Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 171

Search results for: hardening

171 Experimental Determination of Aluminum 7075-T6 Parameters Using Stabilized Cycle Tests to Predict Thermal Ratcheting

Authors: Armin Rahmatfam, Mohammad Zehsaz, Farid Vakili Tahami, Nasser Ghassembaglou


In this paper the thermal ratcheting, kinematic hardening parameters C, γ, isotropic hardening parameters and also k, b, Q combined isotropic/kinematic hardening parameters have been obtained experimentally from the monotonic, strain controlled cyclic tests at room and elevated temperatures of 20°C, 100°C, and 400°C. These parameters are used in nonlinear combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model to predict better description of the loading and reloading cycles in the cyclic indentation as well as thermal ratcheting. For this purpose, three groups of specimens made of Aluminum 7075-T6 have been investigated. After each test and using stable hysteretic cycles, material parameters have been obtained for using in combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening models. Also the methodology of obtaining the correct kinematic/isotropic hardening parameters is presented.

Keywords: combined hardening model, kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, cyclic tests

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170 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Rehab I. Abdul Rahman, Mazhar B. Tayel


This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 microcontroller, that able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 microcontroller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code and its simulation have been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: radiation, hardening, bitflip, hamming

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
169 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

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168 Bake Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine Grained and Nano-Grained AA6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Hamid Alihosseini, Kamran Dehghani


In this study, the effects of grain size of AA6061 aluminum on the bake hardening have been investigated. The grains of sample sheets refined by applying 4, 8, and 12 passes of ECAP and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. EBSD and TEM studies of the sheets showed grain refinement, and the EBSD micrograph of the alloy ECAPed for 12 passes showed nano-grained (NG) ∼95nm in size. Then, the bake hardenability of processed sheet was compared by pre-straining to 6% followed by baking at 200°C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 200°C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 12, 8, and 4 passes, respectively. The maximum in bake hardenability (120 MPa) and final yield stress (583 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 6% followed by baking at 200◦C.

Keywords: bake hardening, ultrafine grain, nano grain, AA6061 aluminum,

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
167 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush


This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

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166 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova


This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength

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165 Active Part of the Burnishing Tool Effect on the Physico-Geometric Aspect of the Superficial Layer of 100C6 and 16NC6 Steels

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah


Burnishing is a mechanical surface treatment that combines several beneficial effects on the two steel grades studied. The application of burnishing to the ball or to the tip favors a better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the consolidation of the surface layers through work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the treatment parameters and the active part of the device. With an improvement of 78% on the roughness, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation in the machining range. With a 44% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an effective process for material consolidation. These effects are affected by several factors. The factors V, f, P, r, and i have the most significant effects on both roughness and hardness. Ball or tip burnishing leads to the consolidation of the surface layers of both grades 100C6 and 16NC6 steels by work hardening. For each steel grade and its mechanical treatment, the rational tensile curve has been drawn. Lüdwick's law is used to better plot the work hardening curve. For both grades, a material hardening law is established. For 100C6 steel, these results show a work hardening coefficient and a consolidation rate of 0.513 and 44, respectively, compared to the surface layers processed by turning. When 16NC6 steel is processed, the work hardening coefficient is about 0.29. Hardness tests characterize well the burnished depth. The layer affected by work hardening can reach up to 0.4 mm. Simulation of the tests is of great importance to provide the details at the local scale of the material. Conventional tensile curves provide a satisfactory indication of the toughness of 100C6 and 16NC6 materials. A simulation of the tensile curves revealed good agreement between the experimental and simulation results for both steels.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, 16NC6 steel, burnishing, work hardening, roughness, hardness

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164 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi


In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

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163 Modeling of Age Hardening Process Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System: Results from Aluminum Alloy A356/Cow Horn Particulate Composite

