Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2441

Search results for: atmospheric distillation unit

2441 Investigations of the Crude Oil Distillation Preheat Section in Unit 100 of Abadan Refinery and Its Recommendation

Authors: Mahdi GoharRokhi, Mohammad H. Ruhipour, Mohammad R. ZamaniZadeh, Mohsen Maleki, Yusef Shamsayi, Mahdi FarhaniNejad, Farzad FarrokhZadeh


Possessing massive resources of natural gas and petroleum, Iran has a special place among all other oil producing countries, according to international institutions of energy. In order to use these resources, development and functioning optimization of refineries and industrial units is mandatory. Heat exchanger is one of the most important and strategic equipment which its key role in the process of production is clear to everyone. For instance, if the temperature of a processing fluid is not set as needed by heat exchangers, the specifications of desired product can change profoundly. Crude oil enters a network of heat exchangers in atmospheric distillation section before getting into the distillation tower; in this case, well-functioning of heat exchangers can significantly affect the operation of distillation tower. In this paper, different scenarios for pre-heating of oil are studied using oil and gas simulation software, and the results are discussed. As we reviewed various scenarios, adding a heat exchanger to pre-heating network is proposed as the most efficient factor in improving all governing parameters of the tower i.e. temperature, pressure, and reflux rate. This exchanger is embedded in crude oil’s path. Crude oil enters the exchanger after E-101 and exchanges heat with discharging kerosene pump around from E-136. As depicted in the results, it will efficiently assist the improvement of process operation and side expenses.

Keywords: atmospheric distillation unit, heat exchanger, preheat, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 528
2440 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi


Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
2439 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak


Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
2438 Process Optimization for Albanian Crude Oil Characterization

Authors: Xhaklina Cani, Ilirjan Malollari, Ismet Beqiraj, Lorina Lici


Oil characterization is an essential step in the design, simulation, and optimization of refining facilities. To achieve optimal crude selection and processing decisions, a refiner must have exact information refer to crude oil quality. This includes crude oil TBP-curve as the main data for correct operation of refinery crude oil atmospheric distillation plants. Crude oil is typically characterized based on a distillation assay. This procedure is reasonably well-defined and is based on the representation of the mixture of actual components that boil within a boiling point interval by hypothetical components that boil at the average boiling temperature of the interval. The crude oil assay typically includes TBP distillation according to ASTM D-2892, which can characterize this part of oil that boils up to 400 C atmospheric equivalent boiling point. To model the yield curves obtained by physical distillation is necessary to compare the differences between the modelling and the experimental data. Most commercial use a different number of components and pseudo-components to represent crude oil. Laboratory tests include distillations, vapor pressures, flash points, pour points, cetane numbers, octane numbers, densities, and viscosities. The aim of the study is the drawing of true boiling curves for different crude oil resources in Albania and to compare the differences between the modeling and the experimental data for optimal characterization of crude oil.

Keywords: TBP distillation curves, crude oil, optimization, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
2437 Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils: A Clean Chemical Processing in the Teaching and Research Laboratory

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). MAD and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with MAD was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by MAD and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MAD, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: clevenger, microwave, extraction; hydro-distillation, essential oil, orange peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
2436 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira


True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
2435 Experimental Investigation of Air Gap Membrane Distillation System with Heat Recovery

Authors: Yasser Elhenaw, A. Farag, Mohamed El-Ghandour, M. Shatat, G. H. Moustafa


This study investigates the performance of two spiral-wound Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) units. These units are connected in two different configurations in order to be tested and compared experimentally. In AGMD, the coolant water is used to condensate water vapor leaving membrane via condensing plate. The rejected cooling water has a relativity high temperature which can be used, depending on operation parameters, to increase the thermal efficiency and water productivity. In the first configuration, the seawater feed flows parallel and equally through both units then rejected. The coolant water is divided into the two units, and the heat source is divided into the two heat exchangers. In the second one, only the feed of the first unit is heated while the cooling rejected from the unit is used in heating the feed to the second. The performance of the system, estimated by the water productivity as well as the Gain Output Ratio (GOR), is measured for the two configurations at different feed flow rates, temperatures and salinities. The results show that at steady state condition, the heat recovery configurations lead to an increase in water productivity by 25%.

