Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: Yusef Karimi

66 Normal or Abnormal: A Case Study of Jihadi Salafism in the Middle East

Authors: Yusef Karimi, Masoomeh Esmaeily, Razgar Mohammadi

Abstract:

Following the events of September 11th, one of the most important concerns of governments, politicians and, researchers has been to answer the question that why does an ordinary person become fundamentalism? One of the major controversies in past researches was about as to whether a fundamentalist person is normal or abnormal. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to investigate whether a Salafi-jihadi individual is normal or abnormal. The participants included 6 Jihadi Salafism individuals who were living in the Middle East and had been purposefully selected. This research is a qualitative study which examines these people′s retrospective experience of their lives. The data were collected through collaborative observation and interview. This continued till data saturation. Unlike the introduced concepts of fundamentalist personality in the previous studies such as self-fascination, aggression, paranoid personality and psychopathic, participants in this study had no abnormal symptoms of mental disorders. Hence, in the context of recognizing the fundamentalist personality, we must seek other personality and positional variables.

Keywords: abnormal, fundamentalism, normal, personality, Salafi

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65 Sociology of Vis and Ramin

Authors: Farzane Yusef Ghanbari

Abstract:

A sociological analysis on the ancient poetry of Vis and Ramin reveals important points about the political, cultural, and social conditions of the Iranian ancient history. The reciprocal relationship between the effect and structure of society helps the understanding and interpretation of the work. Therefore, informed by the Goldman genetic structuralism and through a glance at social epistemology, this study attempts to explain the role of spell in shaping the social knowledge of ancient people. The results suggest that due to the lack of a central government, and secularism in politics and freedom of speech and opinion, such romantic stories as Vis and Ramin, with a focal female character, has emerged.

Keywords: persian literature, Vis and Ramin, sociology, developmental structuralism

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
64 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
63 On the Girth of the Regular Digraph of Ideals of a ‎Commutative ‎Ring

Authors: Masoud Karimi

Abstract:

‎Let R be a commutative ring‎. ‎The regular digraph of ideals of R, which is denoted by‎ Γ(R)‎, ‎is a digraph whose vertex-set is the set of all ‎non-‎trivial ideals of R and‎, ‎for every‎ two distinct vertices I and J‎, ‎there is an arc from I to J‎, ‎whenever I contains‎ a non-zero-divisor on J. In this article, ‎we ‎show ‎that an indecomposable ‎Noetherian ring ‎‎‎R ‎is ‎Artinian ‎local ‎if ‎and ‎only ‎if Z(I)=Z(R) ‎for ‎every ‎non-nilpotent ‎ideal ‎‎‎I‎. ‎Then ‎we ‎conclude ‎that ‎‎the ‎girth ‎of‎ Γ(R)‎ ‎is ‎not ‎equal ‎to ‎four.

Keywords: commutative ring‎, ‎girth‎, regular digraph‎, zero-divisor

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62 The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Teaching Performance at an Iranian University

Authors: Yusef Hedjazi, Saeedeh Nazari Nooghabi

Abstract:

New information and communication technologies (ICT) as one of the main needs of Faculty members in the process of teaching and learning has used in Irans higher education system since 2000.The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching performance of Agricultural and Natural Resources Faculties at University of Tehran. The statistical population of the study consisted of all 250 faculties in Agriculture and Natural Resources Colleges and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by computing of Cronbachs Alpha coefficient at greater than .72. The study showed a significant relationship between agricultural Faculty members teaching performance and competency in using ICT. The results of the regression analysis also explained 51.7% of the variance, teaching performance. The six independent variables that accounted for the explained variance were experience in using educational websites or software, use of educational multimedia (e.g. film and CD, etc), making a presentation using PowerPoint, familiarity with online education websites, using News group to discuss on educational subjects with colleagues and students, and using Electronic communication (messengers) to solve studentsproblems.