Authors: Chidozie C. Nwobi-Okoye, Basil Q. Ochieze, Stanley Okiy


This research reports on the modeling of age hardening process using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The age hardening output (Hardness) was predicted using ANFIS. The input parameters were ageing time, temperature and percentage composition of cow horn particles (CHp%). The results show the correlation coefficient (R) of the predicted hardness values versus the measured values was of 0.9985. Subsequently, values outside the experimental data points were predicted. When the temperature was kept constant, and other input parameters were varied, the average relative error of the predicted values was 0.0931%. When the temperature was varied, and other input parameters kept constant, the average relative error of the hardness values predictions was 80%. The results show that ANFIS with coarse experimental data points for learning is not very effective in predicting process outputs in the age hardening operation of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite. The fine experimental data requirements by ANFIS make it more expensive in modeling and optimization of age hardening operations of A356 alloy/CHp particulate composite.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), age hardening, aluminum alloy, metal matrix composite

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162 Effect of Treated Peat Soil on the Plasticity Index and Hardening Time

Authors: Siti Nur Aida Mario, Farah Hafifee Ahmad, Rudy Tawie


Soil Stabilization has been widely implemented in the construction industry nowadays. Peat soil is well known as one of the most problematic soil among the engineers. The procedures need to take into account both physical and engineering properties of the stabilized peat soil. This paper presents a result of plasticity index and hardening of treated peat soil with various dosage of additives. In order to determine plasticity of the treated peat soil, atterberg limit test which comprises plastic limit and liquid limit test has been conducted. Determination of liquid limit in this experimental study is by using cone penetrometer. Vicat testing apparatus has been used in the hardening test which the penetration of the plunger is recorded every one hour for 24 hours. The results show that the plasticity index of peat soil stabilized with 80% FAAC and 20% OPC has the lowest plasticity index and recorded the fastest initial setting time. The significant of this study is to promote greener solution for future soil stabilization industry.

Keywords: additives, hardening, peat soil, plasticity index, soil stabilization

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161 The French, the Yoruba, and the H-Thing: Sharing and Realising Same Phenomenon Differently

Authors: Rose-Juliet Anyanwu


The principal objective of this paper is to investigate whether some sort of phonological processes, such as elision, aspiration, glottalisation, and hardening can be used to account for the behaviour of the glottal fricative (or approximant, as the case may be) ‘h’ in both French and Yoruba. French and Yoruba speakers generally tend to say, for instance ‘ockey’ and ‘amburger’, instead of ‘hockey’ and ‘hamburger’, respectively. Whereas the Yoruba conversely say, for instance ‘hadd’ for ‘add’, ‘heat’ for ‘eat’ on the one hand and ‘ard’ for ‘hard’, ‘eat’ for ‘heat’ on the other hand, on a similar note, it is not quite clear whether the French, however, if not at least in rare instances, would tend to force themselves to pronounce (in any form whatsoever) the h-sound. Recorded sentences containing h-initial as well as vowel-initial words will be used for the investigation. The present paper is meant to contribute to work on aspiration, compensation, elision, and glottalisation, as well as hardening.

Keywords: aspiration, compensation, glottalisation, hardening

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160 Topology Optimization of Composite Structures with Material Nonlinearity

Authors: Mengxiao Li, Johnson Zhang


Currently, topology optimization technique is widely used to define the layout design of structures that are presented as truss-like topologies. However, due to the difficulty in combining optimization technique with more realistic material models where their nonlinear properties should be considered, the achieved optimized topologies are commonly unable to apply straight towards the practical design problems. This study presented an optimization procedure of composite structures where different elastic stiffness, yield criteria, and hardening models are assumed for the candidate materials. From the results, it can be concluded that a more explicit modeling has the significant influence on the resulting topologies. Also, the isotropic or kinematic hardening is important for elastoplastic structural optimization design. The capability of the proposed optimization procedure is shown through several cases.