Keywords: membrane distillation, heat transfer, heat recovery, desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2434 A Technical-Economical Study of a New Solar Tray Distillator

Authors: Abderrahmane Diaf, Assia Cherfa, Lamia Karadaniz


Multiple tray solar distillation offers an interesting alternative for small-scale desalination and production high quality distilled water at a competitive cost using solar energy. In this work, we present indoor/outdoor trial performance data of our multiple tray solar distillation as well as the results of cost estimation analysis.

Keywords: solar desalination, tray distillation, multi-étages solaire, solar distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
2433 Reduction of Energy Consumption of Distillation Process by Recovering the Heat from Exit Streams

Authors: Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul, Thanapat Chaireongsirikul, Pawit Tangviroon


Distillation consumes enormous quantity of energy. This work proposed a process to recover the energy from exit streams during the distillation process of three consecutive columns. There are several novel techniques to recover the heat with the distillation system; however, a complex control system is required. This work proposed a simpler technique by exchanging the heat between streams without interrupting the internal distillation process that might cause a serious control problem. The proposed process is executed by using heat exchanger network with pinch analysis to maximize the process heat recovery. The test model is the distillation of butane, pentane, hexane, and heptanes, which is a common mixture in the petroleum refinery. This proposed process saved the energy consumption for hot and cold utilities of 29 and 27%, which is considered significant. Therefore, the recovery of heat from exit streams from distillation process is proved to be effective for energy saving.

Keywords: distillation, heat exchanger, network pinch analysis, chemical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2432 Crude Distillation Process Simulation Using Unisim Design Simulator

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, M. Jamali


The paper deals with the simulation of the crude distillation process using the Unisim Design simulator. The necessity of simulating this process is argued both by considerations related to the design of the crude distillation column, but also by considerations related to the design of advanced control systems. In order to use the Unisim Design simulator to simulate the crude distillation process, the identification of the simulators used in Romania and an analysis of the PRO/II, HYSYS, and Aspen HYSYS simulators were carried out. Analysis of the simulators for the crude distillation process has allowed the authors to elaborate the conclusions of the success of the crude modelling. A first aspect developed by the authors is the implementation of specific problems of petroleum liquid-vapors equilibrium using Unisim Design simulator. The second major element of the article is the development of the methodology and the elaboration of the simulation program for the crude distillation process, using Unisim Design resources. The obtained results validate the proposed methodology and will allow dynamic simulation of the process.  

Keywords: crude oil, distillation, simulation, Unisim Design, simulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2431 Recovery of Acetonitrile from Aqueous Solutions by Extractive Distillation: The Effect of Entrainer

Authors: Aleksandra Y. Sazonova, Valentina M. Raeva


The aim of this work was to apply extractive distillation for acetonitrile removal from water solutions, to validate thermodynamic criterion based on excess Gibbs energy to entrainer selection process for acetonitrile – water mixture separation and show its potential efficiency at isothermal conditions as well as at isobaric (conditions of real distillation process), to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process with chosen entrainers: optimize amount of trays and feeds, entrainer/original mixture and reflux ratios. Equimolar composition of the feed stream was chosen for the process, comparison of the energy consumptions was carried out. Glycerol was suggested as the most energetically and ecologically suitable entrainer.

Keywords: acetonitrile, entrainer, extractive distillation, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2430 Modelling and Control of Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Narava Manose


Distillation is a very old separation technology for separating liquid mixtures that can be traced back to the chemists in Alexandria in the first century A. D. Today distillation is the most important industrial separation technology. By the eleventh century, distillation was being used in Italy to produce alcoholic beverages. At that time, distillation was probably a batch process based on the use of just a single stage, the boiler. The word distillation is derived from the Latin word destillare, which means dripping or trickling down. By at least the sixteenth century, it was known that the extent of separation could be improved by providing multiple vapor-liquid contacts (stages) in a so called Rectifactorium. The term rectification is derived from the Latin words rectefacere, meaning to improve. Modern distillation derives its ability to produce almost pure products from the use of multi-stage contacting. Throughout the twentieth century, multistage distillation was by far the most widely used industrial method for separating liquid mixtures of chemical components.The basic principle behind this technique relies on the different boiling temperatures for the various components of the mixture, allowing the separation between the vapor from the most volatile component and the liquid of other(s) component(s). •Developed a simple non-linear model of a binary distillation column using Skogestad equations in Simulink. •We have computed the steady-state operating point around which to base our analysis and controller design. However, the model contains two integrators because the condenser and reboiler levels are not controlled. One particular way of stabilizing the column is the LV-configuration where we use D to control M_D, and B to control M_B; such a model is given in cola_lv.m where we have used two P-controllers with gains equal to 10.