Keywords: information and communication technologies, agricultural and natural resources, faculties, teaching performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
61 Epidemiology and Jeopardy Aspect of Febrile Neutropenia Patients by Means of Infectious Maladies

Authors: Pouya Karimi, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan

Abstract:

Conclusions of the sort and setting of observational treatment for immunocompromised patients with fever are confused by the qualities of the hidden disease and the impacts of medications previously got, just as by changing microbiological examples and patterns in sedate obstruction at national and institutional levels. A few frameworks have been proposed to recognize patients who could profit by outpatient anti-infection treatment from patients who require hospitalization. Useful contemplations may choose whether the fundamental checking during the time of neutropenia can be accomplished.

Keywords: microbiology, infectious, neutropenia, epidemiology

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60 Investigations of the Crude Oil Distillation Preheat Section in Unit 100 of Abadan Refinery and Its Recommendation

Authors: Mahdi GoharRokhi, Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mohammad R. ZamaniZadeh, Mohsen Maleki, Yusef Shamsayi, Mahdi FarhaniNejad, Farzad FarrokhZadeh

Abstract:

Possessing massive resources of natural gas and petroleum, Iran has a special place among all other oil producing countries, according to international institutions of energy. In order to use these resources, development and functioning optimization of refineries and industrial units is mandatory. Heat exchanger is one of the most important and strategic equipment which its key role in the process of production is clear to everyone. For instance, if the temperature of a processing fluid is not set as needed by heat exchangers, the specifications of desired product can change profoundly. Crude oil enters a network of heat exchangers in atmospheric distillation section before getting into the distillation tower; in this case, well-functioning of heat exchangers can significantly affect the operation of distillation tower. In this paper, different scenarios for pre-heating of oil are studied using oil and gas simulation software, and the results are discussed. As we reviewed various scenarios, adding a heat exchanger to pre-heating network is proposed as the most efficient factor in improving all governing parameters of the tower i.e. temperature, pressure, and reflux rate. This exchanger is embedded in crude oil’s path. Crude oil enters the exchanger after E-101 and exchanges heat with discharging kerosene pump around from E-136. As depicted in the results, it will efficiently assist the improvement of process operation and side expenses.

Keywords: atmospheric distillation unit, heat exchanger, preheat, simulation

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59 Study the Behavior of Different Composite Short Columns (DST) with Prismatic Sections under Bending Load

Authors: V. Sadeghi Balkanlou, M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, A. Hasanbakloo, B. Bagheri Azar

Abstract:

In this paper, the behavior of different types of DST columns has been studied under bending load. Briefly, composite columns consist of an internal carbon steel tube and an external stainless steel wall that the between the walls are filled with concrete. Composite columns are expected to combine the advantages of all three materials and have the advantage of high flexural stiffness of CFDST columns. In this research, ABAQUS software is used for finite element analysis then the results of ultimate strength of the composite sections are illustrated.

Keywords: DST, stainless steel, carbon steel, ABAQUS, straigh columns, tapered columns

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58 Sensor Network Routing Optimization by Simulating Eurygaster Life in Wheat Farms

Authors: Fariborz Ahmadi, Hamid Salehi, Khosrow Karimi

Abstract:

A sensor network is set of sensor nodes that cooperate together to perform a predefined tasks. The important problem in this network is power consumption. So, in this paper one algorithm based on the eurygaster life is introduced to minimize power consumption by the nodes of these networks. In this method the search space of problem is divided into several partitions and each partition is investigated separately. The evaluation results show that our approach is more efficient in comparison to other evolutionary algorithm like genetic algorithm.