Keywords: topology optimization, material composition, nonlinear modeling, hardening rules

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159 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc


Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

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158 Minimization of the Abrasion Effect of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix on Stainless Steel Injection Nozzle through the Application of Laser Hardening Technique

Authors: Amessalu Atenafu Gelaw, Nele Rath


Currently, laser hardening process is becoming among the most efficient and effective hardening technique due to its significant advantages. The source where heat is generated, the absence of cooling media, self-quenching property, less distortion nature due to localized heat input, environmental friendly behavior and less time to finish the operation are among the main benefits to adopt this technology. This day, a variety of injection machines are used in plastic, textile, electrical and mechanical industries. Due to the fast growing of composite technology, fiber reinforced polymer matrix becoming optional solution to use in these industries. Due, to the abrasion nature of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite on the injection components, many parts are outdated before the design period. Niko, a company specialized in injection molded products, suffers from the short lifetime of the injection nozzles of the molds, due to the use of fiber reinforced and, therefore, more abrasive polymer matrix. To prolong the lifetime of these molds, hardening the susceptible component like the injecting nozzles was a must. In this paper, the laser hardening process is investigated on Unimax, a type of stainless steel. The investigation to get optimal results for the nozzle-case was performed in three steps. First, the optimal parameters for maximum possible hardenability for the investigated nozzle material is investigated on a flat sample, using experimental testing as well as thermal simulation. Next, the effect of an inclination on the maximum temperature is analyzed both by experimental testing and validation through simulation. Finally, the data combined and applied for the nozzle. This paper describes possible strategies and methods for laser hardening of the nozzle to reach hardness of at least 720 HV for the material investigated. It has been proven, that the nozzle can be laser hardened to over 900 HV with the option of even higher results when more precise positioning of the laser can be assured.

Keywords: absorptivity, fiber reinforced matrix, laser hardening, Nd:YAG laser

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157 Effects of Pre-Storage Invigoration Treatments on Ageing Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Seeds

Authors: Geetika Richa, M. L. Sharma


Bamboo as an ancient herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years in Asia and goes by many names such as tabashir, banslochan etc. It is often used for its tonic and astringent properties. Modern analysis of bamboos show high amount of vitamins and minerals which makes them valuable as a curative. Bamboo leaf decoction and young shoots are known as remedy for intestinal worms, healing of ulcers and stomach disorders. Bamboos are known to be propagated by large scale plantations but propagation through seeds occurs very limited as they have very short viability of few months. Seeds loses viability over a period of time even under controlled conditions and important factors that affect seed viability is the decline in reserve food material, decrease in membrane integrity and fall in endogenous level of growth hormones. Invigoration treatments that include hydration, dehydration, incorporation of bioactive chemicals such as growth regulators, nutrients and antioxidants etc. improve the seed performance. Our studies were aimed to determine the most effective invigoration treatments to enhance vigour and viability of seeds by following invigoration treatments, i.e., hardening. Treated seeds were stored at controlled temperature and humidity (in desiccators at 4°C). In hardening, chemicals were applied in 3 different concentrations to three replicates of 10 seeds. Hardening was done withGA3, IAA, (each with concentrations of 10 ppm, 20 ppm and 50 ppm), calcium oxychloride, neem leaf powder and clay (each with concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10%). Statistically all the hardening materials were effective but GA3 50 ppm was the most effective one in maintaining germination percentage and vigour index. Hardening treatments increased the germination percentage of seeds, i.e. 86.2%, over control which showed germination percentage of 80.2%. It was concluded that in order to maintain seed viability during storage for longer period of time, invigoration treatments have been found to be very effective.

Keywords: invigoration, seed quality, viability, hardening, membrane integrity, decoction

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156 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar


Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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155 Effect of Irradiation on Nano-Indentation Properties and Microstructure of X-750 Ni-Based Superalloy

Authors: Pooyan Changizian, Zhongwen Yao


The purpose of current study is to make an excellent correlation between mechanical properties and microstructures of ion irradiated X-750 Ni-based superalloy. Towards this end, two different irradiation procedures were carried out, including single Ni ion irradiation and pre-helium implantation with subsequent Ni ion irradiation. Nano-indentation technique was employed to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated material. The nano-hardness measurements depict highly different results for two irradiation procedures. Single ion irradiated X-750 shows softening behavior; however, pre-helium implanted specimens present significant hardening compared to the un-irradiated material. Cross-section TEM examination demonstrates that softening is attributed to the γ׳-precipitate instability (disordering/dissolution) which overcomes the hardening effect of irradiation-induced defects. In contrast, the presence of cavities or helium bubbles is probably the main cause for irradiation-induced hardening of helium implanted samples.