Keywords: modelling, distillation column, control, binary distillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2429 A Comparative Study of the Modeling and Quality Control of the Propylene-Propane Classical Distillation and Distillation Column with Heat Pump

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, Cao Minh Ahn


The paper presents the research evolution in the propylene – propane distillation process, especially for the distillation columns equipped with heat pump. The paper is structured in three parts: separation of the propylene-propane mixture, steady state process modeling, and quality control systems. The first part is dedicated to state of art of the two distillation processes. The second part continues the author’s researches of the steady state process modeling. There has been elaborated a software simulation instrument that may be used to dynamic simulation of the process and to design the quality control systems. The last part presents the research of the control systems, especially for quality control systems.

Keywords: absorption, distillation, heat pump, Unisim design

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2428 Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Citrus fruits Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). SFME and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with SFME was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by SFME and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by SFME, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, essential oil, microwave, orange peel, solvent free microwave, extraction SFME

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
2427 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Temperature Polarization of Distillation Membranes for Desalination Technologies

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., Romero C.


Membrane Distillation is an emerging technology that uses thermal and membrane steps for the desalination process to get drinking water. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were deposited by dip-coating process over Polyvinylidene Fluoride, Fiberglass hydrophilic, and Polytetrafluoroethylene hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized and used in a Vacuum Membrane Distillation cell under Ultraviolet light with sea salt feed solution. The presence of AgNP increases the absorption of energy on the membrane, which improves the transmembrane flux.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, desalination technologies, heat deliver

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
2426 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
2425 Performance Evaluation of Single Basin Solar Still

Authors: Prem Singh, Jagdeep Singh


In an attempt to investigate the performance of single basin solar still for climate conditions of Ludhiana a single basin solar still was designed, fabricated and tested. The energy balance equations for various parts of the still are solved by Gauss-Seidel iteration method. Computer model was made and experimentally validated. The validated computer model was used to estimate the annual distillation yield and performance ratio of the still for Ludhiana. The Theoretical and experimental distillation yield were 4318.79 ml and 3850 ml, respectively for the typical day. The predicted distillation yield was 12.5% higher than the experimental yield. The annual distillation yield per square meter aperture area and annual performance ratio for single basin solar still is 1095 liters and 0.43 liters, respectively. The payback period for micro-stepped solar still is 2.5 years.

Keywords: solar distillation, solar still, single basin, still

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
2424 GC and GCxGC-MS Composition of Volatile Compounds from Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi by Using Techniques Assisted by Microwaves

Authors: F. Benkaci-Ali, R. Mékaoui, G. Scholl, G. Eppe


The new methods as accelerated steam distillation assisted by microwave (ASDAM) is a combination of microwave heating and steam distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure at very short extraction time. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. (ASDAM) has been compared with (ASDAM) with cryogrinding of seeds (CG) and a conventional technique, hydrodistillation assisted by microwave (HDAM), hydro-distillation (HD) for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herb as caraway and cumin seeds. The essential oils extracted by (ASDAM) for 1 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) no similar to those obtained by ASDAM-CG (1 min) and HD (for 3 h). The accelerated microwave extraction with cryogrinding inhibits numerous enzymatic reactions as hydrolysis of oils. Microwave radiations constitute the adequate mean for the extraction operations from the yields and high content in major component majority point view, and allow to minimise considerably the energy consumption, but especially heating time too, which is one of essential parameters of artifacts formation. The ASDAM and ASDAM-CG are green techniques and yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds comparable to the biosynthesis compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material.

Keywords: microwave, steam distillation, caraway, cumin, cryogrinding, GC-MS, GCxGC-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
2423 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees


Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.

Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solvent

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
2422 Effect of Inclination Angle on Productivity of a Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (Dcmd) Process

Authors: Adnan Alhathal Alanezi, Alanood A. Alsarayreh


A direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system was modeled using various angles for the membrane unit and a Reynolds number range of 500 to 2000 in this numerical analysis. The Navier-Stokes, energy, and species transport equations were used to create a two-dimensional model. The finite volume method was used to solve the governing equations (FVM). The results showed that as the Reynolds number grows up to 1500, the heat transfer coefficient increases for all membrane angles except the 60ᵒ inclination angle. Additionally, increasing the membrane angle to 90ᵒreduces the exit influence while increasing heat transfer. According to these data, a membrane with a 90o inclination angle (also known as a vertical membrane) and a Reynolds number of 2000 might have the smallest temperature differential. Similarly, decreasing the inclination angle of the membrane keeps the temperature difference constant between Reynolds numbers 1000 and 2000; however, between Reynolds numbers 500 and 1000, the temperature difference decreases dramatically.

Keywords: direct contact membrane distillation, membrane inclination angle, heat and mass transfer, reynolds number

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2421 Study of Some Factors Effecting on Productivity of Solar Distillers

Authors: Keshek M.H, Mohamed M.A, El-Shafey M.A


The aim of this research was increasing the productivity of solar distillation. In order to reach this aim, a solar distiller was created with three glass sides sloping 30o at the horizontal level, and the experiments were carried out on the solar distillation unit during the period from 24th August, 2016 till 24th May, 2017 at the Agricultural Engineering and Bio Systems Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University. Three gap lengths were used between the water level and the inner glass cover, those were 3, 6, and 9 cm. As the result of change the gap length between the water level and the inner glass cover the total volume of basins were changed from 15.5, 13, and 11 L, respectively. The total basin volume was divided to three sections, to investigate the effect of water volume. The three water volumes were 100%, 75%, and 50%. Every section was supplied with one, two, or three heaters. The one heater power was 15 W. The results showed that, by increasing the distance between the basins edge and the inner edge of the glass cover, an increase occurs in the percentage of temperature difference with maximum value was 52% at distance 9 cm from each edge, an increase occurs in the productivity with maximum productivity was 3.3 L/m2 at distance 9 cm from each edge and an increase occurs in the efficiency with maximum efficiency was 70% at distance 9 cm from each edge.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, still productivity, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
2420 Microwave Accelerated Simultaneous Distillation –Extraction: Preparative Recovery of Volatiles from Food Products

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE) is routinely used by analysts for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for microwave assisted simultaneous distillation – solvent extraction (MW-SDE) of volatile compounds was developed. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction and concentration of volatile compounds can be carried out in a single step. To demonstrate its feasibility, MW-SDE was compared with the conventional technique, Simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE), for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of volatile compounds in a fresh orange juice and a dry spice “carvi seeds”. SDE method required long time (3 h) to isolate the volatile compounds, and large amount of organic solvent (200 mL of hexane) for further extraction, while MW-SDE needed little time (only 30 min) to prepare sample, and less amount of organic solvent (10 mL of hexane). These results show that MW-SDE–GC-MS is a simple, rapid and solvent-less method for determination of volatile compounds from aromatic plants.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, distillation, carvi seeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
2419 Techno-Economic Analysis of the Production of Aniline

Authors: Dharshini M., Hema N. S.


The project for the production of aniline is done by providing 295.46 tons per day of nitrobenzene as feed. The material and energy balance calculations for the different equipment like distillation column, heat exchangers, reactor and mixer are carried out with simulation via DWSIM. The conversion of nitrobenzene to aniline by hydrogenation process is considered to be 96% and the total production of the plant was found to be 215 TPD. The cost estimation of the process is carried out to estimate the feasibility of the plant. The net profit and percentage return of investment is estimated to be ₹27 crores and 24.6%. The payback period was estimated to be 4.05 years and the unit production cost is ₹113/kg. A techno-economic analysis was performed for the production of aniline; the result includes economic analysis and sensitivity analysis of critical factors. From economic analysis, larger the plant scale increases the total capital investment and annual operating cost, even though the unit production cost decreases. Uncertainty analysis was performed to predict the influence of economic factors on profitability and the scenario analysis is one way to quantify uncertainty. In scenario analysis the best-case scenario and the worst-case scenario are compared with the base case scenario. The best-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 120 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹112.05/kg and the worst-case scenario was found at a feed rate of 60 kmol/hr with a unit production cost of ₹115.9/kg. The base case is closely related to the best case by 99.2% in terms of unit production cost. since the unit production cost is less and the profitability is more with less payback time, it is feasible to construct a plant at this capacity.

