Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4334

Search results for: printing industry

4334 Improving Sustainability of the Apparel Industry with Joining the Forces among the Brand Owners: The Case Study of Digital Textile Printing

Authors: Babak Mohajeri, Elina Ilen, Timo Nyberg

Abstract:

Sustainability has become an important topic in contemporary business. The apparel industry is a good example to assess sustainability in practice. Value chains in the apparel industry are faced with various challenges regarding sustainability issues. Apparel companies pay higher attention to economic sustainability issues, and environmental and social sustainability issues of the apparel industry are often underrated. In this paper, we analyze the role of the different players in the value chain of the apparel industry in terms of sustainability. We realize that the brand owners have the highest impact on improving the sustainability of the apparel industry. We design a collaborative business model to join the forces among the brand owners for improving the sustainability of the apparel industry throughout the value chain. We have conducted a case study of shifting from conventional screen-printing to more environmentally sustainable digital textile printing. We suggest that this shift can be accelerated if the brand owners join their forces together to shift from conventional printing to digital printing technology in the apparel industry. Based on the proposed business model, we suggest future directions for using joining the forces among the brand owners for case of sustainability

Keywords: sustainability, digital textile printing , joining forces, apparel industry

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4333 History and Development of the Printing Industry in Nigeria: The Case of Zaria

Authors: Eunice S. A. Jeje

Abstract:

The world over no society is homogeneous therefore, there is the presence of migrants from different places who resides in different places due to certain factors that either attracts them to these places or forced them out of their initial environment. The bottom line is that they moved out of their initial environment to other places for survival, therefore, engage in social cum economic activities to sustain a living which at the same time has enhanced the development and growth of such communities. In the case of Zaria, the Yoruba people are one of the major migrant groups who had moved into Zaria over time. Out of the numerous roles they played in the development of Zaria, the establishment and sustenance of the printing industry are one. Selected Yoruba migrants from the South-west of the country who were skilled in the profession due to stiff competition in their region and the desire to eke out a living had to move into Northern Nigeria to establish printing outlets which have consequently developed to what it is today. The printing industry is one of the avenues to which information and knowledge are disseminated. This is achieved through the publishing of texts, books, Newspapers, Magazines, pamphlets, etc. to convey information to the wider public, in this bid, it leads to the spread of knowledge, ideas, and information. The introduction of printing industry to Nigeria was in the 19th century during the incursion of the missionaries to the West Coast of Africa, but it was not until the colonial period (20th Century) that its presence could be felt in the interior of Nigeria especially in Northern Nigeria and to be specific in Zaria. In essence, the influence of the Yoruba people in the growth and expansion of printing industry in Zaria cannot be over emphasized. It is the thrust of this research to bring to the fore through the use of primary and secondary sources the role and contributions of the Yoruba people in the development of the print industry in Zaria and also showcase the importance of migrants in the development of societies.

Keywords: development, printing industry, Yoruba, Zaria

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4332 The Bloom of 3D Printing in the Health Care Industry

Authors: Mihika Shivkumar, Krishna Kumar, C. Perisamy

Abstract:

3D printing is a method of manufacturing wherein materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited in layers one on top of the other to produce a three dimensional object. 3D printing is most commonly associated with creating engineering prototypes. However, its applications in the field of human health care have been frequently disregarded. Medical applications for 3D printing are expanding rapidly and are envisaged to revolutionize health care. Medical applications for 3D printing, both present and its potential, can be categorized broadly, including: creation of customized prosthetics tissue and organ fabrication; creation of implants, and anatomical models and pharmaceutical research regarding drug dosage forms. This piece breaks down bioprinting in the healthcare sector. It focuses on the better subtle elements of every particular point, including how 3D printing functions in the present, its impediments, and future applications in the health care sector.