Keywords: evolutionary computation, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, sensor network optimization

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57 Microstructures and Mechanical Property of ti6al4v - a Comparison between Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Javad Karimi, Prashanth Konda Gokuldoss

Abstract:

Microstructural inhomogeneity in additively manufactured materials affects the material properties. The present study aims in minimizing such microstructural inhomogeneity in Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from the gas atomized powder. A detailed and systematic study of the effect of remelting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V manufactured by SLM was compared with electron beam melting and spark plasma sintering.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, Ti6Al4V, microstructure

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56 Residual Compressive Strength of Drilled Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak, Parnian Kianfar

Abstract:

Drilling is one of the most frequently used machining process for glass fiber reinforced polymer composites due to the need for structural joining. In drilling of composite laminates, interlaminar cracking, or delamination, has a detrimental effect on the compressive strength of these materials. The delamination can be controlled by adopting proper drilling condition. In this paper, the effect of feed rate, cutting speed and drill point angle on delamination and residual compressive strength of drilled GFRPs is studied. The objective is to find optimal conditions for maximum residual compressive strength.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, residual compressive strength

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55 The Effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) Polymer Modifier on Properties of Bitumen

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Alireza Kiasat, Ferdows Karimi Alkouhi

Abstract:

In order to use bitumen in hot mix asphalt, it must have specific characteristics. There are some methods to reach these properties. Using polymer modifiers are one of the methods to modify the bitumen properties. In this paper, the effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber that is one of the bitumen polymer modifiers on rheology properties of bitumen is studied. In this regard, the rheological properties of base bitumen and the modified bitumen with 3, 4, and 5 percent of Styrene-Butadiene-Rubber (SBR) were analysed. The results show that bitumen modified with 5 percent of SBR has the best performance than the other samples.

Keywords: bitumen, polymer modifier, styrene-butadiene-rubber, rheological properties

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54 Zeros Elimination from the National Currency

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role and importance of accounting for the implementation of the VAT system in the country. For this purpose, after the evaluation of specifications and important advantages of the VAT and the experience of other countries, important role of accounting in the precise determination of taxes, strategies to prevent escape of tax and realization of tax revenues of government, necessary control to increase the efficiency and accuracy of the calculations discussed. High-dependence of government to borrowing from the banking system and inflation tax and a low general ratio of tax revenues to GDP, indicating the inadequacy of the country's tax system. It can be said that being of a proper accounting system consider as a prerequisite for successful implementation of VAT in the country. So it's crucial for accountants with responsibility announce its full fitness to meet the requirements. For successful implementation of VAT as such a multi-stage sales tax and the tax on the price.

Keywords: accounting, tax reform in Iran, Value Added Tax (VAT), economic

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53 Groundwater Quality Monitoring in the Shoush Suburbs, Khouzestan Province, Iran

Authors: Mohammad Tahsin Karimi Nezhad, Zaynab Shadbahr, Ali Gholami

Abstract:

In recent years many attempts have been made to assess groundwater contamination by nitrates worldwide. The assessment of spatial and temporal variations of physico-chemical parameters of water is necessary to mange water quality. The objectives of the study were to evaluate spatial variability and temporal changes of hydrochemical factors by water sampling from 24 wells in the Shoush City suburb. The analysis was conducted for the whole area and for different land use and geological classes. In addition, nitrate concentration variability with descriptive parameters such as sampling depth, dissolved oxygen, and on ground nitrogen loadings was also investigated The results showed that nitrate concentrations did not exceed the standard limit (50 mg/l). EC of water samples, ranged from 900 to 1200 µs/cm, TDS from 775 to 830 mg/l and pH from 5.6 to 9.

Keywords: groundwater, GIS, water quality, Iran

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52 Active Control Improvement of Smart Cantilever Beam by Piezoelectric Materials and On-Line Differential Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: P. Karimi, A. H. Khedmati Bazkiaei

Abstract:

The main goal of this study is to test differential neural network as a controller of smart structure and is to enumerate its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other controllers. In this study, the smart structure has been considered as a Euler Bernoulli cantilever beam and it has been tried that it be under control with the use of vibration neural network resulting from movement. Also, a linear observer has been considered as a reference controller and has been compared its results. The considered vibration charts and the controlled state have been recounted in the final part of this text. The obtained result show that neural observer has better performance in comparison to the implemented linear observer.

