Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2666

Search results for: Yoruba language

2666 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Yoruba Language Teaching

Authors: Ayoola Idowu Olasebikan

Abstract:

The global community has become increasingly dependent on various kinds of technologies out of which Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) appear to be the most prominent. ICTs have become multipurpose tools which have had a revolutionary impact on how we see the world and how we live in it. Yoruba is the most widely spoken African language outside Africa but it remains one of the badly spoken language in the world as a result of its outdated teaching method in the African schools which prevented its standard version from being spoken and written. This paper conducts a critical review of the traditional methods of teaching Yoruba language. It then examines the possibility of leveraging on ICTs for improved methods of teaching Yoruba language to achieve global standard and spread. It identified key ICT platforms that can be deployed for the teaching of Yoruba language and the constraints facing each of them. The paper concludes that Information and Communication Technologies appear to provide veritable opportunity for paradigm shift in the methods of teaching Yoruba Language. It also opines that Yoruba language has the potential to transform economic fortune of Africa for sustainable development provided its teaching is taken beyond the brick and mortar classroom to the virtual classroom/global information super highway called internet or any other ICTs medium. It recommends that students and teachers of Yoruba language should be encouraged to acquire basic skills in computer and internet technology in order to enhance their ability to develop and retrieve electronic Yoruba language teaching materials.

Keywords: Africa, ICT, teaching method, Yoruba language

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2665 English and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Foyewa R. A.

Abstract:

This paper examined the role of English language and the quest for a national language in Nigeria. Various hindrances to the choice of a national language in Nigeria were observed. These include: The dominant role of English language, political instability and multilingual nature of the country. The writer suggested that ’’the three big’’ that is, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba should be selected as the national languages. It was also suggested that a credit pass in a student’s mother tongue and one of “the three big” (Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba) should constitute the prerequisite for admission into Nigerian higher institutions.

Keywords: English, roles of English, national language, Nigerian languages, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba

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2664 Effects of Word Formation Dissimilarities on Youruba Learners of English

Authors: Pelumi Olowofoyeku

Abstract:

English as a language has great reach and influence; it is taught all over the world. For instance, in Nigeria, English language is been taught and learned as a second language; therefore second learners of English in Nigeria have certain problems they contend with. Because of the dissimilarities in word formation patterns of English and Yoruba languages, Yoruba learners of English mostly found in the south west of Nigeria, and some parts of Kwara, Kogi, and Edo states of Nigeria have problems with word formation patterns in English. The objectives of this paper therefore, are: to identify the levels of word formation dissimilarities in English and Yoruba languages and to examine the effects of these dissimilarities on the Yoruba learners of English. The data for this paper were graded words purposely selected and presented to selected students of Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Oto-Ijanikin, Lagos, who are Yoruba learners of English. These respondents were randomly selected to form words which are purposively selected to test the effects of word formation dissimilarities between Yoruba (the respondent’s first language) and English language on the respondents. The dissimilarities are examined using contrastive analysis tools. This paper reveals that there are differences in the word formation patterns of Yoruba and English languages. The writer believes that there is need for language teachers to undertake comparative studies of the two languages involved for methodological reasons. The author then suggests that teachers should identify the problem areas and systematically teach their students. The paper concludes that although English and Yoruba word formation patterns differ very significantly in many respects, there exist language universals in all languages which language educators should take advantage of in teaching.

Keywords: word formation patterns, graded words, ESL, Yoruba learners

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2663 The Effects of High Technology on Communicative Translation: A Case Study of Yoruba Language

Authors: Modupe Beatrice Adeyinka

Abstract:

European Languages are languages of literature, science and technology. Whereas, African languages are of literature, both written and oral, making it difficult for Yoruba, the African language of Kwa linguistic classification, to neatly and accurately translate European scientific and technological words, expressions and technologies. Unless a pragmatic and communicative approach is adopted, equivalence of European technical and scientific texts might be a mission impossible for Yoruba scholars. In view of the aforementioned difficult task, this paper tends to highlight the need for a thorough study and evaluation of English or French words, expressions, idiomatic expressions, technical and scientific terminologies then, trying to find ways of adopting them to Yoruba environment through interpretative translation.