Keywords: bio-printing, prototype, drug delivery, organ regeneration

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4331 The Impact Evaluation of the Innovation Implementation within the EU Funds on the SMEs Performance Results

Authors: Beata Ślusarczyk, Sebastian Kot

Abstract:

In subjective terms, Polish SME sector occupies a prominent position in the national economic development, in which planning of the management strategies should be primarily based on identifying and meeting the innovation needs. As a research sample, there is chosen a printing sector of industry. SMEs share in printing sector in Poland is estimated at the level of 81% of all enterprises. In recent years, the printing industry achieved one of the highest levels of EU support in Poland. There is a relatively high increase in the development of technological innovations in equipment and the associated significant increase in production capacity. It can be also noticed that on average, every third enterprise belonging to the printing industry has implemented innovations, but not all of them effected in better economic results. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of the implementation of innovation projects financed from the EU funds for performance of SMEs in the printing industry. As the results of research of EU funds co-financing effects on the development of innovation in the printing industry, it was specified that examined SMEs prefer to implement product innovation to receive a grant to the project at a level between 40% to 60%, the remaining part of the investment is usually covered with equity. The most common type of innovation had indicated a single implementation, related only to the change in process, technology, or organization. The relationship between variables of the EU funds and management of innovative activities was verified. It has been observed that the identified variables arising from the support in a form of the EU funds had a positive effect on the level of earned revenue, the increase in margin and in increase in employment as well. It was confirmed that the implemented innovations supported by the European funds have a positive impact on the performance of the printing companies. Although there is a risk that due to the decreasing demand for printing services such a high level of funding the companies in this sector will significantly increase competition in the long term, that may also contribute to the economic problems of the enterprises belonging to the analyzed branch.

Keywords: innovations, SMEs, performance, results

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4330 Application and Evaluation of 3D Printing Technology in Customized Fashion Industry

Authors: A. Ezza, B. M. Babar Ramzan, C. Hira

Abstract:

This study deliberates emerging design activates in 3D printing technology, the paper provides the insight into the broad opportunities in 3D printing applications in fashion world. 3D printing is becoming a reason for reduction of lead time. The process engenders the precise models and one of prototype components for design approbation; trail and testing significance through the production components to be utilized in true working environments. This emerging technology have given elevate to an emergent realm of digitally fabricated art and design. Bitonic Creations, CONTINUUM (3D printed shoes), Jiri Evenhuis, Michael Schmidt have be giving extensive amassments of haute couture dresses and accessories. Cosyflex TM, N12 undergarments are examples of an innovative process for 3D printing. Varied types of liquid polymers such as latex, silicon, polyurethane and Teflon as well as a variety of textile fibers such as cotton, viscose and polyamide enable tailor made fabrics for any need. Patterns, perforations, embossing and embellishments may be created by printing on 3D structure base plate. Computer solidifies material feedstock layer by layer with micro-millimeter detail. In lieu of producing textiles by meter, then cutting and sewing them into final product, 3D printing can become a reason to make sewing equipment obsolete. The findings positively corroborates the expected advantage of 3D printed sample that seem to facilitate the first steps for designer.

Keywords: 3D printing, customization, fashion industry, Haute couture

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4329 3D Medical Printing the Key Component in Future of Medical Applications

Authors: Zahra Asgharpour, Eric Renteria, Sebastian De Boodt

Abstract:

There is a growing trend towards personalization of medical care, as evidenced by the emphasis on outcomes based medicine, the latest developments in CT and MR imaging and personalized treatment in a variety of surgical disciplines. 3D Printing has been introduced and applied in the medical field since 2000. The first applications were in the field of dental implants and custom prosthetics. According to recent publications, 3D printing in the medical field has been used in a wide range of applications which can be organized into several categories including implants, prosthetics, anatomical models and tissue bioprinting. Some of these categories are still in their infancy stage of the concept of proof while others are in application phase such as the design and manufacturing of customized implants and prosthesis. The approach of 3D printing in this category has been successfully used in the health care sector to make both standard and complex implants within a reasonable amount of time. In this study, some of the clinical applications of 3D printing in design and manufacturing of a patient-specific hip implant would be explained. In cases where patients have complex bone geometries or are undergoing a complex revision on hip replacement, the traditional surgical methods are not efficient, and hence these patients require patient-specific approaches. There are major advantages in using this new technology for medical applications, however, in order to get this technology widely accepted in medical device industry, there is a need for gaining more acceptance from the medical device regulatory offices. This is a challenge that is moving onward and will help the technology find its way at the end as an accepted manufacturing method for medical device industry in an international scale. The discussion will conclude with some examples describing the future directions of 3D Medical Printing.