Keywords: smart material, on-line differential artificial neural network, active control, finite element method

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51 Exergy: An Effective Tool to Quantify Sustainable Development of Biodiesel Production

Authors: Mahmoud Karimi, Golmohammad Khoobbakht

Abstract:

This study focuses on the exergy flow analysis in the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to decrease the consumption of materials and energy and promote the use of renewable resources. The exergy analysis performed is based on the thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction and exergy efficiency to investigate the effects of variable parameters on renewability of transesterification. The experiment variables were methanol to WCO ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction temperature in the transesterification reaction. The optimum condition with yield of 90.2% and exergy efficiency of 95.2% was obtained at methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of KOH, at 55 °C. In this condition, the total waste exergy was found to be 45.4 MJ for 1 kg biodiesel production. However high yield in the optimal condition resulted high exergy efficiency in the transesterification of WCO with methanol.

Keywords: biodiesel, exergy, thermodynamic analysis, transesterification, waste cooking oil

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50 The Role of Accounting in the Run-Added Tax in Iran

Authors: Zahra Karimi

Abstract:

Money is not the only medium of economic exchanges, but also affects the national identity of citizens and national sovereignty of the government. Hence, money can be used as a tool to strengthen the national and political identity of nations. In other words, the value of the national currency can be affecting citizen’s view to the economic situation of their country and national identity. Government with the maintenance of the value of the national currency must increase the confidence of its citizens into national currency and prevents that "currency substitution phenomenon" occurred and people turn to foreign currencies. Hence, this article intends to explain the zeros elimination from the national currency and study of experience of other countries and discussion history analyzed benefits and harms of zeroes elimination from the national currency, And then to evaluate the effect or lack of effect of removing of zeros from the national currency on inflation answer the question whether it is appropriate and on time to delete three zeros from the Riyal of Iran is or not?

Keywords: zeros elimination from the national currency, value of the national currency, Riyal, inflation, Iran, money, government

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49 Analysis of Delamination in Drilling of Composite Materials

Authors: Navid Zarif Karimi, Hossein Heidary, Giangiacomo Minak, Mehdi Ahmadi

Abstract:

In this paper analytical model based on the mechanics of oblique cutting, linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and bending plate theory has been presented to determine the critical feed rate causing delamination in drilling of composite materials. Most of the models in this area used LEFM and bending plate theory; hence, they can only determine the critical thrust force which is an incorporable parameter. In this model by adding cutting oblique mechanics to previous models, critical feed rate has been determined. Also instead of simplification in loading condition, actual thrust force induced by chisel edge and cutting lips on composite plate is modeled.

Keywords: composite material, delamination, drilling, thrust force

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48 Comparison of DPC and FOC Vector Control Strategies on Reducing Harmonics Caused by Nonlinear Load in the DFIG Wind Turbine

Authors: Hamid Havasi, Mohamad Reza Gholami Dehbalaei, Hamed Khorami, Shahram Karimi, Hamdi Abdi

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a power converter is an efficient tool for converting mechanical energy of a variable speed system to a fixed-frequency electrical grid. Since electrical energy sources faces with production problems such as harmonics caused by nonlinear loads, so in this paper, compensation performance of DPC and FOC method on harmonics reduction of a DFIG wind turbine connected to a nonlinear load in MATLAB Simulink model has been simulated and effect of each method on nonlinear load harmonic elimination has been compared. Results of the two mentioned control methods shows the advantage of the FOC method on DPC method for harmonic compensation. Also, the fifth and seventh harmonic components of the network and THD greatly reduced.

Keywords: DFIG machine, energy conversion, nonlinear load, THD, DPC, FOC

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47 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi

Abstract:

In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

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46 Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Sajed Yaghoubnezhad, Mina Karimi, Seyede Marjan Modirkhazeni

Abstract:

The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).

