, which literally means “even the courtyard is like a very distant place (for an old person).” Traditionally, Bengali society had a structure caring the life of older people. It was common in the joint families of Bangladeshi culture. The situation has been changing. Complexities of the societies with growing rapid urbanization are influencing the traditional respects and caring structure of the elderly persons and facing social challenges. Bangladesh is projected to have 10 percent of its population of age 60 years and above in the year 2025. The ageing process is expected to accelerate in the next century, mainly because the large cohorts born in 1950s and 1960s respectively will be joining the ranks of 60 years and over during this period. The decline in mortality, particularly at young ages, also means that a higher proportion of the large cohorts will survive to old age. The country does not have enough policy or strategy to face this upcoming challenge for the aged persons which needs immediate attention.

Keywords: ageing, gender, dimension, elderly population, Bangladesh

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4598 Supporting Older Workers in the Workforce: Identifying Best Practices to Increase Participation

Authors: Dr Elliroma Gardiner

Abstract:

Extending the working life of older workers is one important strategy in alleviating the social and economic challenges associated with the ageing population. The Australian government has implemented several strategies to improve the participation rates of older workers, however, the success of these initiatives has been limited. The aim of this project is to identify what workplace practices influence the workforce participation decisions of older workers. Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with older Australians who were either recently retired or currently working. Participants were asks about the factors that influenced their decision to retire/continue working and their current (or former) workplace practices. The results of the thematic analysis identified several factors which either supported (i.e., job autonomy and managerial support) or hindered (i.e., perceptions of age discrimination and age-based stereotypes) continued workplace participation. This research has several important applications for organisation managing intergenerational workforces, as well as policy makers interested in increasing the working life of ageing workers.

Keywords: ageing workers, older workers, age discrimination, age diversity

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4597 Analysis of the Role of Population Ageing on Crosstown Roads' Traffic Accidents Using Latent Class Clustering

Authors: N. Casado-Sanz, B. Guirao

Abstract:

The population aged 65 and over is projected to double in the coming decades. Due to this increase, driver population is expected to grow and in the near future, all countries will be faced with population aging of varying intensity and in unique time frames. This is the greatest challenge facing industrialized nations and due to this fact, the study of the relationships of dependency between population aging and road safety is becoming increasingly relevant. Although the deterioration of driving skills in the elderly has been analyzed in depth, to our knowledge few research studies have focused on the road infrastructure and the mobility of this particular group of users. In Spain, crosstown roads have one of the highest fatality rates. These rural routes have a higher percentage of elderly people who are more dependent on driving due to the absence or limitations of urban public transportation. Analysing road safety in these routes is very complex because of the variety of the features, the dispersion of the data and the complete lack of related literature. The objective of this paper is to identify key factors that cause traffic accidents. The individuals under study were the accidents with killed or seriously injured in Spanish crosstown roads during the period 2006-2015. Latent cluster analysis was applied as a preliminary tool for segmentation of accidents, considering population aging as the main input among other socioeconomic indicators. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was carried out to estimate the degree of dependence between the accident rate and the variables that define each group. The results show that segmenting the data is very interesting and provides further information. Additionally, the results revealed the clear influence of the aging variable in the clusters obtained. Other variables related to infrastructure and mobility levels, such as the crosstown roads layout and the traffic intensity aimed to be one of the key factors in the causality of road accidents.

Keywords: cluster analysis, population ageing, rural roads, road safety

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4596 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar

Abstract:

Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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4595 Disability Prevalence and Health among 60+ Population in India

Authors: Surendra Kumar Patel

Abstract:

Disability is not just a health problem; it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s age and physiology. Population ageing is a major demographic issue for India in the 21st century. Older population of India constituted 8% of total population, while 5.19% has affected by disability of older age group. Objective of the present research paper is to examine the state wise differential in disability among 60+ population and to access the health care of disabled population especially the 60+ disabled persons. The data sources of the present paper are census 2001 and 2011. For analyzing the state wise differentials by disability types and comparative advantage of data, rate, ratio, and percentage have been used. The Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability (SIDD) studies differential and diversity in disability. The results show that there are 5.19% persons have disability among 60+ population and sex differential not very significant, as it is 5.3 % of male and 5.05% in female in India but place of residence shows significant variation from 2001 to 2011 census. There is huge diversity in disability prevalence among 60+ in India, highest in Sikkim followed by Rajasthan, approximately, they comprise 11%, and the lowest found in Tamil Nadu as 2.53%. This huge gap in prevalence percentage shows the health care needs of highly prevailing states.