Keywords: communication, high technology, translation, Yoruba language

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2662 Translation of the Bible into the Yoruba Language: A Functionalist Approach in Resolving Cultural Problems

Authors: Ifeoluwa Omotehinse Oloruntoba

Abstract:

Through comparative and causal models of translation, this paper examined the translation of ‘bread’ into the Yoruba language in three Yoruba versions of the Bible: Bibeli Yoruba Atoka (YBA), Bibeli Mimo ni Ede Yoruba Oni (BMY) and Bibeli Mimo (BM). In biblical times, bread was a very important delicacy that it was synonymous with food in general and in the Bible, bread sometimes refers to a type of food (a mixture of flour, water, and yeast that is baked) or food in general. However, this is not the case in the Yoruba culture. In fact, some decades ago, bread was not known in Nigeria and had no name in the Yoruba language until the 1900s when it was codified as burẹdi in Yoruba, a term borrowed from English and transliterated. Nevertheless, in Nigeria presently, bread is not a special food and it is not appreciated or consumed like in the West. This makes it difficult to translate bread in the Bible into Yoruba. From an investigation on the translation of this term, it was discovered that bread which has 330 occurrences in the English Bible translation (King James) has few occurrences in the three Yoruba Bible versions. In the first version (YBA) published in the 1880s, where bread is synonymous with food in general, it is mostly translated as oúnjẹ (food) or the verb jẹ (to eat), revealing that something is eaten but not indicating what it is. However, when the bread is a type of food, it is rendered as akara, a special delicacy of the Yoruba people made from beans flour. In the later version (BMY) published in the 1990s, bread as food, in general, is also mainly translated as oúnjẹ or the verb jẹ, but when it is a type of food, it is translated as akara with few occurrences of burẹdi. In the latest edition (BM), bread as food is either rendered as ounje or literally translated as burẹdi. Where it is a type of food in this version, it is mainly rendered as burẹdi with few occurrences of akara, indicating the assimilation of bread into the Yoruba culture. This result, although limited, shows that the Bible was translated into Yoruba to make it accessible to Yoruba speakers in their everyday language, hence the application of both domesticating and foreignising strategies. This research also emphasizes the role of the translator as an intermediary between two cultures.

Keywords: translation, Bible, Yoruba, cultural problems

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2661 A Contrastive Study of Affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages: Implications for English Language Pedagogy

Authors: Tosin Samson Olagunju

Abstract:

This study is a contrastive study of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the aim of looking at the implications for English pedagogy. This study, with the use of Hocket's Theory of Item and Arrangement and Word and Paradigm (as expatiated by Crystal), examines the aspect of affixation in Ipe and Yoruba Languages with the help of contrastive analysis which provides a basis for contrasting the morphological patterns of two different indigenous languages. It examines four affixes: prefix, infix, interfix, and suffix with numerous examples in the languages under investigation. The study is corpus based as it depends primarily on the words available in the lexicon of the languages under examination. Data were elicited from both monolingual and bilingual native-speakers of Ipe Language and Yoruba Language in Ipe-Akoko and Oyo respectively. Ibadan 400-wordlist was utilised as a tool for collecting data from informants who are between age fifty and seventy through audio recording as it is believed that they are the custodians of culture and tradition. Consequently, the study reveals that Ipe and Yoruba morphology have affixation such as prefix, interfix, and suffix. It also finds out that 'infix' is an unproductive aspect in English, Ipe, and Yoruba; although a few examples are in English. Interfix is very productive in Ipe and Yoruba but not in English at all. Phonologically, it is discovered that Ipe language has the two dental fricative consonants just like the English language, i.e., /Ɵ/ and /ð/. This is rare among the indigenous languages in Nigeria. This research believes that in the teaching of English consonants to the people of Ipe-Akoko, such areas will be taught with ease. The study concludes that morphological processes of Nigerian indigenous languages are studied the more so that they will not face endangerment which can lead to extinction.

Keywords: affixation, contrastive study, Ipe, morphology, pedagogy, Yoruba

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2660 A Review of Teaching and Learning of Mother Tongues in Nigerian Schools; Yoruba as a Case Study

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola

Abstract:

Taking a cue from countries such as China and Japan, there is no doubt that the teaching and learning of Mother Tongue ( MT) or Language of Immediate Environment (LIE) is a potential source of development in every country. The engine of economic, scientific, technological and political advancement would be more functional when the language of instruction for teaching and learning in schools is in the child’s mother tongue. The purpose of this paper therefore, is to delve into the genesis of the official recognition given to the teaching and learning of Nigerian languages at national level with special focus on Yoruba language. Yoruba language and other Nigerian languages were placed on a national pedestal by a Nigerian Educational Minister, Late Professor Babatunde Fafunwa, who served under the government of General Ibrahim Babangida (1985 – 1993). Through his laudable effort, the teaching and learning of Nigerian languages in schools all over the nation was incorporated officially in the national policy of education. Among all the Nigerian languages, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba were given foremost priorities because of the large population of their speakers. Since the Fafunwa era, Yoruba language has become a national subject taught in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. However, like every new policy, its implementation has suffered several forms of criticisms and impediments from governments, policy makers, curriculum developers, school administrators, teachers and learners. This paper has been able to arrive at certain findings through oral interviews, questionnaires and evaluation of pupils/students enrolment and performances in Yoruba language with special focus on the South-west and North central regions of Nigeria. From the research carried out, some factors have been found to be responsible for the successful implementation or otherwise of Yoruba language instruction policy in some schools, colleges and higher institutions in Nigeria. In conclusion, the paper made recommendations on how the National Policy of Education would be implemented to enhance the teaching and learning of Yoruba language in all Nigerian schools.