Keywords: aniline, nitrobenzene, economic analysis, unit production cost

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2418 Modification of Underwood's Equation to Calculate Minimum Reflux Ratio for Column with One Side Stream Upper Than Feed

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi


Distillation is one of the most important and utilized separation methods in the industrial practice. There are different ways to design of distillation column. One of these ways is short cut method. In short cut method, material balance and equilibrium are employed to calculate number of tray in distillation column. There are different methods that are classified in short cut method. One of these methods is Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland method. In this method, minimum reflux ratio should be calculated by underwood equation. Underwood proposed an equation that is useful for simple distillation column with one feed and one top and bottom product. In this study, underwood method is developed to predict minimum reflux ratio for column with one side stream upper than feed. The result of this model compared with McCabe-Thiele method. The result shows that proposed method able to calculate minimum reflux ratio with very small error.

Keywords: minimum reflux ratio, side stream, distillation, Underwood’s method

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
2417 The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: Chinwendu R. Nnabalu, Gioia Falcone, Imma Bortone


Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Keywords: design, emission, fluid catalytic cracking, petroleum refineries

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
2416 Integrating Knowledge Distillation of Multiple Strategies

Authors: Min Jindong, Wang Mingxia


With the widespread use of artificial intelligence in life, computer vision, especially deep convolutional neural network models, has developed rapidly. With the increase of the complexity of the real visual target detection task and the improvement of the recognition accuracy, the target detection network model is also very large. The huge deep neural network model is not conducive to deployment on edge devices with limited resources, and the timeliness of network model inference is poor. In this paper, knowledge distillation is used to compress the huge and complex deep neural network model, and the knowledge contained in the complex network model is comprehensively transferred to another lightweight network model. Different from traditional knowledge distillation methods, we propose a novel knowledge distillation that incorporates multi-faceted features, called M-KD. In this paper, when training and optimizing the deep neural network model for target detection, the knowledge of the soft target output of the teacher network in knowledge distillation, the relationship between the layers of the teacher network and the feature attention map of the hidden layer of the teacher network are transferred to the student network as all knowledge. in the model. At the same time, we also introduce an intermediate transition layer, that is, an intermediate guidance layer, between the teacher network and the student network to make up for the huge difference between the teacher network and the student network. Finally, this paper adds an exploration module to the traditional knowledge distillation teacher-student network model. The student network model not only inherits the knowledge of the teacher network but also explores some new knowledge and characteristics. Comprehensive experiments in this paper using different distillation parameter configurations across multiple datasets and convolutional neural network models demonstrate that our proposed new network model achieves substantial improvements in speed and accuracy performance.

Keywords: object detection, knowledge distillation, convolutional network, model compression

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2415 Experimental Evaluation of Stand Alone Solar Driven Membrane Distillation System

Authors: Mejbri Sami, Zhani Khalifa, Zarzoum Kamel, Ben Bacha Habib, Koschikowski Joachim, Pfeifle Daniel


Many places worldwide, especially arid and semi-arid remote regions, are suffering from the lack of drinkable water and the situation will be aggravated in the near future. Furthermore, remote areas are characterised by lack of conventional energy sources, skilled personnel and maintenance facilities. Therefore, the development of small to medium size, stand-alone and robust solar desalination systems is needed to provide independent fresh water supply in remote areas. This paper is focused on experimental studies on compact membrane distillation (MD) solar desalination prototype located at the Mechanical Engineering Department site, Kairouan University, Kairouan, Tunisia. The pilot system is designed and manufactured as a part of a research and development project funded by the MESRS/BMBF. The pilot system is totally autonomous. The electrical energy required to operate the unit is generated through a field of 4 m² of photovoltaic panels, and the heating of feed water is provided by a field of 6 m² of solar collectors. The Kairouan plant performance of the first few months of operation is presented. The highest freshwater production of 150 L/d is obtained on a sunny day in July of 633 W/m²d.