Keywords: disability, Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability (SIDD), differential and diversity in disability, 60+ population

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4594 The Valuation of Employees Provident Fund on Long Term Care Cost among Elderly in Malaysia

Authors: Mazlynda Md Yusuf, Wafa' Mahadzir, Mohamad Yazis Ali Basah

Abstract:

Nowadays, financing long-term care for elderly people is a crucial issue, either towards the family members or the care institution. Corresponding with the growing number of ageing population in Malaysia, there’s a need of concern on the uncertaintiness of future family care and the need for long-term care services. Moreover, with the increasing cost of living, children feels the urge of needing to work and receive a fixed monthly income that results to sending their elderly parents to care institutions. Currently, in Malaysia, the rates for private nursing homes can amount up to RM 4,000 per month excluding medical treatments and other recurring expenses. These costs are expected to be paid using their Employees Provident Fund (EPF) savings that they accumulate during their working years, especially for those working under private sectors. Hence, this study identifies the adequacy of EPF in funding the cost of long-term care service during old age. This study used a hypothetical simulation model to simulate different scenarios. The findings of this study could be used for individuals to prepare on the importance of planning for retirement, especially with the increasing cost of long-term care services.

Keywords: long-term care cost, employees provident fund Malaysia, ageing population, Malaysian elderly

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4593 Demographic and Socio-Economic Study of the Elderly Population in Kolkata, India

Authors: Ambika Roy Bardhan

Abstract:

Kolkata, the City of Joy, is a greying metropolis not only in respect of its concrete jungle but also because of the largest population of 60-plus residents that it shelters among all other cities in India. Declining birth and death rates and a negative growth of population indicate that the city has reached the last stage of demographic transition. Thus, the obvious consequence has been the ageing of its population. With this background, the present paper attempts to study the demographic and socio-economic status of the elderly population in Kolkata. Analysis and findings have been based on secondary data obtained from Census of India of various years, Sample Registration System Reports and reports by HelpAge India. Findings show that the elderly population is increasing continuously. With respect to gender, the male elderly outnumbers the female elderly population. The percentage of households having one elderly member is more in the city due to the emergence of the nuclear families and erosion of joint family system. With respect to socio-economic status, those elderly who are the heads of the family are lower in percentages than those in the other age groups. Also, male elderly as head of the family are greater in percentage than female elderly. Elderly in the category of currently married records the highest percentage followed by widowed, never married and lastly, separated or divorced. Male elderly outnumber the female elderly as currently married, while female elderly outnumbers the male elderly in the category of widowed. In terms of living status, the percentage of elderly who are living alone is highest in Kolkata and the reason for staying alone as no support from children also happens to be highest in this city. The literacy rate and higher level of education is higher among the male than female elderly. Higher percentages of female elderly have been found to be with disability. Disability in movement and multiple disabilities have been found to be more common among the elderly population in Kolkata. Percentages of male literate pensioners are highest than other categories. Also, in terms of levels of education male elderly who are graduate and above other than technical degree are the highest receivers of pension. Also, in terms of working status, elderly as non-workers are higher in percentages with the population of elderly females outnumbering the males. The old age dependency ratio in the city is increasing continuously and the ratio is higher among females than male. Thus, it can be stated that Kolkata is witnessing continuous and rapid ageing of its population. Increasing dependency ratio is likely to create pressure on the working population, available civic, social and health amenities. This requires intervention in the form of planning, formulation and implementation of laws, policies, programs and measures to safeguard and improve the conditions of the elderly in Kolkata.

