Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6870

Search results for: point clouds features

6870 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
6869 PointNetLK-OBB: A Point Cloud Registration Algorithm with High Accuracy

Authors: Wenhao Lan, Ning Li, Qiang Tong

Abstract:

To improve the registration accuracy of a source point cloud and template point cloud when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, a PointNetLK algorithm combined with an oriented bounding box (PointNetLK-OBB) is proposed. In this algorithm, the OBB of a 3D point cloud is used to represent the macro feature of source and template point clouds. Under the guidance of the iterative closest point algorithm, the OBB of the source and template point clouds is aligned, and a mirror symmetry effect is produced between them. According to the fitting degree of the source and template point clouds, the mirror symmetry plane is detected, and the optimal rotation and translation of the source point cloud is obtained to complete the 3D point cloud registration task. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a comparative experiment was performed using the publicly available ModelNet40 dataset. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with PointNetLK, PointNetLK-OBB improves the registration accuracy of the source and template point clouds when the initial relative deflection angle is too large, and the sensitivity of the initial relative position between the source point cloud and template point cloud is reduced. The primary contribution of this paper is the use of PointNetLK to avoid the non-convex problem of traditional point cloud registration and leveraging the regularity of the OBB to avoid the local optimization problem in the PointNetLK context.

Keywords: mirror symmetry, oriented bounding box, point cloud registration, PointNetLK-OBB

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
6868 Using T-Splines to Model Point Clouds from Terrestrial Laser Scanner

Authors: G. Kermarrec, J. Hartmann

Abstract:

Spline surfaces are a major representation of freeform surfaces in the computer-aided graphic industry and were recently introduced in the field of geodesy for processing point clouds from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The surface fitting consists of approximating a trustworthy mathematical surface to a large numbered 3D point cloud. The standard B-spline surfaces lack of local refinement due to the tensor-product construction. The consequences are oscillating geometry, particularly in the transition from low-to-high curvature parts for scattered point clouds with missing data. More economic alternatives in terms of parameters on how to handle point clouds with a huge amount of observations are the recently introduced T-splines. As long as the partition of unity is guaranteed, their computational complexity is low, and they are flexible. T-splines are implemented in a commercial package called Rhino, a 3D modeler which is widely used in computer aided design to create and animate NURBS objects. We have applied T-splines surface fitting to terrestrial laser scanner point clouds from a bridge under load and a sheet pile wall with noisy observations. We will highlight their potential for modelling details with high trustworthiness, paving the way for further applications in terms of deformation analysis.

Keywords: deformation analysis, surface modelling, terrestrial laser scanner, T-splines

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6867 An Experiment of Three-Dimensional Point Clouds Using GoPro

Authors: Jong-Hwa Kim, Mu-Wook Pyeon, Yang-dam Eo, Ill-Woong Jang

Abstract:

Construction of geo-spatial information recently tends to develop as multi-dimensional geo-spatial information. People constructing spatial information is also expanding its area to the general public from some experts. As well as, studies are in progress using a variety of devices, with the aim of near real-time update. In this paper, getting the stereo images using GoPro device used widely also to the general public as well as experts. And correcting the distortion of the images, then by using SIFT, DLT, is acquired the point clouds. It presented a possibility that on the basis of this experiment, using a video device that is readily available in real life, to create a real-time digital map.

Keywords: GoPro, SIFT, DLT, point clouds

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
6866 Efficacy of Deep Learning for Below Canopy Reconstruction of Satellite and Aerial Sensing Point-Clouds through Fractal Tree Symmetry

Authors: Dhanuj Gandikota

Abstract:

Sensor derived three-dimensional (3D)point clouds of trees are invaluable in remote sensing analysis for the accurate measurement of key structural metrics, bio-inventory values, spatial planning/visualization, and ecological modeling. Terrain Laser Scanning (TLS) remains the highest fidelity source of both canopy & below-canopy structural features, however, its usage is limited in both spatial coverage & manual deployment, being expensive in cost to map out large, forested areas. While Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) remains a reliable avenue of LIDAR active remote sensing, ALS is also restrictive in cost deployment methods. Spaceborne Photogrammetry from high resolution satellite constellationsis anavenue of passive remote sensing with promising viability in research for the accurate construction of vegetation 3-D point clouds, with both the lowest comparative cost and largest spatial coverage across remote sensing methods. However, both spaceborne photogrammetry & ALS demonstrate technical limitations in the capture of valuable below-canopy point cloud data. Deep Learning is a class of powerful Machine Learning (ML) algorithms that have large promise in recentresearch for 3-D point cloud reconstruction & interpolation. This research details the efficacy of applying these deep learning techniquesto reconstruct accurate below-canopy point clouds from spaceborne &aerial remote sensing through learned patterns of tree species fractal symmetry properties and the supplementation of locally sourced bio-inventory metrics. From our dataset consisting of tree point clouds obtained from TLS, we deconstructed the point clouds of each tree into those that would be obtained through ALS and satellite photogrammetry of varying resolutions. We fed this ALS/Satellite point cloud dataset along with the simulated local bio-inventory metrics into the deep learning point cloud reconstruction architectures to generate the full 3-D tree point clouds (the truth values are denoted by the full TLS tree point clouds containing the below-canopy information). Point cloud reconstruction accuracy was validated both through the measurement of error from the original TLS point clouds as well as the error of extraction of key structural metrics such as crown base height, diameter above root crown, and leaf/wood volume. The results of this research additionally demonstrate the relationship between the minimum locally sourced bio-inventory metric information necessary as input to reach specified accuracy thresholds of tree point cloud reconstruction. This research provides insight into methods of the rapid, cost-effective,& accurate construction of below-canopy tree 3-D point cloudsas well as the supported potential of ML &deep learning to learn complex unmodeled patterns of fractal tree growth symmetry.

Keywords: deep learning, machine learning, satellite, photogrammetry, aerial laser scanning, terrestrial laser scanning, point cloud, fractal symmetry

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6865 Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object

Authors: Yadpiroon Onmek, Jean Triboulet, Sebastien Druon, Bruno Jouvencel

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, archaeology, fusion, stereo system, sonar system, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
6864 Shape Management Method of Large Structure Based on Octree Space Partitioning

Authors: Gichun Cha, Changgil Lee, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to construct the shape management method contributing to the safety of the large structure. In Korea, the research of the shape management is lack because of the new attempted technology. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is used for measurements of large structures. TLS provides an efficient way to actively acquire accurate the point clouds of object surfaces or environments. The point clouds provide a basis for rapid modeling in the industrial automation, architecture, construction or maintenance of the civil infrastructures. TLS produce a huge amount of point clouds. Registration, Extraction and Visualization of data require the processing of a massive amount of scan data. The octree can be applied to the shape management of the large structure because the scan data is reduced in the size but, the data attributes are maintained. The octree space partitioning generates the voxel of 3D space, and the voxel is recursively subdivided into eight sub-voxels. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. The experimental site is located at Sungkyunkwan University. The scanned structure is the steel-frame bridge. The used TLS is Leica ScanStation C10/C5. The scan data was condensed 92%, and the octree model was constructed with 2 millimeter in resolution. This study presents octree space partitioning for handling the point clouds. The basis is created by shape management of the large structures such as double-deck tunnel, building and bridge. The research will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance. "This work is financially supported by 'U-City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF- 2015R1D1A1A01059291)."

Keywords: 3D scan data, octree space partitioning, shape management, structural health monitoring, terrestrial laser scanning

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
6863 Geometric Imperfections in Lattice Structures: A Simulation Strategy to Predict Strength Variability

Authors: Xavier Lorang, Ahmadali Tahmasebimoradi, Chetra Mang, Sylvain Girard

Abstract:

The additive manufacturing processes (e.g. selective laser melting) allow us to produce lattice structures which have less weight, higher impact absorption capacity, and better thermal exchange property compared to the classical structures. Unfortunately, geometric imperfections (defects) in the lattice structures are by-products results of the manufacturing process. These imperfections decrease the lifetime and the strength of the lattice structures and alternate their mechanical responses. The objective of the paper is to present a simulation strategy which allows us to take into account the effect of the geometric imperfections on the mechanical response of the lattice structure. In the first part, an identification method of geometric imperfection parameters of the lattice structure based on point clouds is presented. These point clouds are based on tomography measurements. The point clouds are fed into the platform LATANA (LATtice ANAlysis) developed by IRT-SystemX to characterize the geometric imperfections. This is done by projecting the point clouds of each microbeam along the beam axis onto a 2D surface. Then, by fitting an ellipse to the 2D projections of the points, the geometric imperfections are characterized by introducing three parameters of an ellipse; semi-major/minor axes and angle of rotation. With regard to the calculated parameters of the microbeam geometric imperfections, a statistical analysis is carried out to determine a probability density law based on a statistical hypothesis. The microbeam samples are randomly drawn from the density law and are used to generate lattice structures. In the second part, a finite element model for the lattice structure with the simplified geometric imperfections (ellipse parameters) is presented. This numerical model is used to simulate the generated lattice structures. The propagation of the uncertainties of geometric imperfections is shown through the distribution of the computed mechanical responses of the lattice structures.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, finite element model, geometric imperfections, lattice structures, propagation of uncertainty