Keywords: language of immediate environment, mother tongue, national policy of education, yoruba language

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2659 Parental Involvement and Motivation as Predictors of Learning Outcomes in Yoruba Language Value Concepts among Senior Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi Adeyinka, Yemisi Ilesanmi

Abstract:

This study investigated parental involvement and motivation as predictors of students’ learning outcomes in value concepts in Yoruba language in Ibadan, Nigeria. Value concepts in Yoruba language aimed at teaching moral lessons and transmitting Yoruba culture. However, feelers from schools and the society reported students’ poor achievement in examinations and negative attitude to the subject. Previous interventions focused on teaching strategies with little consideration for student-related factors. The study was anchored on psychosocial learning theory. The respondents were senior secondary II students with mean age of 15.50 ± 2.25 from 20 public schools in Ibadan, Oyo-State. In all, 1000 students were selected (486 males and 514 females) through proportionate to sample size technique. Instruments used were Students’ Motivation (r=0.79), Parental Involvement (r=0.87), and Attitude to Yoruba Value Concepts (r=0.94) scales and Yoruba Value Concepts Achievement Test (r=0.86). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and Multiple regressions at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed a significant relationship between parental involvement (r=0.54) and students’ achievement in and attitude to (r=0.229) value concepts in Yoruba. The composite contribution of parental involvement and motivation to students’ achievement and attitude was significant, contributing 20.3% and 5.1% respectively. The relative contributions of parental involvement to students’ achievement (β = 0.073; t = 1.551) and attitude (β = 0.228; t = 7.313) to value concepts in Yoruba were significant. Parental involvement was the independent variable that strongly predicts students’ achievement in and attitude to Yoruba value concepts. Parents should inculcate indigenous knowledge in their children and support its learning at school.

Keywords: parental involvement, motivation, predictors, learning outcomes, value concepts in Yoruba

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2658 The Post-Colonial Yoruba Poets as Agents of Political and Economic Emancipation in Nigeria

Authors: Isaac Alonge Olusola

Abstract:

One of the major peculiarities of man is the ability to communicate and interact with language. The original Yoruba society, before the advent of the Europeans, was purely oral. That is the major means of inter- personal communication was through speaking. The abolition of slave trade by Britain marked the beginning of development of Yoruba alphabet and introduction of writing around 1800. However, most of the writing was Christian religion-focused. Later, the introduction of British colonial rule led to the introduction of writing that dwelt on political and economic emancipation. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria was granted independence by the British colonial masters and self-rule started in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the military and civilian administrations brought about political and economic oppression instead of comfort. The discomfort brought about by Nigerian political and military rulers turned the Yoruba poets to activists, reactionaries and critics. This paper will give a brief preamble on the history of Nigeria and how she got her political independence from the British in 1960. It will thereafter go further to mention some political and economic hardship brought about by Nigerian leaders. Using literary theories called semiotics and structuralism, the reactions and criticisms of some Yoruba poets will be mentioned and analyzed vis-à-vis the counter reactions of the governments in power. Moreover, the paper will bring about a conclusion on how to create a conducive atmosphere for the Yoruba poets to operate in Nigeria. Finally, suggestions will be offered on how the Nigerian government and Yoruba poets can co-exist positively to bring about a better standard of living to Nigerians and also promote good governance

Keywords: Yoruba, Yoruba language, Yoruba poets, political leaders

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2657 A Linguistic Relativity Appraisal of an African Drama: The Lion and The Jewel

Authors: T. O. Adekunle, R. L. Makhubu, C. N. Ngwane

Abstract:

This research was designed to assess the validity of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis in relation to the linguistic and cultural notions of the Yoruba and Zulu language speakers’ via the evaluation of the culture enriched dramatic text The Lion and The Jewel by Wole Soyinka. The study queried both the hypothesis’ strong version, (language governs thought: linguistic classifications restrain and influence mental classifications); and its weak version, (linguistic classifications and their use influence thought as well as some other classes of non-linguistic activities) and their possible reliability. Participants were purposively selected and their ages ranged from 16-46 years old. The participants amounted to 38 (18 Yoruba and 20 Zulu) students of DUT who all speak both English and Zulu (Zulu participants) and English and Yoruba (Yoruba participants) and the mixed methods approach was used. Thus with the use of questionnaire and interviews the research questions were answered and the findings provided support for validity of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, languages indeed influence thought. The findings also revealed that linguistic influence on cognition is not limited to different language users alone, but also same language speakers per level of exposure to other languages and concepts.