Keywords: demographic, elderly, population, socio-economic

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4592 Is Socio-Economic Characteristic is Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Elderly: Evidence from SAGE Data in India

Authors: Mili Dutta, Lokender Prashad

Abstract:

Introduction: Population ageing is a phenomenon that can be observed around the globe. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a measurement of health status of an individual, and it describes the effect of physical and mental health disorders on the well-being of a person. The present study is aimed to describe the influence of socio-economic characteristics of elderly on their health-related quality of life in India. Methods: EQ-5D instrument and population-based EQ-5D index score has been measured to access the HRQOL among elderly. Present study utilized the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) data which was conducted in 2007 in India. Multiple Logistic Regression model and Multivariate Linear Regression model has been employed. Result: In the present study, it was found that the female are more likely to have problems in mobility (OR=1.41, 95% Cl: 1.14 to 1.74), self-care (OR=1.26, 95% Cl: 1.01 to 1.56) and pain or discomfort (OR=1.50, 95% Cl: 1.16 to 1.94). Elderly residing in rural area are more likely to have problems in pain/discomfort (OR=1.28, 95% Cl: 1.01 to 1.62). More older and non-working elderly are more likely whereas higher educated and highest wealth quintile elderly are less likely to have problems in all the dimensions of EQ-5D viz. mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. The present study has also shown that oldest old people, residing in rural area and currently not working elderly are more likely to report low EQ-5D index score whereas elderly with high education level and high wealth quintile are more likely to report high EQ-5D index score than their counterparts. Conclusion: The present study has found EQ-5D instrument as the valid measure for assessing the HRQOL of elderly in India. The study indicates socio-economic characteristics of elderly such as female, more older people, residing in rural area, non-educated, poor and currently non-working as the major risk groups of having poor HRQOL in India. Findings of the study will be helpful for the programmes and policy makers, researchers, academician and social workers who are working in the field of ageing.

Keywords: ageing, HRQOL, India, EQ-5D, SAGE, socio-economic characteristics

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4591 Frailty and Quality of Life among Older Adults: A Study of Six LMICs Using SAGE Data

Authors: Mamta Jat

Abstract:

Background: The increased longevity has resulted in the increase in the percentage of the global population aged 60 years or over. With this “demographic transition” towards ageing, “epidemiologic transition” is also taking place characterised by growing share of non-communicable diseases in the overall disease burden. So, many of the older adults are ageing with chronic disease and high levels of frailty which often results in lower levels of quality of life. Although frailty may be increasingly common in older adults, prevention or, at least, delay the onset of late-life adverse health outcomes and disability is necessary to maintain the health and functional status of the ageing population. This is an effort using SAGE data to assess levels of frailty and its socio-demographic correlates and its relation with quality of life in LMICs of India, China, Ghana, Mexico, Russia and South Africa in a comparative perspective. Methods: The data comes from multi-country Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE), consists of nationally representative samples of older adults in six low and middle-income countries (LMICs): China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. For our study purpose, we will consider only 50+ year’s respondents. The logistic regression model has been used to assess the correlates of frailty. Multinomial logistic regression has been used to study the effect of frailty on QOL (quality of life), controlling for the effect of socio-economic and demographic correlates. Results: Among all the countries India is having highest mean frailty in males (0.22) and females (0.26) and China with the lowest mean frailty in males (0.12) and females (0.14). The odds of being frail are more likely with the increase in age across all the countries. In India, China and Russia the chances of frailty are more among rural older adults; whereas, in Ghana, South Africa and Mexico rural residence is protecting against frailty. Among all countries china has high percentage (71.46) of frail people in low QOL; whereas Mexico has lowest percentage (36.13) of frail people in low QOL.s The risk of having low and middle QOL is significantly (p<0.001) higher among frail elderly as compared to non–frail elderly across all countries with controlling socio-demographic correlates. Conclusion: Women and older age groups are having higher frailty levels than men and younger aged adults in LMICs. The mean frailty scores demonstrated a strong inverse relationship with education and income gradients, while lower levels of education and wealth are showing higher levels of frailty. These patterns are consistent across all LMICs. These data support a significant role of frailty with all other influences controlled, in having low QOL as measured by WHOQOL index. Future research needs to be built on this evolving concept of frailty in an effort to improve quality of life for frail elderly population, in LMICs setting.