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6862 Towards a Robust Patch Based Multi-View Stereo Technique for Textureless and Occluded 3D Reconstruction

Authors: Ben Haines, Li Bai

Abstract:

Patch based reconstruction methods have been and still are one of the top performing approaches to 3D reconstruction to date. Their local approach to refining the position and orientation of a patch, free of global minimisation and independent of surface smoothness, make patch based methods extremely powerful in recovering fine grained detail of an objects surface. However, patch based approaches still fail to faithfully reconstruct textureless or highly occluded surface regions thus though performing well under lab conditions, deteriorate in industrial or real world situations. They are also computationally expensive. Current patch based methods generate point clouds with holes in texturesless or occluded regions that require expensive energy minimisation techniques to fill and interpolate a high fidelity reconstruction. Such shortcomings hinder the adaptation of the methods for industrial applications where object surfaces are often highly textureless and the speed of reconstruction is an important factor. This paper presents on-going work towards a multi-resolution approach to address the problems, utilizing particle swarm optimisation to reconstruct high fidelity geometry, and increasing robustness to textureless features through an adapted approach to the normalised cross correlation. The work also aims to speed up the reconstruction using advances in GPU technologies and remove the need for costly initialization and expansion. Through the combination of these enhancements, it is the intention of this work to create denser patch clouds even in textureless regions within a reasonable time. Initial results show the potential of such an approach to construct denser point clouds with a comparable accuracy to that of the current top-performing algorithms.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, multiview stereo, particle swarm optimisation, photo consistency

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
6861 Multi-Temporal Cloud Detection and Removal in Satellite Imagery for Land Resources Investigation

Authors: Feng Yin

Abstract:

Clouds are inevitable contaminants in optical satellite imagery, and prevent the satellite imaging systems from acquiring clear view of the earth surface. The presence of clouds in satellite imagery bring negative influences for remote sensing land resources investigation. As a consequence, detecting the locations of clouds in satellite imagery is an essential preprocessing step, and further remove the existing clouds is crucial for the application of imagery. In this paper, a multi-temporal based satellite imagery cloud detection and removal method is proposed, which will be used for large-scale land resource investigation. The proposed method is mainly composed of four steps. First, cloud masks are generated for cloud contaminated images by single temporal cloud detection based on multiple spectral features. Then, a cloud-free reference image of target areas is synthesized by weighted averaging time-series images in which cloud pixels are ignored. Thirdly, the refined cloud detection results are acquired by multi-temporal analysis based on the reference image. Finally, detected clouds are removed via multi-temporal linear regression. The results of a case application in Hubei province indicate that the proposed multi-temporal cloud detection and removal method is effective and promising for large-scale land resource investigation.

Keywords: cloud detection, cloud remove, multi-temporal imagery, land resources investigation

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6860 Obtaining High-Dimensional Configuration Space for Robotic Systems Operating in a Common Environment

Authors: U. Yerlikaya, R. T. Balkan

Abstract:

In this research, a method is developed to obtain high-dimensional configuration space for path planning problems. In typical cases, the path planning problems are solved directly in the 3-dimensional (D) workspace. However, this method is inefficient in handling the robots with various geometrical and mechanical restrictions. To overcome these difficulties, path planning may be formalized and solved in a new space which is called configuration space. The number of dimensions of the configuration space comes from the degree of freedoms of the system of interest. The method can be applied in two ways. In the first way, the point clouds of all the bodies of the system and interaction of them are used. The second way is performed via using the clearance function of simulation software where the minimum distances between surfaces of bodies are simultaneously measured. A double-turret system is held in the scope of this study. The 4-D configuration space of a double-turret system is obtained in these two ways. As a result, the difference between these two methods is around 1%, depending on the density of the point cloud. The disparity between the two forms steadily decreases as the point cloud density increases. At the end of the study, in order to verify 4-D configuration space obtained, 4-D path planning problem was realized as 2-D + 2-D and a sample path planning is carried out with using A* algorithm. Then, the accuracy of the configuration space is proved using the obtained paths on the simulation model of the double-turret system.