Keywords: culture, cognition, DUT, language, linguistic relativity hypothesis, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, The Lion and The Jewel, thought, Wole Soyinka, Yoruba, Zulu

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2656 Publicizing Peace Intervention and Yoruba Indigenity in Television-Driven Peacemaking in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Yetunde Bello

Abstract:

Peacemaking through the television represents a symbiotic relationship between the media and the (Yoruba) society such that the functional role of the media has expanded. Studying the ‘new function’ of the television as it publicizes peacemaking, using Yoruba indigenous means, is yet to be adequately incorporated into academic discourse. Using the Social Responsibility Theory, the paper examines the essence of publicizing peacemaking, the Yoruba indigenous institutions, philosophy and language that are used on the programs as well as the effectiveness of publicity in the television-driven peacemaking. The paper is a qualitative case-study research where five peacemaking television programs from state-owned stations in South-West Nigeria are purposively selected and studied. Findings show that peacemaking publicity facilitates intervention processes as parties’ communication gap is bridged and social justice is attained. Also, Yoruba indigenous peacemaking elements are utilized and projected through the television. The paper concludes by affirming that publicizing culturally-induced interventions in civil conflicts, though with a number of challenges, is effective and that television-driven peacemaking is a modern extension of Yoruba indigenous peacemaking media. It consequently recommends that the programs incorporate the new media to enhance wider audience and faster feedbacks while simultaneously retaining Yoruba indigenous essence of peacebuilding in this modern time.

Keywords: peace intervention publicity, television, television-driven peacemaking, yoruba indigenous elements

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2655 The Impacts of Foreign Culture on Yoruba Crime Films

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the evolution and development of Yoruba theatre during the pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial years and how Yoruba crime films have been influenced by foreign culture. It emphasizes on the transition of theatre from the ground to the stage and from the stage to the screen with emphasis on the contribution of late Chief Hubert Ogunde who is regarded as the doyen of Yoruba and the entire Nigerian theatre. Using the Theory of Post-colonialism, two modern Yoruba crime films are carefully selected from the numerous available ones to highlight and explain the various aspects of Yoruba films that have been greatly influenced by the foreign cultural practices. The questions to be answered here include 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be that of Yoruba?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?', 'Which attitudes or cultural practices are widely believed to be foreign among the Yoruba people?', 'To what extent are they projected in the selected Yoruba crime films?'. Although, the British colonial masters granted political independence to Nigeria on October 1, 1960, but a seed of multi-culture and counterculture had been sown into the lives of the Yoruba people. Under the literature review, there is an intensive illumination on some scholars’ ideas and views on what constitutes Yoruba culture, the evolution and development of drama, theatre and films in the Yoruba society and the nature of criminals and criminalities in the Yoruba society and the western world in the pre-colonial and post-colonial times. Furthermore, the processes of interaction between man, his values and his thoughts are also highlighted – a situation that procreates criminal or benevolent acts. Consequently, the paper dwells on how colonialism, despite its so-called merits put the gradual process of urbanization and civilization among the originally rustic, cohesive and moralistic Yoruba society on a supersonic speed that culminated in acquisition of attitudes that are alien to the Yoruba culture. Since a drama is nothing but the theatrical replication of what occurs in the real life, the paper then focuses on the submission that Yoruba crime films have experienced a serious foreign influence in form and content as a result of this encounter. In conclusion, the findings of the impact of foreign cultural practices on Yoruba crime films are highlighted and expatiated with a view to recommending a few steps that could be taken to retain the projection of the original Yoruba cultural practices in Yoruba films, especially the ones that have crime as a theme.

Keywords: culture, films, theatre, Yoruba

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2654 English Language Proficiency and Use as Determinants of Transactional Success in Gbagi Market, Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: A. Robbin

Abstract:

Language selection can be an efficient negotiation strategy employed by both service or product providers and their customers to achieve transactional success. The transactional scenario in Gbagi Market, Ibadan, Nigeria provides an appropriate setting for the exploration of the Nigerian multilingual situation with its own interesting linguistic peculiarities which questions the functionality of the ‘Lingua Franca’ in trade situations. This study examined English Language proficiency among Yoruba Traders in Gbagi Market, Ibadan and its use as determinants of transactional success during service encounters. Randomly selected Yoruba-English bilingual traders and customers were administered questionnaires and the data subjected to statistical and descriptive analysis using Giles Communication Accommodation Theory. Findings reveal that only fifty percent of the traders used for the study were proficient in speaking English language. Traders with minimal proficiency in Standard English, however, resulted in the use of the Nigerian Pidgin English. Both traders and customers select the Mother Tongue, which is the Yoruba Language during service encounters but are quick to converge to the other’s preferred language as the transactional exchange demands. The English language selection is not so much for the prestige or lingua franca status of the language as it is for its functions, which include ease of communication, negotiation, and increased sales. The use of English during service encounters is mostly determined by customer’s linguistic preference which the trader accommodates to for better negotiation and never as a first choice. This convergence is found to be beneficial as it ensures sales and return patronage. Although the English language is not a preferred code choice in Gbagi Market, it serves a functional trade strategy for transactional success during service encounters in the market.