Keywords: experimental, membrane distillation, solar desalination, Permeat gap

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2414 CO₂ Capture by Membrane Applied to Steel Production Process

Authors: Alexandra-Veronica Luca, Letitia Petrescu


Steel production is a major contributor to global warming potential. An average value of 1.83 tons of CO₂ is emitted for every ton of steel produced, resulting in over 3.3 Mt of CO₂ emissions each year. The present paper is focused on the investigation and comparison of two O₂ separation methods and two CO₂ capture technologies applicable to the iron and steel industry. The O₂ used in steel production comes from an Air Separation Unit (ASU) using distillation or from air separation using membranes. The CO₂ capture technologies are represented by a two-stage membrane separation process and the gas-liquid absorption using methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA). Process modeling and simulation tools, as well as environmental tools, are used in the present study. The production capacity of the steel mill is 4,000,000 tones/year. In order to compare the two CO₂ capture technologies in terms of efficiency, performance and sustainability, the following cases have been investigated: Case 1: steel production using O₂ from ASU and no CO₂ capture; Case 2: steel production using O₂ from ASU and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture; Case 3: steel production using O₂ from ASU and membranes for CO₂ capture; Case 4: steel production using O₂ from membrane separation method and gas-liquid absorption for CO₂ capture and Case 5: steel production using membranes for air separation and CO₂ capture. The O₂ separation rate obtained in the distillation technology was about 96% and about 33% in the membrane technology. Similarly, the O₂ purity resulted in the conventional process (i.e., distillation) is higher compared to the O₂ purity obtained in the membrane unit (e.g., 99.50% vs. 73.66%). The air flow-rate required for membrane separation is about three times higher compared to the air flow-rate for cryogenic distillation (e.g., 549,096.93 kg/h vs. 189,743.82 kg/h). A CO₂ capture rate of 93.97% was obtained in the membrane case while the CO₂ capture rate for the gas-liquid absorption was 89.97%. A quantity of 6,626.49 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 95.45% is separated from the total 23,352.83 kg/h flue-gas in the membrane process while with absorption 6,173.94 kg/h CO₂ with a purity of 98.79% is obtained from 21,902.04 kg/h flue-gas and 156,041.80 kg/h MDEA is recycled. The simulation results, performed using ChemCAD process simulator software, lead to the conclusion that membrane-based technology can be a suitable alternative for CO₂ removal for steel production. An environmental evaluation using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology was also performed. Considering the electricity consumption, performance and environmental indicators, Case 3 can be considered the most effective. The environmental evaluation, performed using GaBi software, shows that membrane technology can lead to lower environmental emissions if membrane production is based on benzene derived from toluene hydrodealkilation, and chlorine and sodium hydroxide are produced using mixed technologies.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, gas-liquid absorption, Life Cycle Assessment, membrane separation, steel production

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2413 Synthesis and Characterization of PVDF, FG, PTFE, and PES Membrane Distillation Modified with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: Lopez J., Mehrvar M., Quinones E., Suarez A., RomeroC.


The Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) are used as deliver of heat on surface of Membrane Distillation in order to fight against Thermal Polarization and improving the Desalination Process. In this study AgNPwere deposited by dip coating process over PVDF, FG hydrophilic, and PTFE hydrophobic commercial membranes as substrate. Membranes were characterized by SEM, EDS, contact angle, Pore size distributionand using a UV lamp and a thermal camera were measured the performance of heat deliver. The presence of AgNP 50 – 150 nm and the increase in absorption of energy over membrane were verified.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, membrane distillation, plasmon effect, heat deliver

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2412 Audio-Visual Recognition Based on Effective Model and Distillation

Authors: Heng Yang, Tao Luo, Yakun Zhang, Kai Wang, Wei Qin, Liang Xie, Ye Yan, Erwei Yin


Recent years have seen that audio-visual recognition has shown great potential in a strong noise environment. The existing method of audio-visual recognition has explored methods with ResNet and feature fusion. However, on the one hand, ResNet always occupies a large amount of memory resources, restricting the application in engineering. On the other hand, the feature merging also brings some interferences in a high noise environment. In order to solve the problems, we proposed an effective framework with bidirectional distillation. At first, in consideration of the good performance in extracting of features, we chose the light model, Efficientnet as our extractor of spatial features. Secondly, self-distillation was applied to learn more information from raw data. Finally, we proposed a bidirectional distillation in decision-level fusion. In more detail, our experimental results are based on a multi-model dataset from 24 volunteers. Eventually, the lipreading accuracy of our framework was increased by 2.3% compared with existing systems, and our framework made progress in audio-visual fusion in a high noise environment compared with the system of audio recognition without visual.

Keywords: lipreading, audio-visual, Efficientnet, distillation

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