Keywords: A* algorithm, autonomous turrets, high-dimensional C-space, manifold C-space, point clouds

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6859 Deep Learning Based 6D Pose Estimation for Bin-Picking Using 3D Point Clouds

Authors: Hesheng Wang, Haoyu Wang, Chungang Zhuang

Abstract:

Estimating the 6D pose of objects is a core step for robot bin-picking tasks. The problem is that various objects are usually randomly stacked with heavy occlusion in real applications. In this work, we propose a method to regress 6D poses by predicting three points for each object in the 3D point cloud through deep learning. To solve the ambiguity of symmetric pose, we propose a labeling method to help the network converge better. Based on the predicted pose, an iterative method is employed for pose optimization. In real-world experiments, our method outperforms the classical approach in both precision and recall.

Keywords: pose estimation, deep learning, point cloud, bin-picking, 3D computer vision

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6858 A Fast and Robust Protocol for Reconstruction and Re-Enactment of Historical Sites

Authors: Sanaa I. Abu Alasal, Madleen M. Esbeih, Eman R. Fayyad, Rami S. Gharaibeh, Mostafa Z. Ali, Ahmed A. Freewan, Monther M. Jamhawi

Abstract:

This research proposes a novel reconstruction protocol for restoring missing surfaces and low-quality edges and shapes in photos of artifacts at historical sites. The protocol starts with the extraction of a cloud of points. This extraction process is based on four subordinate algorithms, which differ in the robustness and amount of resultant. Moreover, they use different -but complementary- accuracy to some related features and to the way they build a quality mesh. The performance of our proposed protocol is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms and toolkits. The statistical analysis shows that our algorithm significantly outperforms its rivals in the resultant quality of its object files used to reconstruct the desired model.

Keywords: meshes, point clouds, surface reconstruction protocols, 3D reconstruction

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6857 3D Model Completion Based on Similarity Search with Slim-Tree

Authors: Alexis Aldo Mendoza Villarroel, Ademir Clemente Villena Zevallos, Cristian Jose Lopez Del Alamo

Abstract:

With the advancement of technology it is now possible to scan entire objects and obtain their digital representation by using point clouds or polygon meshes. However, some objects may be broken or have missing parts; thus, several methods focused on this problem have been proposed based on Geometric Deep Learning, such as GCNN, ACNN, PointNet, among others. In this article an approach from a different paradigm is proposed, using metric data structures to index global descriptors in the spectral domain and allow the recovery of a set of similar models in polynomial time; to later use the Iterative Close Point algorithm and recover the parts of the incomplete model using the geometry and topology of the model with less Hausdorff distance.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction method, point cloud completion, shape completion, similarity search

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
6856 Applying Unmanned Aerial Vehicle on Agricultural Damage: A Case Study of the Meteorological Disaster on Taiwan Paddy Rice

Authors: Chiling Chen, Chiaoying Chou, Siyang Wu

Abstract:

Taiwan locates at the west of Pacific Ocean and intersects between continental and marine climate. Typhoons frequently strike Taiwan and come with meteorological disasters, i.e., heavy flooding, landslides, loss of life and properties, etc. Global climate change brings more extremely meteorological disasters. So, develop techniques to improve disaster prevention and mitigation is needed, to improve rescue processes and rehabilitations is important as well. In this study, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are applied to take instant images for improving the disaster investigation and rescue processes. Paddy rice fields in the central Taiwan are the study area. There have been attacked by heavy rain during the monsoon season in June 2016. UAV images provide the high ground resolution (3.5cm) with 3D Point Clouds to develop image discrimination techniques and digital surface model (DSM) on rice lodging. Firstly, image supervised classification with Maximum Likelihood Method (MLD) is used to delineate the area of rice lodging. Secondly, 3D point clouds generated by Pix4D Mapper are used to develop DSM for classifying the lodging levels of paddy rice. As results, discriminate accuracy of rice lodging is 85% by image supervised classification, and the classification accuracy of lodging level is 87% by DSM. Therefore, UAVs not only provide instant images of agricultural damage after the meteorological disaster, but the image discriminations on rice lodging also reach acceptable accuracy (>85%). In the future, technologies of UAVs and image discrimination will be applied to different crop fields. The results of image discrimination will be overlapped with administrative boundaries of paddy rice, to establish GIS-based assist system on agricultural damage discrimination. Therefore, the time and labor would be greatly reduced on damage detection and monitoring.