Keywords: communication accommodation theory, language selection, proficiency, service encounter, transaction

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2653 A Comparative Analysis of the Lexicostatics of Usen, Edo and Yoruba

Authors: Mercy Itohan Aruya

Abstract:

This paper focuses on Usen, a speech form enclaved by the Edo communities in Ovia South West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Usen lies at the border between Edo and the Osun state in Nigeria and has a population size of about a hundred and eighty thousand native speakers (2006 population census of Nigeria). Usen, as it is spoken today is highly endangered and it is serious struggling for survival. The aim, therefore, is to ascertain the linguistics status of Usen using a lexicostatical approach. Lexicostatics is a linguistic technique employed in accessing the degree of linguistic divergence or relatedness between two or more languages based on the proportion of cognates. Data for this study were collected from competent native speakers whose ages fall within the range of 40-65. The instrument for this study is the Ibadan 400 word-list of basic items which are collected with of a digital voice recorder. Our major finding in this paper reveals and establishes the facts that Usen speech form is not a dialect but a language of its own. However, Usen is more related to Yoruba than Edo as the degree of relatedness between Usen and Yoruba is 56.14% while that between Usen and Edo is about 21.4% as shown in this research effort.

Keywords: Usen, lexicostatistics, cognate words, language status

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2652 The Significance of Oranyan Festival among the Oyo Yoruba

Authors: Emmanuel Bole Akinpelu

Abstract:

Festival is a social event that takes place every year which showcase culture and other social activities that usually take place in an environment or town. However, Oranyan Festival is an annual event organized and celebrated in Oyo town in honor of Oranyan the great who is reputed to be the overall head of the Kings of the Yoruba. This event is attended by people from all works of life. The Oyos are used to celebrating various cultural festivals; like Ogun, Oya, Sango, Egungun, Obatala and others. However, Oranyan festival in Oyo is a recent development in honour of Oranyan. He was said to be powerful and an embodiment of a unique cultural tradition. The study examined the significance of the festival to the Oyo Yoruba group. Oyo Yoruba cultural heritage include; Ewi, Ijala, Traditional food ‘Amala and Gbegiri’, Ekun Iyawo, (Bridal Chants), Traditional Music, Traditional Dance, Traditional Game ‘Ayo Olopon’ Eke (Traditional wrestling) and others. Data for this work was gathered through archival sources as journals and relevant publications on the various Oyo Yoruba Traditional Art and Culture. The study is of the opinion that the festival has influence over the religion, Political, economic and other aspects of the modern day traditions. The study also revealed that Oranyan Festival made people to have a better understanding of their rich Cultural Heritage and promoted unity among all and sundry. It also promotes peace among the people. Conclusively, it promotes the rich Cultural Heritage of Oyo Yoruba’s both within and outside NIGERIA and the world at large.

Keywords: Yoruba Oyo, arts and culture, Oranyan, festival

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2651 The French, the Yoruba, and the H-Thing: Sharing and Realising Same Phenomenon Differently

Authors: Rose-Juliet Anyanwu

Abstract:

The principal objective of this paper is to investigate whether some sort of phonological processes, such as elision, aspiration, glottalisation, and hardening can be used to account for the behaviour of the glottal fricative (or approximant, as the case may be) ‘h’ in both French and Yoruba. French and Yoruba speakers generally tend to say, for instance ‘ockey’ and ‘amburger’, instead of ‘hockey’ and ‘hamburger’, respectively. Whereas the Yoruba conversely say, for instance ‘hadd’ for ‘add’, ‘heat’ for ‘eat’ on the one hand and ‘ard’ for ‘hard’, ‘eat’ for ‘heat’ on the other hand, on a similar note, it is not quite clear whether the French, however, if not at least in rare instances, would tend to force themselves to pronounce (in any form whatsoever) the h-sound. Recorded sentences containing h-initial as well as vowel-initial words will be used for the investigation. The present paper is meant to contribute to work on aspiration, compensation, elision, and glottalisation, as well as hardening.

Keywords: aspiration, compensation, glottalisation, hardening

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2650 A Contrastive Analysis on Hausa and Yoruba Adjectival Phrases

Authors: Abubakar Maikudi

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Contrastive analysis is the method of analyzing the structure of any two languages with a view to determining the possible differential aspects of their systems irrespective of their genetic affinity or level of development. Contrastive analysis of two languages becomes useful when it is adequately describing the sound structure and grammatical structure of two languages, with comparative statements giving emphasis to the compatible items in the two systems. This research work uses comparative analysis theory to analyze adjective and adjectival phrases in Hausa and Yorùbá languages. The Hausa language belongs to the Chadic family of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, while the Yorùbá language belongs to the Benue-Congo family of the Niger-Congo phylum. The findings of the research clearly demonstrated that there are significant similarities in the adjectival phrase constructions of the two languages, i.e., nominal (Head) and post-nominal (Post-Head) use of the adjective, predicative function of an adjective, use of the reduplicative adjective, use of the comparative and superlative adjective, etc. However, there are dissimilarities in the adjectival phrase of the two languages in gender/number agreement and pre-nominal (Post-Head) use of adjectives.