Keywords: Inconel X-750, nanoindentation, helium bubbles, defects

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154 Mechanical Behavior of 16NC6 Steel Hardened by Burnishing

Authors: Litim Tarek, Taamallah Ouahiba


This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 16NC6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The results show that the optimal effects of burnishing are closely linked to the shape and the material of the active part of the device as well as to the surface plastic deformation ability of the material to be treated. Thus the roughness is improved by more than 70%, and the consolidation rate is increased by 30%. In addition, modeling of the rational traction curves provides a work hardening coefficient of up to 0.3 in the presence of burnishing.

Keywords: 16NC6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

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153 An Investigation of the Strength Deterioration of Forged Aluminum 6082 (T6) Alloy

Authors: Rajveer, Abhinav Saxena, Sanjeev Das


The study is focused on the strength of forged aluminum alloy (AA) 6082 (T6). Aluminum alloy 6082 belongs to Al-Mg-Si family which has a wide range of automotive applications. A decrease in the strength of AA 6082 alloy was observed after T6 treatment. The as-received (extruded), forged, and forged + heat treated samples were examined to understand the reason. These examinations were accomplished by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. It was observed that the defects had an insignificant effect on the alloy strength. The alloy samples were subjected to age hardening treatment and the time to achieve peak hardening was acquired. Standard tensile specimens were prepared from as-received (extruded), forged, forged + solutionized and forged + solutionized + age hardened. Tensile tests were conducted by Instron universal testing machine. It was observed that there was a significant drop in tensile strength in the case of solutionized sample. The detailed study of the fracture samples showed that the solutionizing after forging was not the best way to increase the strength of Al 6082 alloy.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 6082, strength, forging, age hardening

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152 Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function

Authors: Marina Franulovic, Robert Basan, Bozidar Krizan


Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, kinematic hardening, material model, objective function

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151 Burnishing Effect on the Mechanical Characteristics of 100C6

Authors: Ouahiba Taamallah, Tarek Litim


This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 100C6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The application of tip diamond burnishing promotes better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the surface layers to be consolidated by work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the parameters of the treatment and the active part of the device. With an 80% improvement in roughness resulting from the treatment, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation within the machining range. With a 40% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an efficient process for material consolidation.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
150 Effect of Composition on Work Hardening Coefficient of Bismuth-Lead Binary Alloy

Authors: K. A. Mistry, I. B. Patel, A. H. Prajapati


In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported. In the present work, the alloy of Bismuth-lead is prepared on the basis of percentage of molecular weight 9:1, 5:5 and 1:9 ratios and grown by Zone- Refining Technique under a vacuum atmosphere. The EDAX of these samples are done and the results are reported. Micro hardness test has been used as an alternative test for measuring material’s tensile properties. The effect of temperature and load on the hardness of the grown alloy has been studied. Further the comparative studies of work hardening coefficients are reported.

Keywords: EDAX, hardening coefficient, micro hardness, Bi-Pb alloy

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149 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash


Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, energy metabolites, cross protection

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148 A TFETI Domain Decompositon Solver for von Mises Elastoplasticity Model with Combination of Linear Isotropic-Kinematic Hardening

Authors: Martin Cermak, Stanislav Sysala


In this paper we present the efficient parallel implementation of elastoplastic problems based on the TFETI (Total Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting) domain decomposition method. This approach allow us to use parallel solution and compute this nonlinear problem on the supercomputers and decrease the solution time and compute problems with millions of DOFs. In our approach we consider an associated elastoplastic model with the von Mises plastic criterion and the combination of linear isotropic-kinematic hardening law. This model is discretized by the implicit Euler method in time and by the finite element method in space. We consider the system of nonlinear equations with a strongly semismooth and strongly monotone operator. The semismooth Newton method is applied to solve this nonlinear system. Corresponding linearized problems arising in the Newton iterations are solved in parallel by the above mentioned TFETI. The implementation of this problem is realized in our in-house MatSol packages developed in MATLAB.