Keywords: Monsoon, supervised classification, Pix4D, 3D point clouds, discriminate accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
6855 3D Design of Orthotic Braces and Casts in Medical Applications Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

Authors: Sanjana S. Mallya, Roshan Arvind Sivakumar

Abstract:

Orthotics is the branch of medicine that deals with the provision and use of artificial casts or braces to alter the biomechanical structure of the limb and provide support for the limb. Custom-made orthoses provide more comfort and can correct issues better than those available over-the-counter. However, they are expensive and require intricate modelling of the limb. Traditional methods of modelling involve creating a plaster of Paris mould of the limb. Lately, CAD/CAM and 3D printing processes have improved the accuracy and reduced the production time. Ordinarily, digital cameras are used to capture the features of the limb from different views to create a 3D model. We propose a system to model the limb using Microsoft Kinect2 sensor. The Kinect can capture RGB and depth frames simultaneously up to 30 fps with sufficient accuracy. The region of interest is captured from three views, each shifted by 90 degrees. The RGB and depth data are fused into a single RGB-D frame. The resolution of the RGB frame is 1920px x 1080px while the resolution of the Depth frame is 512px x 424px. As the resolution of the frames is not equal, RGB pixels are mapped onto the Depth pixels to make sure data is not lost even if the resolution is lower. The resulting RGB-D frames are collected and using the depth coordinates, a three dimensional point cloud is generated for each view of the Kinect sensor. A common reference system was developed to merge the individual point clouds from the Kinect sensors. The reference system consisted of 8 coloured cubes, connected by rods to form a skeleton-cube with the coloured cubes at the corners. For each Kinect, the region of interest is the square formed by the centres of the four cubes facing the Kinect. The point clouds are merged by considering one of the cubes as the origin of a reference system. Depending on the relative distance from each cube, the three dimensional coordinate points from each point cloud is aligned to the reference frame to give a complete point cloud. The RGB data is used to correct for any errors in depth data for the point cloud. A triangular mesh is generated from the point cloud by applying Delaunay triangulation which generates the rough surface of the limb. This technique forms an approximation of the surface of the limb. The mesh is smoothened to obtain a smooth outer layer to give an accurate model of the limb. The model of the limb is used as a base for designing the custom orthotic brace or cast. It is transferred to a CAD/CAM design file to design of the brace above the surface of the limb. The proposed system would be more cost effective than current systems that use MRI or CT scans for generating 3D models and would be quicker than using traditional plaster of Paris cast modelling and the overall setup time is also low. Preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the Kinect2 is satisfactory to perform modelling.

Keywords: 3d scanning, mesh generation, Microsoft kinect, orthotics, registration

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6854 Geomechanical Technologies for Assessing Three-Dimensional Stability of Underground Excavations Utilizing Remote-Sensing, Finite Element Analysis, and Scientific Visualization

Authors: Kwang Chun, John Kemeny

Abstract:

Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been a prevalent remote-sensing technology applied in the geological fields due to its high precision and ease of use. One of the major applications is to use the detailed geometrical information of underground structures as a basis for the generation of a three-dimensional numerical model that can be used in a geotechnical stability analysis such as FEM or DEM. To date, however, straightforward techniques in reconstructing the numerical model from the scanned data of the underground structures have not been well established or tested. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach integrating all the various processes, from LiDAR scanning to finite element numerical analysis. The study focuses on converting LiDAR 3D point clouds of geologic structures containing complex surface geometries into a finite element model. This methodology has been applied to Kartchner Caverns in Arizona, where detailed underground and surface point clouds can be used for the analysis of underground stability. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element code Abaqus and presented by 3D computing visualization solution, ParaView. The results are useful in studying the stability of all types of underground excavations including underground mining and tunneling.