Keywords: Keywords: Ageing, elderly, frailty, quality of life

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4590 Pro-Ecological Antioxidants for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M.

Abstract:

In our studies, we propose the use of natural, pro-ecological substances such as polyphenols to protect polymers against ageing. In our studies, we plan to focus on the following compounds: polyphenols, gallic acid esters, flavonoides, carotenoids, curcumin and its derivatives, vitamin A, tocochromanoles, betalain. Phyto-compounds will be selected on the basis of available literature and our preliminary studies. So, we will select compounds with various contents of hydroxyl groups and colored substances capable of participating in color oxidation processes. The natural antioxidants which were added to ethylene-octene elastomer (polyolefin elastomer-Engage) and ethylene-nonbornene (TOPAS). Composites were then subjected to numerous ageing: weathering (climat of Floryda), UV (0,7 W/m2), thermo-oxidation ageing (1000C/10days) and thermal-shock (-600C/+1000C) as a function of the aging time. The efficiency of used anti-ageing agents was checked on the base of the changes after the degradation in deformation energy (tensile strength and elongation at the break), cross-link density, color (parameters L,a,b) and values of carbonyl index (based on the spectrum of infra red spectroscopy), OIT (induction oxygen time as performed in using differential scanning calorimeter -DSC) of the vulcanizates. Therefore polyphenols are considered to be the best stabilisers for polymeric composites against to oxidation processes.

Keywords: polymers, flavonoids, stabilization, ageing, oxidation

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4589 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal

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Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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4588 Gender and Older People: Reframing Gender Analysis through Lifecycle Lens

Authors: Supriya Akerkar

Abstract:

The UN Decade on Healthy Ageing (2021-2030) provides a new opportunity to address ageing and gender issues in different societies. The concept of gender has been used to unpack and analyse the power and constructions of gender relations in different societies. Such analysis has been employed and used to inform policy and practices of governments and non-governmental organisations to further gender equalities in their work. Yet, experiences of older women and men are often left out of such mainstream gender analysis, marginalising their existence and issues. This paper argues that new critical analytical tools are needed to capture the realities and issues of interest to older women and men. In particular, it argues that gender analysis needs to integrate analytical concepts of ageing and lifecycle approach in its framework. The paper develops such a framework by critical interrogation of the gender analysis tools that are currently applied for framing gender issues in international development and humanitarian work. Informed by the realities and experiences of older women and men, developed through a synthesis of available literature, the paper will develop a new framework for gender analysis that can be used by governments and non-government organisations in their work to further gender justice across the life cycle.

Keywords: ageing, gender, older people, social inclusion

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4587 An Ethnographic Study of Workforce Integration of Health Care Workers with Refugee Backgrounds in Ageing Citizens in Germany

Authors: A. Ham, A. Kuckert-Wostheinrich

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Demographic changes, like the ageing population in European countries and shortage of nursing staff, the increasing number of people with severe cognitive impairment, and elderly socially isolated people raise important questions about who will provide long-term care for ageing citizens. Due to the so-called refugee crisis in 2015, some health care institutions for ageing citizens in Europe invited first generation immigrants to start a nursing career and providing them language skills, nursing training, and internships. The aim of this ethnographic research was to explore the social processes affecting workforce integration and how newcomers enact good care in ageing citizens in a German nursing home. By ethnographic fieldwork, 200 hours of participant observations, 25 in-depth interviews with immigrants and established staff, 2 focus groups with 6 immigrants, and 6 established staff members, data were analysed. The health care institution provided the newcomers a nursing program on psychogeriatric theory and nursing skills in the psychogeriatric field and professional oriented language skills. Courses of health prevention and theater plays accompanied the training. The knowledge learned in education could be applied in internships on the wards. Additionally, diversity and inclusivity courses were given to established personal for cultural awareness and sensitivity. They learned to develop a collegial attitude of respect and appreciation, regardless of gender, nationality, ethnicity, religion or belief, age sexual orientation, or disability and identity. The qualitative data has shown that social processes affected workforce integration, like organizational constraints, staff shortages, and a demanding workload. However, zooming in on the interactions between newcomers and residents, we noticed how they tinkered to enact good care by embodied caring, playing games, singing and dancing. By situational acting and practical wisdom in nursing care, the newcomers could meet the needs of ageing residents. Thus, when health care institutions open up nursing programs for newcomers with refugees’ backgrounds and focus on talent instead of shortcomings, we might as well stimulate the unknown competencies, attitudes, skills, and expertise of newcomers and create excellent nurses for excellent care.