Keywords: isotropic-kinematic hardening, TFETI, domain decomposition, parallel solution

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147 Enhancement of Hardness Related Properties of Grey Cast Iron Powder Reinforced AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites Through T6 and T8 Heat Treatments

Authors: S. S. Sharma, P. R. Prabhu, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U., Gowri Shankar M. C.


In present global scenario, aluminum alloys are coining the attention of many innovators as competing structural materials for automotive and space applications. Comparing to other challenging alloys, especially, 7xxx series aluminum alloys have been studied seriously because of their benefits such as moderate strength; better deforming characteristics, excellent chemical decay resistance, and affordable cost. 7075 Al-alloys have been used in the transportation industry for the fabrication of several types of automobile parts, such as wheel covers, panels and structures. It is expected that substitution of such aluminum alloys for steels will result in great improvements in energy economy, durability and recyclability. However, it is necessary to improve the strength and the formability levels at low temperatures in aluminium alloys for still better applications. Aluminum–Zinc–Magnesium with or without other wetting agent denoted as 7XXX series alloys are medium strength heat treatable alloys. Cu, Mn and Si are the other solute elements which contribute for the improvement in mechanical properties achievable by selecting and tailoring the suitable heat treatment process. On subjecting to suitable treatments like age hardening or cold deformation assisted heat treatments, known as low temperature thermomechanical treatments (LTMT) the challenging properties might be incorporated. T6 is the age hardening or precipitation hardening process with artificial aging cycle whereas T8 comprises of LTMT treatment aged artificially with X% cold deformation. When the cold deformation is provided after solution treatment, there is increase in hardness related properties such as wear resistance, yield and ultimate strength, toughness with the expense of ductility. During precipitation hardening both hardness and strength of the samples are increasing. Decreasing peak hardness value with increasing aging temperature is the well-known behavior of age hardenable alloys. The peak hardness value is further increasing when room temperature deformation is positively supported with age hardening known as thermomechanical treatment. Considering these aspects, it is intended to perform heat treatment and evaluate hardness, tensile strength, wear resistance and distribution pattern of reinforcement in the matrix. 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 times increase in hardness is reported in age hardening and LTMT treatments respectively as compared to as-cast composite. There was better distribution of reinforcements in the matrix, nearly two fold increase in strength levels and upto 5 times increase in wear resistance are also observed in the present study.

Keywords: reinforcement, precipitation, thermomechanical, dislocation, strain hardening

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146 Press Hardening of Tubes with Additional Interior Spray Cooling

Authors: B. A. Behrens, H. J. Maier, A. Neumann, J. Moritz, S. Hübner, T. Gretzki, F. Nürnberger, A. Spiekermeier


Press-hardened profiles are used e.g. for automotive applications in order to improve light weight construction due to the high reachable strength. The application of interior water-air spray cooling contributes to significantly reducing the cycle time in the production of heat-treated tubes. This paper describes a new manufacturing method for producing press-hardened hollow profiles by means of an additional interior cooling based on a water-air spray. Furthermore, this paper provides the results of thorough investigations on the properties of press-hardened tubes in dependence of varying spray parameters.

Keywords: 22MnB5, press hardening, water-air spray cooling, hollow profiles, tubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
145 Effect of Aging Condition on Semisolid Cast 2024 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: S. Wisutmethangoon, S. Pannaray, T. Plookphol, J. Wannasin


2024 Aluminium alloy was squeezed cast by the Gas Induced Semi Solid (GISS) process. Effect of artificial aging on microstructure and mechanical properties of this alloy was studied in the present work. The solutionized specimens were aged hardened at temperatures of 175°C, 200°C, and 225°C under various time durations. The highest hardness of about 77.7 HRE was attained from specimen aged at the temperature of 175 °C for 36 h. Upon investigation the microstructure by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the phase was mainly attributed to the strengthening effect in the aged alloy. The apparent activation energy for precipitation hardening of the alloy was calculated as 133,805 J/mol.