Keywords: finite element analysis, LiDAR, remote-sensing, scientific visualization, underground stability

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6853 The Estimation Method of Stress Distribution for Beam Structures Using the Terrestrial Laser Scanning

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Jun Su Park, Byung Kwan Oh, Yousok Kim, Hyo Seon Park

Abstract:

This study suggests the estimation method of stress distribution for the beam structures based on TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning). The main components of method are the creation of the lattices of raw data from TLS to satisfy the suitable condition and application of CSSI (Cubic Smoothing Spline Interpolation) for estimating stress distribution. Estimation of stress distribution for the structural member or the whole structure is one of the important factors for safety evaluation of the structure. Existing sensors which include ESG (Electric strain gauge) and LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) can be categorized as contact type sensor which should be installed on the structural members and also there are various limitations such as the need of separate space where the network cables are installed and the difficulty of access for sensor installation in real buildings. To overcome these problems inherent in the contact type sensors, TLS system of LiDAR (light detection and ranging), which can measure the displacement of a target in a long range without the influence of surrounding environment and also get the whole shape of the structure, has been applied to the field of structural health monitoring. The important characteristic of TLS measuring is a formation of point clouds which has many points including the local coordinate. Point clouds is not linear distribution but dispersed shape. Thus, to analyze point clouds, the interpolation is needed vitally. Through formation of averaged lattices and CSSI for the raw data, the method which can estimate the displacement of simple beam was developed. Also, the developed method can be extended to calculate the strain and finally applicable to estimate a stress distribution of a structural member. To verify the validity of the method, the loading test on a simple beam was conducted and TLS measured it. Through a comparison of the estimated stress and reference stress, the validity of the method is confirmed.

Keywords: structural healthcare monitoring, terrestrial laser scanning, estimation of stress distribution, coordinate transformation, cubic smoothing spline interpolation

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6852 Temporally Coherent 3D Animation Reconstruction from RGB-D Video Data

Authors: Salam Khalifa, Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

We present a new method to reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from single or multi-view RGB-D video data using unbiased feature point sampling. Given RGB-D video data, in form of a 3D point cloud sequence, our method first extracts feature points using both color and depth information. In the subsequent steps, these feature points are used to match two 3D point clouds in consecutive frames independent of their resolution. Our new motion vectors based dynamic alignment method then fully reconstruct a spatio-temporally coherent 3D animation. We perform extensive quantitative validation using novel error functions to analyze the results. We show that despite the limiting factors of temporal and spatial noise associated to RGB-D data, it is possible to extract temporal coherence to faithfully reconstruct a temporally coherent 3D animation from RGB-D video data.

Keywords: 3D video, 3D animation, RGB-D video, temporally coherent 3D animation

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
6851 Bridge Members Segmentation Algorithm of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds Using Fuzzy Clustering Method

Authors: Donghwan Lee, Gichun Cha, Jooyoung Park, Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park

Abstract:

3D shape models of the existing structure are required for many purposes such as safety and operation management. The traditional 3D modeling methods are based on manual or semi-automatic reconstruction from close-range images. It occasions great expense and time consuming. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a common survey technique to measure quickly and accurately a 3D shape model. This TLS is used to a construction site and cultural heritage management. However there are many limits to process a TLS point cloud, because the raw point cloud is massive volume data. So the capability of carrying out useful analyses is also limited with unstructured 3-D point. Thus, segmentation becomes an essential step whenever grouping of points with common attributes is required. In this paper, members segmentation algorithm was presented to separate a raw point cloud which includes only 3D coordinates. This paper presents a clustering approach based on a fuzzy method for this objective. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is reviewed and used in combination with a similarity-driven cluster merging method. It is applied to the point cloud acquired with Lecia Scan Station C10/C5 at the test bed. The test-bed was a bridge which connects between 1st and 2nd engineering building in Sungkyunkwan University in Korea. It is about 32m long and 2m wide. This bridge was used as pedestrian between two buildings. The 3D point cloud of the test-bed was constructed by a measurement of the TLS. This data was divided by segmentation algorithm for each member. Experimental analyses of the results from the proposed unsupervised segmentation process are shown to be promising. It can be processed to manage configuration each member, because of the segmentation process of point cloud.