Keywords: CT/MRI, image processing, 3D printing, medical devices, patient specific implants

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4328 Comparison of Tensile Strength and Folding Endurance of (FDM Process) 3D Printed ABS and PLA Materials

Authors: R. Devicharan

Abstract:

In a short span 3D Printing is expected to play a vital role in our life. The possibility of creativity and speed in manufacturing through various 3D printing processes is infinite. This study is performed on the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method of 3D printing, which is one of the pre-dominant methods of 3D printing technologies. This study focuses on physical properties of the objects produced by 3D printing which determine the applications of the 3D printed objects. This paper specifically aims at the study of the tensile strength and the folding endurance of the 3D printed objects through the FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) method using the ABS (Acronitirile Butadiene Styrene) and PLA (Poly Lactic Acid) plastic materials. The study is performed on a controlled environment and the specific machine settings. Appropriate tables, graphs are plotted and research analysis techniques will be utilized to analyse, verify and validate the experiment results.

Keywords: FDM process, 3D printing, ABS for 3D printing, PLA for 3D printing, rapid prototyping

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4327 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali

Abstract:

3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

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4326 Industrial Applications of Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing Technology: A Review from South Africa Perspective

Authors: Micheal O. Alabi

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is the official industry standard term (ASTM F2792) for all applications of the technology which is also known as 3D printing technology. It is defined as the process of joining materials to make objects from 3D model data, and it is usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing methodologies. This technology has gained significant interest within the academic, research institute and industry because of its ability to create complex geometries with customizable material properties. Despite the late adoption of the technology, additive manufacturing has been active in South Africa for past 21 years and it is predicted that additive manufacturing technology will play a significant and game-changing role in the fourth industrial revolution and in particular it promises to play an ever-growing role in efforts to re-industrialize the economy of South Africa. At the end of 2006, there are approximately ninety 3D printers in South Africa and in 2015 it was estimated that there are 3500 additive manufacturing systems and 3D printers in circulation in South Africa. A reasonable number of these additive manufacturing machines are in the high end of the market, in science councils and higher education institutions and this shows that the future of additive manufacturing in South Africa is very brighter compared to other African countries. This paper reviews the past and current industrial applications of additive manufacturing in South Africa from the academic research and industry perspective and what are the benefits of this technology to manufacturing companies and industrial sectors in the country.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D printing technology, industrial applications, manufacturing

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4325 3D Printing Technology in Housing Projects Construction

Authors: Mohammed F. Haddad, Mohammad A. Albenayyan

Abstract:

Realistically, 3-D printing as a technology has not yet reached the required maturity level to handle construction housing projects for citizens on a country scale. However, potentially, it has all of the required elements for addressing this issue. There are two main high-level elements of this technology that need to be capitalized on in order for the technology to reach its full potential, technical and logistical. This paper aims to cover how 3-D printing can be a viable technical solution for housing projects and describe the impact of 3-D printing technical features on the logistical aspects of completing a housing project. Additionally, a perspective about 3-D printing in Saudi Arabia will be presented in order to give the reader an idea of where the kingdom stands in the deployment of this technology. Finally, a glimpse will be given regarding the potential utilization of this technology for space applications.

Keywords: large-scale 3-D printing, additive manufacturing, D- shape, contour crafting

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4324 3D Printing: Rebounding from Global Supply Chain Disruption Due to Natural Disaster

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Jasmeen Kaur, Mukul Dhiman

Abstract:

This paper mainly describes the significance of 3D printing in the supply chain management in a scenario when there is disruption in global supply chain. Furthermore, the development and implementation of supply chain strategies in context of 3D printing technology is framed to make supply chain of an organization resilient to disruption caused by natural disasters.