Keywords: genetic affinity, contrastive analysis, phylum, pre-head, post-head

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2649 Gender Influence in Yoruba Festivals: A Case Study of Agbaasin Festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alice Abiodun Atolagbe, Samson Abiodun Atolagbe

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All over the world and in the history of mankind, festivals have evolved to celebrate one thing or the other. The Yoruba people are no exemptions and they have several festivals which they celebrate at different times, for different reasons and in different communities. Because mankind is mainly of male and female, most of the festivals involve the two sexes, though different roles are usually assigned. In this paper, the writers examine the influence of gender in Yoruba festival using ‘Agbaasin’ festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State of Nigeria as a case study. A research was conducted by visiting the priests, worshipers, and shrine of ‘Agbaasin’ during which interviews were conducted, documented, and analyzed. It was, thereafter, discovered that men dominated the process of celebrating the ‘Agbaasin’ festival even to the extent of cooking by themselves. The paper recommends that women should be more involved in political and communal activities, government should encourage and sponsor researches on gender issues and that, authors of books and writers of plays should create some fora to encourage women empowerment among the Yoruba people. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to the pool of literature available on gender issues among the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, Yoruba, festival, Agbaasin, Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State

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2648 Multilingualism and the Question of National Language in Nigeria

Authors: Salome Labeh

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Diverse Languages that exist in Nigeria, gave rise to the need to choose among these languages, which one or ones to be used as the National Language(s) in Nigeria. The Multilingual Nature of Nigeria has been examined, in relation to the provisional result of 1991 census conducted in Nigeria and the status of language policy in the country, which eventually led to the discovery of the fact that Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba languages have the highest speaker in terms of population, and are already made co-official languages in Nigeria, alongside with English language. Then, these languages should be considered as the National Languages, if eventually a language policy emerges in Nigeria.

Keywords: multilingual, languages, culture, Nigeria

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2647 Preservation of Near-Extinct African Culture: The Case of Yoruba Proverbs

Authors: Makinde David Olajide

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Proverb is an important aspect of most indigenous culture in Africa including that of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria. As revealed by recent studies, Yoruba proverbs as an important cultural heritage are threatened and near extinct. This fear of proverb extinct in Yoruba cultural growth has been observed and expressed at different fora by many researchers and professionals including Art historians, culture patrons, social critics’ and teachers among others. Investigation revealed that the intangible nature of proverb is largely responsible for its continuous disappearance in the language structure and creative speeches which give the unique identity to the Yoruba people. Some of the factors that are responsible for culture extinct include: absence of moonlight stories by the elderly, the nuclear family system, and total assimilation of western culture, the concept of modernity and urban nature of Yoruba towns among others. Therefore, to preserve this creative heritage (proverb), there is need for a conscious shift of the traditional role of proverbs in speech development to its use as tool for artistic creations and expressions in visual form. The study was carried out between June, 2013 and February, 2015 in three Yoruba towns; Ilorin, Ede and Ogbomoso selected from Kwara, Osun and Oyo states respectively. The data used in this study were collected through oral and structured interviews. Fifteen interviewers were purposively selected in each of the study areas. It also employs the use of electronic and printed media to generate relevant literature on the subject matter. The study revealed that many Yoruba proverbs are preserved or hidden in text books, monograph, home videos, films and pastoral messages. However, this has not stopped the problem of lack of understanding of its usage, meaning and reasons for its extinction that may hinder its preservation for the incoming generations. This study concludes that indigenous culture can be revived and preserved for future generations when there is a conscious attempt to integrate or convert their traditional roles for present day realities and relevance in our social and educational needs.

Keywords: culture, assimilation, extinct, heritage, preservation

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2646 Communicative Values of Yoruba Traditional Music on Adulthood Socialisation between the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries

Authors: Odukunle Adebayo Atewolara-Odule

Abstract:

Music is an electronic medium and an integral content of the broadcast media, which has communicative values even in the process of entertaining listeners. The communicative values of music could have implications on what adults learn about culture and society. This study aimed at examining the communicative values of Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation by comparing the situation of the late 20th with early 21st centuries. From the population of literate adults of between the ages of 30 years and 65 years in Ijebu North Local Government area of Ogun state, a sample of 200 respondents was drawn into the study through the stratified technique. A descriptive survey was conducted on the sample with the use of a structured questionnaire as the research instrument. Findings showed a significant relationship between what adults learned about the society and its culture from this category of music (p=0.000<0.05) but there was a higher significant relationship between Yoruba traditional music and adulthood socialisation in the late 20th than in early 21st centuries. Results also showed a significant communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music of the late 20th and early 21st centuries on adulthood socialisation (p=0.000<0.05). Respondents’ demographic characteristics were observed to play significant intervening roles on the communicative influence of Yoruba traditional music on socialisation among the adults between the late 20th and early 21st centuries (p=0.000<0.05). The study recommends that stakeholders should take cognisance of the lyrical contents of Yoruba traditional music due to its implications to inculcate values into people and shape their behaviour.