Keywords: fuzzy c-means (FCM), point cloud, segmentation, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6850 Morphological Properties in Ndre Mjeda's Works

Authors: Shyhrete Morina

Abstract:

This paper deals with morphological features in Mjeda's works. To make such a distinction, these features will be compared to standard Albanian language, considering the linguistic structure in the morphological field, which represent an all-important segment of Albanian language. Therefore, the study will focus mainly on the description and construction of these paradigms, which will give a linguistic insight into the entire work of Mjeda as the author who wrote in the dialect of northwestern Geg. Therefore, we have tried to distinguish different parts of the author's language, as well as the distinctive features or even the similarities of these paradigms that arise in the literary work of Mjeda. By constructing the corpus of this phonetic and grammar segment from the whole of Mjeda's work, we have seen that in these fields has built a variety of grammar structures, which for the history of Albanian are of special importance, that in the full variant of the work, as far as we can investigate, we will point out in all the distinctive features. Therefore, our study aims to highlight the linguistic features, namely the author's deep knowledge toward the language, the authenticity of its use, and its mutual relationship with it.

Keywords: distinctive morpholgy, nouns, adjetives, pronouns, Albanian standard language

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
6849 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb

Abstract:

The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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6848 Curvature Based-Methods for Automatic Coarse and Fine Registration in Dimensional Metrology

Authors: Rindra Rantoson, Hichem Nouira, Nabil Anwer, Charyar Mehdi-Souzani

Abstract:

Multiple measurements by means of various data acquisition systems are generally required to measure the shape of freeform workpieces for accuracy, reliability and holisticity. The obtained data are aligned and fused into a common coordinate system within a registration technique involving coarse and fine registrations. Standardized iterative methods have been established for fine registration such as Iterative Closest Points (ICP) and its variants. For coarse registration, no conventional method has been adopted yet despite a significant number of techniques which have been developed in the literature to supply an automatic rough matching between data sets. Two main issues are addressed in this paper: the coarse registration and the fine registration. For coarse registration, two novel automated methods based on the exploitation of discrete curvatures are presented: an enhanced Hough Transformation (HT) and an improved Ransac Transformation. The use of curvature features in both methods aims to reduce computational cost. For fine registration, a new variant of ICP method is proposed in order to reduce registration error using curvature parameters. A specific distance considering the curvature similarity has been combined with Euclidean distance to define the distance criterion used for correspondences searching. Additionally, the objective function has been improved by combining the point-to-point (P-P) minimization and the point-to-plane (P-Pl) minimization with automatic weights. These ones are determined from the preliminary calculated curvature features at each point of the workpiece surface. The algorithms are applied on simulated and real data performed by a computer tomography (CT) system. The obtained results reveal the benefit of the proposed novel curvature-based registration methods.

Keywords: discrete curvature, RANSAC transformation, hough transformation, coarse registration, ICP variant, point-to-point and point-to-plane minimization combination, computer tomography

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6847 Improving the Liquid Insulation Performance with Antioxidants

Authors: Helan Gethse J., Dhanya K., Muthuselvi G., Diana Hyden N., Samuel Pakianathan P.

Abstract:

Transformer oil is mostly used to keep the transformer cool. It functions as a cooling agent. Mineral oil has long been used in transformers. Mineral oil has a high dielectric strength, which allows it to withstand high temperatures. Mineral oil's main disadvantage is that it is not environmentally friendly and can be dangerous to the environment. The features of breakdown voltage (BDV), viscosity, flash point, and fire point are measured and reported in this study, and the characteristics of olive oil are compared to the characteristics of mineral oil.

Keywords: antioxidants, transformer oil, mineral oil, olive oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
6846 Relevant LMA Features for Human Motion Recognition

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier

Abstract:

Motion recognition from videos is actually a very complex task due to the high variability of motions. This paper describes the challenges of human motion recognition, especially motion representation step with relevant features. Our descriptor vector is inspired from Laban Movement Analysis method. We propose discriminative features using the Random Forest algorithm in order to remove redundant features and make learning algorithms operate faster and more effectively. We validate our method on MSRC-12 and UTKinect datasets.