Keywords: established staff, Germany, nursing, refugees

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4586 Atom Probe Study of Early Stage of Precipitation on Binary Al-Li, Al-Cu Alloys and Ternary Al-Li-Cu Alloys

Authors: Muna Khushaim

Abstract:

Aluminum-based alloys play a key role in modern engineering, especially in the aerospace industry. Introduction of solute atoms such as Li and Cu is the main approach to improve the strength in age-hardenable Al alloys via the precipitation hardening phenomenon. Knowledge of the decomposition process of the microstructure during the precipitation reaction is particularly important for future technical developments. The objective of this study is to investigate the nano-scale chemical composition in the Al-Cu, Al-Li and Al-Li-Cu during the early stage of the precipitation sequence and to describe whether this compositional difference correlates with variations in the observed precipitation kinetics. Comparing the random binomial frequency distribution and the experimental frequency distribution of concentrations in atom probe tomography data was used to investigate the early stage of decomposition in the different binary and ternary alloys which were experienced different heat treatments. The results show that an Al-1.7 at.% Cu alloy requires a long ageing time of approximately 8 h at 160 °C to allow the diffusion of Cu atoms into Al matrix. For the Al-8.2 at.% Li alloy, a combination of both the natural ageing condition (48 h at room temperature) and a short artificial ageing condition (5 min at 160 °C) induces increasing on the number density of the Li clusters and hence increase number of precipitated δ' particles. Applying this combination of natural ageing and short artificial ageing conditions onto the ternary Al-4 at.% Li-1.7 at.% Cu alloy induces the formation of a Cu-rich phase. Increasing the Li content in the ternary alloy up to 8 at.% and increasing the ageing time to 30 min resulted in the precipitation processes ending with δ' particles. Thus, the results contribute to the understanding of Al-alloy design.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, atom probe tomography, early stage, decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
4585 Validating Condition-Based Maintenance Algorithms through Simulation

Authors: Marcel Chevalier, Léo Dupont, Sylvain Marié, Frédérique Roffet, Elena Stolyarova, William Templier, Costin Vasile

Abstract:

Industrial end-users are currently facing an increasing need to reduce the risk of unexpected failures and optimize their maintenance. This calls for both short-term analysis and long-term ageing anticipation. At Schneider Electric, we tackle those two issues using both machine learning and first principles models. Machine learning models are incrementally trained from normal data to predict expected values and detect statistically significant short-term deviations. Ageing models are constructed by breaking down physical systems into sub-assemblies, then determining relevant degradation modes and associating each one to the right kinetic law. Validating such anomaly detection and maintenance models is challenging, both because actual incident and ageing data are rare and distorted by human interventions, and incremental learning depends on human feedback. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to simulate physics, systems, and humans -including asset maintenance operations- in order to validate the overall approaches in accelerated time and possibly choose between algorithmic alternatives.

Keywords: degradation models, ageing, anomaly detection, soft sensor, incremental learning

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4584 Decreased Autophagy Contributes to Senescence Induction in HS68 Cells

Authors: Byeal-I Han, Michael Lee

Abstract:

Ageing is associated with an increased risk of diseases such as cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased autophagy delays ageing and extends longevity. In this study, we investigated the role of autophagy in longevity using human foreskin fibroblast HS68 cells, in which a senescence-like growth arrest can be induced. In particular, cellular senescence is manifested by the irreversible cell cycle arrest, and may contribute to the ageing of organisms. The senescence state was measured with staining for senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity that represents a sensitive and reliable marker to quantify senescent cells. We detected a significantly increased percentage (%) of SA-β-gal positive cells in HS68 cultures at passage 40 (63%) when compared with younger ones at passage 15 (0.5%). As expected, HS68 cells at passage 40 exhibited much lower proliferation rate than cells at passage 15. The basal levels of LC3 were measured by immunoblotting showing a comparison of LC3-I and LC3-II levels at 3 age-points in serially passaged HS68 cells. LC3-II/LC3-I ratio at different passage levels relative to β-actin levels of each band confirmed that cells at passage 34 showed lower conversion of non-autophagic LC3-I to autophagic LC3-II than the cells at passage 16. Furthermore, Cyto-ID autophagy assay also revealed that late passage cells showed lower autophagy than the early passage cells. Together, our findings suggest that senescence induction might be associated with decreased autophagy.