Keywords: 2024 aluminium alloy, gas induced semi solid, T6 heat treatment, aged hardening, transmission electron microscopy

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144 Non Destructive Ultrasound Testing for the Determination of Elastic Characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg Foundry Alloy

Authors: A. Hakem, Y. Bouafia


Characterization of materials used for various mechanical components is of great importance in their design. Several studies were conducted by various authors in order to improve their physical and/or chemical properties in general and mechanical or metallurgical properties in particular. The foundry alloy AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg is one of the main components constituting the various mechanisms for the implementation of applications and various industrial projects. Obtaining a reliable product is not an easy task; several results proposed by different authors show sometimes results that can contradictory. Due to their high mechanical characteristics, these alloys are widely used in engineering. Silicon improves casting properties and magnesium allows heat treatment. It is thus possible to obtain various degrees of hardening and therefore interesting compromise between tensile strength and yield strength, on one hand, and elongation, on the other hand. These mechanical characteristics can be further enhanced by a series of mechanical treatments or heat treatments. Their light weight coupled with high mechanical characteristics, aluminum alloys are very much used in cars and aircraft industry. The present study is focused on the influence of heat treatments which cause significant micro structural changes, usually hardening by variation of annealing temperatures by increments of 10°C and 20°C on the evolution of the main elastic characteristics, the resistance, the ductility and the structural characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg foundry alloy cast in sand by gravity. These elastic properties are determined in three directions for each specimen of dimensions 200x150x20 mm³ by the ultrasonic method based on acoustic or elastic waves. The hardness, the micro hardness and the structural characteristics are evaluated by a non-destructive method. The aim of this work is to study the hardening ability of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg alloy by considering ten states. To improve the mechanical properties obtained with the raw casting, one should use heat treatment for structural hardening; the addition of magnesium is necessary to increase the sensitivity to this specific heat treatment: Treatment followed by homogenization which generates a diffusion of atoms in a substitution solid solution inside a hardening furnace at 500°C during 8h, followed immediately by quenching in water at room temperature 20 to 25°C, then an ageing process for 17h at room temperature and at different annealing temperature (150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 240, 200, 220 and 240°C) for 20h in an annealing oven. The specimens were allowed to cool inside the oven.

Keywords: aluminum, foundry alloy, magnesium, mechanical characteristics, silicon

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143 An Advanced Exponential Model for Seismic Isolators Having Hardening or Softening Behavior at Large Displacements

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino


In this paper, an advanced Nonlinear Exponential Model (NEM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement in the relatively large displacements range and a hardening or softening behavior at large displacements, is presented. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops obtained during cyclic tests, conducted on a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted analytically. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the force-displacement relationship of seismic isolation devices within the large displacements range. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, unable to simulate the response of seismic isolators at large displacements, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort. Furthermore, the proposed model can simulate the smooth transition of the hysteresis loops from small to large displacements by adopting only one set of five parameters determined from the experimental hysteresis loops having the largest amplitude.

Keywords: base isolation, hardening behavior, nonlinear exponential model, seismic isolators, softening behavior

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142 In vitro Clonal Multiplication and Acclimatization of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Authors: Krishna Poudel, Tahar Katuwal, Sujan Karki


A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of large cardamom was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds were collected. The excised rhizome bud explants were cultured on semi solid culture media. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration and combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl-amino-purine) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) for shoot and root induction. Explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 gm/l IBA showed the highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted shoots were transplanted in the screen house for hardening process. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into the netted nursery for further multiplication process.

Keywords: concentration, explants, hardening, rhizome

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