Keywords: discriminative LMA features, features reduction, human motion recognition, random forest

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6845 Clouds Influence on Atmospheric Ozone from GOME-2 Satellite Measurements

Authors: S. M. Samkeyat Shohan

Abstract:

This study is mainly focused on the determination and analysis of the photolysis rate of atmospheric, specifically tropospheric, ozone as function of cloud properties through-out the year 2007. The observational basis for ozone concentrations and cloud properties are the measurement data set of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sensor on board the polar orbiting Metop-A satellite. Two different spectral ranges are used; ozone total column are calculated from the wavelength window 325 – 335 nm, while cloud properties, such as cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical thick-ness (COT) are derived from the absorption band of molecular oxygen centered at 761 nm. Cloud fraction (CF) is derived from measurements in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared range of GOME-2. First, ozone concentrations above clouds are derived from ozone total columns, subtracting the contribution of stratospheric ozone and filtering those satellite measurements which have thin and low clouds. Then, the values of ozone photolysis derived from observations are compared with theoretical modeled results, in the latitudinal belt 5˚N-5˚S and 20˚N - 20˚S, as function of CF and COT. In general, good agreement is found between the data and the model, proving both the quality of the space-borne ozone and cloud properties as well as the modeling theory of ozone photolysis rate. The found discrepancies can, however, amount to approximately 15%. Latitudinal seasonal changes of photolysis rate of ozone are found to be negatively correlated to changes in upper-tropospheric ozone concentrations only in the autumn and summer months within the northern and southern tropical belts, respectively. This fact points to the entangled roles of temperature and nitrogen oxides in the ozone production, which are superimposed on its sole photolysis induced by thick and high clouds in the tropics.

Keywords: cloud properties, photolysis rate, stratospheric ozone, tropospheric ozone

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
6844 Frequency- and Content-Based Tag Cloud Font Distribution Algorithm

Authors: Ágnes Bogárdi-Mészöly, Takeshi Hashimoto, Shohei Yokoyama, Hiroshi Ishikawa

Abstract:

The spread of Web 2.0 has caused user-generated content explosion. Users can tag resources to describe and organize them. Tag clouds provide rough impression of relative importance of each tag within overall cloud in order to facilitate browsing among numerous tags and resources. The goal of our paper is to enrich visualization of tag clouds. A font distribution algorithm has been proposed to calculate a novel metric based on frequency and content, and to classify among classes from this metric based on power law distribution and percentages. The suggested algorithm has been validated and verified on the tag cloud of a real-world thesis portal.

Keywords: tag cloud, font distribution algorithm, frequency-based, content-based, power law

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
6843 The Falling Point of Lubricant

Authors: Arafat Husain

Abstract:

The lubricants are one of the most used resource in today’s world. Lot of the superpowers are dependent on the lubricant resource for their country to function. To see that the lubricants are not adulterated we need to develop some efficient ways and to see which fluid has been added to the lubricant. So to observe the these malpractices in the lubricant we need to develop a method. We take a elastic ball and through it at probability circle in the submerged in the lubricant at a fixed force and see the distance of pitching and the point of fall. Then we the ratio of distance of falling to the distance of pitching and if the measured ratio is greater than one the fluid is less viscous and if the ratio is lesser than the lubricant is viscous. We will check the falling point of pure lubricant at fixed force and every pure lubricant would have a fixed falling point. After that we would adulterate the lubricant and note the falling point and if the falling point is less than the standard value then adulterate is solid and if the adulterate is liquid the falling point will be more than the standard value. Hence the comparison with the standard falling point will give the efficiency of the lubricant.

Keywords: falling point of lubricant, falling point ratios, probability circle, octane number

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
6842 Estimating 3D-Position of a Stationary Random Acoustic Source Using Bispectral Analysis of 4-Point Detected Signals

Authors: Katsumi Hirata

Abstract:

To develop the useful acoustic environmental recognition system, the method of estimating 3D-position of a stationary random acoustic source using bispectral analysis of 4-point detected signals is proposed. The method uses information about amplitude attenuation and propagation delay extracted from amplitude ratios and angles of auto- and cross-bispectra of the detected signals. It is expected that using bispectral analysis affects less influence of Gaussian noises than using conventional power spectral one. In this paper, the basic principle of the method is mentioned first, and its validity and features are considered from results of the fundamental experiments assumed ideal circumstances.

Keywords: 4-point detection, a stationary random acoustic source, auto- and cross-bispectra, estimation of 3D-position

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
6841 Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Milad Vahidi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Reza Mohammadi

Abstract:

Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.

Keywords: hyperspectral, PolSAR, feature selection, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 126