Keywords: ageing, autophagy, senescence, HS68

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
4583 Negative Perceptions of Ageing Predicts Greater Dysfunctional Sleep Related Cognition Among Adults Aged 60+

Authors: Serena Salvi

Abstract:

Ageistic stereotypes and practices have become a normal and therefore pervasive phenomenon in various aspects of everyday life. Over the past years, renewed awareness towards self-directed age stereotyping in older adults has given rise to a line of research focused on the potential role of attitudes towards ageing on seniors’ health and functioning. This set of studies has showed how a negative internalisation of ageistic stereotypes would discourage older adults in seeking medical advice, in addition to be associated to negative subjective health evaluation. An important dimension of mental health that is often affected in older adults is represented by sleep quality. Self-reported sleep quality among older adults has shown to be often unreliable when compared to their objective sleep measures. Investigations focused on self-reported sleep quality among older adults have suggested how this portion of the population would tend to accept disrupted sleep if believed to be up to standard for their age. On the other hand, unrealistic expectations, and dysfunctional beliefs towards sleep in ageing, might prompt older adults to report sleep disruption even in the absence of objective disrupted sleep. Objective of this study is to examine an association between personal attitudes towards ageing in adults aged 60+ and dysfunctional sleep related cognition. More in detail, this study aims to investigate a potential association between personal attitudes towards ageing, sleep locus of control and dysfunctional beliefs towards sleep among this portion of the population. Data in this study were statistically analysed in SPSS software. Participants were recruited through the online participants recruitment system Prolific. Inclusion of attention check questions throughout the questionnaire and consistency of responses were looked at. Prior to the commencement of this study, Ethical Approval was granted (ref. 39396). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the frequency, mean, and SDs of the variables. Pearson coefficient was used for interval variables, independent T-test for comparing means between two independent groups, analysis of variance (ANOVA) test for comparing the means in several independent groups, and hierarchical linear regression models for predicting criterion variables based on predictor variables. In this study self-perceptions of ageing were assessed using APQ-B’s subscales, while dysfunctional sleep related cognition was operationalised using the SLOC and the DBAS16 scales. Of the final subscales taken in consideration in the brief version of the APQ questionnaire, Emotional Representations (ER), Control Positive (PC) and Control and Consequences Negative (NC) have shown to be of particularly relevance for the remits of this study. Regression analysis show how an increase in the APQ-B subscale Emotional Representations (ER) predicts an increase in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes towards sleep in this sample, after controlling for subjective sleep quality, level of depression and chronological age. A second regression analysis showed that APQ-B subscales Control Positive (PC) and Control and Consequences Negative (NC) were significant predictors in the change of variance of SLOC, after controlling for subjective sleep quality, level of depression and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep.

Keywords: sleep-related cognition, perceptions of aging, older adults, sleep quality

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4582 Classification of Health Risk Factors to Predict the Risk of Falling in Older Adults

Authors: L. Lindsay, S. A. Coleman, D. Kerr, B. J. Taylor, A. Moorhead

Abstract:

Cognitive decline and frailty is apparent in older adults leading to an increased likelihood of the risk of falling. Currently health care professionals have to make professional decisions regarding such risks, and hence make difficult decisions regarding the future welfare of the ageing population. This study uses health data from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), focusing on adults over the age of 50 years, in order to analyse health risk factors and predict the likelihood of falls. This prediction is based on the use of machine learning algorithms whereby health risk factors are used as inputs to predict the likelihood of falling. Initial results show that health risk factors such as long-term health issues contribute to the number of falls. The identification of such health risk factors has the potential to inform health and social care professionals, older people and their family members in order to mitigate daily living risks.