Keywords: codependency, social support, depression, mothers of children with ID

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45 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

Abstract:

One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks, mobility, geographic routing, delay tolerant networks

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44 The Effect of Chisel Edge on Drilling-Induced Delamination

Authors: Parnian Kianfar, Navid Zarif Karimi, Giangiacomo Minak

Abstract:

Drilling is one of the most important machining operations as numerous holes must be drilled in order to install mechanical fasteners for assembly in composite structures. Delamination is a major problem associated with the drilling of fiber reinforced composite materials, which degrades the mechanical properties of these materials. In drilling, delamination is initiated when the drilling force exceeds a threshold value, particularly at the critical entry and exit locations of the drill bit. The chisel edge of twist drill is a major contributor to the thrust force which is the primary cause of delamination. The main objective of this paper is to study the effect of chisel edge and pilot hole on thrust force and delamination during drilling of glass fiber reinforced composites. For this purpose, two sets of experiments, with and without pilot hole, were conducted with different drilling conditions. The results show a great reduction in the thrust force when a pilot hole is present which removes the chisel edge contribution.

Keywords: composites, chisel edge, drilling, delamination

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43 Four-dimensional (4D) Decoding Information Presented in Reports of Project Progress in Developing Countries

Authors: Vahid Khadjeh Anvary, Hamideh Karimi Yazdi

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Generally, the tool of comparison between performance of each stage in the life of a project, is the number of project progress during that period, which in most cases is only determined as one-dimensional with referring to one of three factors (physical, time, and financial). In many projects in developing countries there are controversies on accuracy and the way of analyzing progress report of projects that hinders getting definitive and engineering conclusions on the status of project.Identifying weakness points of this kind of one-dimensional look on project and determining a reliable and engineering approach for multi-dimensional decoding information receivable from project is of great importance in project management.This can be a tool to help identification of hidden diseases of project before appearing irreversible symptoms that are usually delays or increased costs of execution. The method used in this paper is defining and evaluating a hypothetical project as an example analyzing different scenarios and numerical comparison of them along with related graphs and tables. Finally, by analyzing different possible scenarios in the project, possibility or impossibility of predicting their occurrence is examine through the evidence.

Keywords: physical progress, time progress, financial progress, delays, critical path

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42 Corrosion Evaluation of Zinc Coating Prepared by Two Types of Electric Currents

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Karimi Abadeh

Abstract:

In this research, zinc coatings were fabricated by electroplating process in a sulfate solution under direct and pulse current conditions. In direct and pulse current conditions, effect of maximum current was investigated on the coating properties. Also a comparison was made between the obtained coatings under direct and pulse current. Morphology of the coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization test. In pulse current conditions, the effect of pulse frequency and duty cycle was also studied. The effect of these conditions and parameters were also investigated on morphology and corrosion behavior. All of DC plated coatings are showing a distinct passivation area in -1 to -0.4 V range. Pulsed current coatings possessed a higher corrosion resistance. The results showed that current density is the most important factor regarding the fabrication process. Furthermore, a rise in duty cycle deteriorated corrosion resistance of coatings. Pulsed plated coatings performed almost 10 times better than DC plated coatings.

Keywords: corrosion, duty cycle, pulsed current, zinc

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41 User Modeling from the Perspective of Improvement in Search Results: A Survey of the State of the Art

Authors: Samira Karimi-Mansoub, Rahem Abri

Abstract:

Currently, users expect high quality and personalized information from search results. To satisfy user’s needs, personalized approaches to web search have been proposed. These approaches can provide the most appropriate answer for user’s needs by using user context and incorporating information about query provided by combining search technologies. To carry out personalized web search, there is a need to make different techniques on whole of user search process. There are the number of possible deployment of personalized approaches such as personalized web search, personalized recommendation, personalized summarization and filtering systems and etc. but the common feature of all approaches in various domains is that user modeling is utilized to provide personalized information from the Web. So the most important work in personalized approaches is user model mining. User modeling applications and technologies can be used in various domains depending on how the user collected information may be extracted. In addition to, the used techniques to create user model is also different in each of these applications. Since in the previous studies, there was not a complete survey in this field, our purpose is to present a survey on applications and techniques of user modeling from the viewpoint of improvement in search results by considering the existing literature and researches.