Keywords: adulthood socialisation, communicative values, traditional music, Voruba

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2645 Contextual Meaning of Work and its Sociological Significance among the Yoruba People in Nigeria

Authors: Aroge Stephen Talabi

Abstract:

Work is a term that appears to be very common in usage and occurrence the world over. The meanings attached to it and what it implies equally appears to be that common and somewhat similar in description by individuals and groups as derivatives of their contexts. Work is generally seen as the exertion of efforts and the application of knowledge and skills to achieve different purposes comprising of earning a living, making money, prestige, achievement, recognition, companionship and other satisfactions. The paper examined the general meanings of work from the perspectives of various religions. It situated these meanings by drawing on the sociological significance of work among the Yoruba. It established work as social control for a reorientation in peoples approach to work. The Yoruba people of the Western Nigeria share, to a great extent, in common conceptualization and application of work as they believe and understand that their individual and community existence and living are contingent on work participation. The contextual meaning and sociological significance of work as investigated in this paper show that the Yorubas concept of work is daily applied variously in both their material and non-material cultural undertakings to influence individual and group for effective participation in productive ventures for overall social well-being. The Yoruba use all forms of training method which could be adopted by adult educators as pathways to increase individual’s work participation and to improve productivity in work organizations.The paper found out that in the Yoruba socio cultural milieu, the meanings, conceptions and the importance attached to work are used as method of inculcating in members of society the spirit of commitment and hard-work and the advantages thereof. Yoruba contexts of work are geared towards enhancement of commitment, diligence and improved productivity on-the-job behaviour. The paper, therefore, submits that using the Yoruba’s conceptions of work could enhance commitment on the parts of all those engaged in production of goods and services. The paper also suggests that the Yoruba principle and perception and application of work could be used as one of the training techniques in industrial education, which is a major aspect of adult education programmes for inculcating ethics in the workplace. Thus, effort should be made to embrace the Yoruba conception and tenet of work by all stakeholders such as the workers, group (Union), managers and the society at large. Such principles and tenet of work should be included in industrial education curriculum.

Keywords: work, contextual meaning, sociological significance, Yoruba-people, social milieu, productivity

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2644 History and Development of the Printing Industry in Nigeria: The Case of Zaria

Authors: Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

The world over no society is homogeneous therefore, there is the presence of migrants from different places who resides in different places due to certain factors that either attracts them to these places or forced them out of their initial environment. The bottom line is that they moved out of their initial environment to other places for survival, therefore, engage in social cum economic activities to sustain a living which at the same time has enhanced the development and growth of such communities. In the case of Zaria, the Yoruba people are one of the major migrant groups who had moved into Zaria over time. Out of the numerous roles they played in the development of Zaria, the establishment and sustenance of the printing industry are one. Selected Yoruba migrants from the South-west of the country who were skilled in the profession due to stiff competition in their region and the desire to eke out a living had to move into Northern Nigeria to establish printing outlets which have consequently developed to what it is today. The printing industry is one of the avenues to which information and knowledge are disseminated. This is achieved through the publishing of texts, books, Newspapers, Magazines, pamphlets, etc. to convey information to the wider public, in this bid, it leads to the spread of knowledge, ideas, and information. The introduction of printing industry to Nigeria was in the 19th century during the incursion of the missionaries to the West Coast of Africa, but it was not until the colonial period (20th Century) that its presence could be felt in the interior of Nigeria especially in Northern Nigeria and to be specific in Zaria. In essence, the influence of the Yoruba people in the growth and expansion of printing industry in Zaria cannot be over emphasized. It is the thrust of this research to bring to the fore through the use of primary and secondary sources the role and contributions of the Yoruba people in the development of the print industry in Zaria and also showcase the importance of migrants in the development of societies.

Keywords: development, printing industry, Yoruba, Zaria

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2643 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa

Abstract:

One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: first language, second language, literacy, english language, linguistics

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2642 Challenges of Teaching and Learning English Speech Sounds in Five Selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Mairo Musa Galadima, Phoebe Mshelia

Abstract:

In Nigeria, the national policy of education stipulates that the kindergarten primary schools and the legislature are to use the three popular Nigerian Languages namely: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. However, the English language seems to be preferred and this calls for this paper. Attempts were made to draw out the challenges faced by learners in understanding English speech sounds and using them to communicate effectively in English; using 5(five) selected secondary school in Bauchi. It was discover that challenges abound in the wrong use of stress and intonation, transfer of phonetic features from their first language. Others are inadequate qualified teachers and relevant materials including text-books. It is recommended that teachers of English should lay more emphasis on the teaching of supra-segmental features and should be encouraged to go for further studies, seminars and refresher courses.