Keywords: classification, falls, health risk factors, machine learning, older adults

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4581 Mechanical and Microstructural Study of Photo-Aged Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Films

Authors: Meryem Imane Babaghayou, Abdelhafidi Asma

Abstract:

This study deals with the ageing of Blown extruded films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), used for greenhouse covering. The LDPE have been subjected to climatic ageing in a sub-Saharan facility at Laghouat (Algeria) with direct exposure to sun. The microstructural changes in the films were analyzed by IRFT for different states of ageing. The mechanical characterization was performed on a uniaxial tensile apparatus. The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, strain at break, and stress at break have been followed for different states of exposure time (0 to 6 months). The Climatic ageing of LDPE films shows the effect of ageing on the microstructural Plan which leads to: i) To an oxidation of the molecular chains. ii) To the formation of cross-linkings and breaking chains, which both of them are responsible for the mechanical behavior’s modifications of the material. Cross-links are in favor of strengthening of the mechanical properties at break (the increase of σr and εr). In other side, the chains breaking leads to a decrease of these properties. The increase in the Young's modulus also seems to be related to those structural changes since the cross-links increase the average molecular weight. Branchings and tangles are favorable pairs for the ductile nature of the material. And in other side, the chains breaking reduces the average molecular weight and therefore promotes the stiffening (following to morphological changes) so the material becomes fragile. The post-mortem analysis of the samples shows that the mechanical stress has an effect on the molecular structure of the material. Although if quantitatively the concentrations of different chemical species exchanges, from a quantitative point of view only the unsaturations raises the polemics of a possible microstructural modification induced by mechanical stress applied during the tensile test. Also, we recommend a more rigorous analysis with other means of investigation.

Keywords: low-density polyethylene, ageing, mechanical properties, IRTF

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4580 Family and Community Care for the Elderly: An Implementation Research in Local Community, Thailand

Authors: Sumattana Glangkarn, Vorapoj Promasatayaprot

Abstract:

Background: Proportion of population ageing in Thailand has been increased rapidly in the past decades according to living longer and the fertility rates have decreased. The most important challenge related to this situation is to consider how to improve quality and years of healthy of life. This study aimed to implement the older persons’ long term care (LTC) system for elderly care by family and community. Method: The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was employed for guiding and evaluating an implementation process in ageing care. The CFIR composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Results: most elderly participants were couples, educating primary school and living with children and grandchildren. More than half of them had chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Factor analysis revealed factors related to health care of older participants which consisted of exercise, diet, accidental prevention, relaxation, self-care capacity, joyfulness, family relationship, and personal hygiene. A pre-implementation phase showed intervention characteristics included facilities and services of the LTC policy from the Ministry of Public Health. The complexities of the LTC and relative advantages were explained. Community leaders, public health volunteers, care givers and health professionals had participated in the LTC activities. Outer and inner settings consisted of context of community, culture, and readiness. Characteristics of the individuals related to knowledge, self-efficacy, perceptions, and believes. The process consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The implementation outcomes and service outcomes had been evaluated during-implementation phase. Conclusion: the participation of caregivers, community leaders, public health volunteers, and health professionals had supported the LTC services. Thus, family and community care could improve quality of life of the ageing.

Keywords: ageing, CFIR, long term care, implementation

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4579 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah

Abstract:

The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
4578 Insight into the Physical Ageing of Poly(Butylene Succinate)

Authors: I. Georgousopoulou, S. Vouyiouka, C. Papaspyrides

Abstract:

The hydrolytic degradation of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was investigated when exposed to different humidity-temperature environments. To this direction different PBS grades were submitted to hydrolysis runs. Results indicated that the increment of hydrolysis temperature and relative humidity induced significant decrease in the molecular weight and thermal properties of the bioplastic. Τhe derived data can be considered to construct degradation kinetics based on carboxyl content variation versus time.

Keywords: hydrolytic degradation, physical ageing, poly(butylene succinate), polyester

Procedia PDF Downloads 225