Keywords: filtering systems, personalized web search, user modeling, user search behavior

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40 Evaluation of Computed Tomographic Anatomy of Respiratory System in Caspian Pond Turtle (Mauremys caspica)

Authors: Saghar Karimi, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari Khafi, Amin Abolhasani Foroughi

Abstract:

In recent decades, keeping exotic species as pet animals has become widespread. Turtles are exotic species from chelonians, which are interested by many people. Caspian pond and European pond turtles from Emydidea family are commonly kept as pets in Iran. Presence of the shell in turtles makes achievement to a comprehensive clinical examination impossible. Respiratory system is one of the most important structures to be examined completely. Presence of the air in the respiratory system makes radiography the first modality to think of; however, image quality would be affected by the shell. Computed tomography (CT) as a radiography-based and non-invasive technique provides cross-sectional scans with little superimposition. The aim of this study was to depict normal computed tomographic anatomy of the respiratory system in Caspian Pond Turtle. Five adult Caspian pond turtle were scanned using a 16-detector CT machine. Our results showed that computed tomography is able to well illustrated different parts of respiratory system in turtle and can be used for detecting abnormalities and disorders.

Keywords: anatomy, computed tomography, respiratory system, turtle

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39 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Citrus aurantium Aqueous Pollen Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi

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Pollen extract of in vitro plants raised of Citrus aurantium as reducer and stabilizer was assessed for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesis of AgNPs was performed at room temperature assisting in solutions by reduction takes place rapidly for 10 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks in UV–Vis spectra indicated the formation of polydispersive AgNPs. Silver ions concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time were optimized in the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. XRD study shows that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry. It shows the significant antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar.

Keywords: green synthesis, Citrus aurantium, silver nanoparticles, antibacterial activity

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38 The Appearance of Identity in the Urban Landscape by Enjoying the Natural Factors

Authors: Mehrdad Karimi, Farshad Negintaji

Abstract:

This study has examined the appearance of identity in the urban landscape and its effects on the natural factors. For this purpose, the components of place identity, emotional attachment, place dependence and social bond which totally constitute place attachment, measures it in three domains of cognitive (place identity), affective (emotional attachment) and behavioral (place dependence and social bond). In order to measure the natural factors, three components of the absolute elements, living entities, natural elements have been measured. The study is descriptive and the statistical population has been Yasouj, a city in Iran. To analyze the data the SPSS software has been used. The results in two level of descriptive and inferential statistics have been investigated. In the inferential statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient test has been used to evaluate the research hypotheses. In this study, the variable of identity is in high level and the natural factors are also in high level. These results indicate a positive relationship between place identity and natural factors. Development of environment and reaching the quality level of the personality or identity will develop the individual and society.

Keywords: identity, place identity, landscape, urban landscape, landscaping

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37 An Analytic Comparison between Arabic and English Prosodies: Poetical Feet and Meters

Authors: Jamil Jafari, Sharafat Karimi

Abstract:

The Arabic Language has a complicated system of prosody invented by the great grammarian Khalil Ibn Ahmad Farahidi. He could extract 15 meters out of his innovative five circles, which were used in Arabic poetry of the 7th and 8th centuries. Then after a while, his student Akhfash added or compensated another meter to his tutor's meters, so overall, we now have 16 different meters in Arabic poetry. These meters have been formed by various combinations of 8 different feet and each foot is combined of rudimentary units called Sabab and Wated which are combinations of movement (/) and silent (ʘ) letters. On the other hand in English, we are dealing with another system of metrical prosody. In this language, feet are consisted of stressed and unstressed syllables and are of six types: iamb, trochee, dactyl, anapest, spondee, and pyrrhic. Using the descriptive-analytic method, in this research we aim at making a comparison between Arabic and English systems of metrical prosody to investigate their similarities and differences. The results show that both of them are quantitative and both of them rely on syllables in afoot. But unlike Arabic, English is utilizing another rhyme system and the number of feet in a line differs from Arabic; also, its feet are combined of stressed and unstressed syllables, while those of Arabic is a combination of movement and silent letters.

Keywords: Arabic prosody, English prosody, foot, meter, poetry

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