Keywords: kindergarten, stress, phonetic and intonation, Nigeria

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2641 Transportation Language Register as One of Language Community

Authors: Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

Abstract:

Language register refers to a variety of a language used for particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Language register also means as a concept of adapting one’s use of language to conform to standards or tradition in a given professional or social situation. This descriptive study tends to discuss about the form of language register in transportation aspect, factors, also the function of use it. Mostly, language register in transportation aspect uses short sentences in form of informal register. The factor caused language register used are speaker, word choice, background of language. The functions of language register in transportations aspect are to make communication between crew easily, also to keep safety when they were in bad condition. Transportation language register developed naturally as one of variety of language used.

Keywords: language register, language variety, communication, transportation

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2640 Challenges of Teaching and Learning English Speech Sounds in Five Selected Secondary Schools in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Mairo Musa Galadima, Phoebe Mshelia

Abstract:

In Nigeria, the national policy of education stipulates that the kindergarten-primary schools and the legislature are to use the three popular Nigerian Languages namely: Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. However, the English language seems to be preferred and this calls for this paper. Attempts were made to draw out the challenges faced by learners in understanding English speech sounds and using them to communicate effectively in English; using 5 (five) selected secondary school in Bauchi. It was discovered that challenges abound in the wrong use of stress and intonation, transfer of phonetic features from their first language. Others are inadequately qualified teachers and relevant materials including textbooks. It is recommended that teachers of English should lay more emphasis on the teaching of supra-segmental features and should be encouraged to go for further studies, seminars and refresher courses.

Keywords: stress and intonation, phonetic and challenges, teaching and learning English, secondary schools

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2639 Traditional Terms, Spaces, Forms and Artifacts in Cultural Semiotics of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ajibade Adeyemo

Abstract:

The paper examined local terms used for spaces, forms and building practices in southwest Nigeria as cultural semiotics. Housing has more cultural meaning than mere shelter as shown in building terms such as ‘roof over my head’. The study is significant in the study area because its people were traditionally orally centered until ‘culture contact’ led to graphical presentation and appreciation in the form of drawings which is a modern language of architecture. This semiotic study will facilitate the understanding of the wholesomeness of traditional building practices and thoughts. This is in the culture of the traditional multi-sensory appreciation of architecture, urban design and the arts. It will analyze traditional aphoristic words and terms which are like proverbs which are significant in language because of their metaphorical essence. Many of such terms in the dominant Yoruba language of the study area are oftentimes phenomenal reducing universal terms like the earth and heaven to the simple module of housing. These words could be worth investigating because they are symbolic serve as codes which are cultural tool of regional ethnic significance. Sassure’s and Pierce’s concepts of Semiotics in line with Eco’s concept of semiotics of metaphor shall be deployed.

Keywords: traditional terms, spaces, forms, artifacts, cultural semiotics, southwest

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2638 Multilingualism as an Impetus to Nigerian Religious and Political Crises: the Way Forward

Authors: Kehinde, Taye Adetutu

Abstract:

The fact that Nigeria as a nation is faced by myriads of problems associated with religious crises and political insecurity is no news, the spoken statement and actions of most political giant were the major cause of this unrest. The 'unlearnt' youth within the regions has encompassed the situation. This scenario is further compounded by multilingual nature of the country as it is estimated that there exists amount 400 indigenous languages in Nigeria. It is an indisputable fact that english language which has assumed the status of an official language in Nigeria, given its status has a language of power and captivity by a few with no privilege to attend school. However, educating people in their indigenous language; crises can be averted through the proper orientation and mass literacy campaign, especially for the timid illiterate one, so as to live in unity, peace, tranquillity, and harmony as indivisible nation. In investigating the problem in this study with an emphasis on three major Nigerian language (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa), participants observations and survey questionnaire were administered to about one hundred and twenty (120) respondents who were randomly selected throughout the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Findings from this study reveals that teaching and learning of cognitive words and information are more effective in ones mother tongue and helps in stimulating new ideas and changes. This paper was able to explore and critically examine the current state of affairs in Nigeria and proffer possible solutions to the prevailing situations by identifying how indigenous languages and linguistics can be used to ameliorate the present political and religious crisis for Nigeria, thus providing a proper recommendation to achieve meaningful stability and coexistence within a nation.

Keywords: multilingualism, political crisis, religious, Nigeria

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2637 Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background

Authors: A. Attahiru, Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Bint

Abstract:

Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: culture, language, relationship, strategies, teaching

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