Keywords: 3D printing, global supply chain, supply chain management, supply chain strategies

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4323 Analysing Waste Management Options in the Printing Industry: Case of a South African Company

Authors: Stanley Fore

Abstract:

The case study company is one of the leading newsprint companies in South Africa. The company has achieved this status through operational expansion, diversification and investing in cutting-edge technology. They have a reputation for the highest quality and personalised service that transcends borders and industries. The company offers a wide variety of small and large scales printing services. The company is faced with the challenge of significant waste production during normal operations. The company generates 1200 kg of plastic waste and 60 – 70 tonnes of paper waste per month. The company operates a waste management process currently, whereby waste paper is sold, at low cost, to recycling firms for further processing. Having considered the quantity of waste being generated, the company has embarked on a venture to find a more profitable solution to its current waste production. As waste management and recycling is not the company’s core business, the aim of the venture is to implement a secondary profitable waste process business. The venture will be expedited as a strategic project. This research aims to estimate the financial feasibility of a selected solution as well as the impact of non-financial considerations thereof. The financial feasibility is analysed using metrics such as Payback period; internal rate of return and net present value.

Keywords: waste, printing industry, up-cycling, management

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4322 Automatic Adjustment of Thresholds via Closed-Loop Feedback Mechanism for Solder Paste Inspection

Authors: Chia-Chen Wei, Pack Hsieh, Jeffrey Chen

Abstract:

Surface Mount Technology (SMT) is widely used in the area of the electronic assembly in which the electronic components are mounted to the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB). Most of the defects in the SMT process are mainly related to the quality of solder paste printing. These defects lead to considerable manufacturing costs in the electronics assembly industry. Therefore, the solder paste inspection (SPI) machine for controlling and monitoring the amount of solder paste printing has become an important part of the production process. So far, the setting of the SPI threshold is based on statistical analysis and experts’ experiences to determine the appropriate threshold settings. Because the production data are not normal distribution and there are various variations in the production processes, defects related to solder paste printing still occur. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes an online machine learning algorithm, called the automatic threshold adjustment (ATA) algorithm, and closed-loop architecture in the SMT process to determine the best threshold settings. Simulation experiments prove that our proposed threshold settings improve the accuracy from 99.85% to 100%.

Keywords: big data analytics, Industry 4.0, SPI threshold setting, surface mount technology

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4321 In Situ Production of Nano-Cu on a Cotton Fabric Surface by Ink-Jet Printing

Authors: N. Zoghi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya

Abstract:

The nano-Cu particles were produced on cotton fabric substrate by ink-jet printing technology with water-soluble ink, which was based on copper. The surface tension and viscosity of the prepared inks were evaluated. The ink-jet printing process was repeated 1, 3, and 5 times in order to evaluate variations in the optical properties by changing thickness of printed film. Following initial drying of the printed film, the samples were annealed at different temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the parameters set out in this experiment. The prepared nano-Cu particles were characterized by XRD and UV spectroscopy. The appearance of printed image and the nano-Cu particles morphology were observed by SEM. The results demonstrated that the ink-jet printing technology can be used to produce nano-particles on the cotton fabrics surface.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, nano-cu, fabric ink, in situ production, cotton fabric, water-soluble ink, morphology

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4320 Printing Imperfections: Development of Buckling Patterns to Improve Strength of 3D Printed Steel Plated Elements

Authors: Ben Chater, Jingbang Pan, Mark Evernden, Jie Wang

Abstract:

Traditional structural steel manufacturing routes normally produce prismatic members with flat plate elements. In these members, plate instability in the lowest buckling mode often dominates failure. It is proposed in the current study to use a new technology of metal 3D printing to print steel-plated elements with predefined imperfection patterns that can lead to higher modes of failure with increased buckling resistances. To this end, a numerical modeling program is carried out to explore various combinations of predefined buckling waves with different amplitudes in stainless steel square hollow section stub columns. Their stiffness, strength, and material consumption against the traditional structural steel members with the same nominal dimensions are assessed. It is found that depending on the slenderness of the plate elements; it is possible for an ‘imperfect’ steel member to achieve up to a 30% increase in strength with just a 3% increase in the material consumption. The obtained results shed some light on the significant potential of the new metal 3D printing technology in achieving unprecedented material efficiency and economical design in the future steel construction industry.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, buckling resistance, steel plate buckling, structural optimisation

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4319 Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process

Authors: Kai-Jui Kou, Tzu-Ling Shen, Ying-Fang Wang

Abstract:

The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, particle emission, 3D printing, number concentration

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4318 Geopolymer Stabilization of Earth Building Material for Construction 3D Printing

Authors: Timur Mukhametkaliyev

Abstract:

The earthen material possesses low compression strength, and it is highly sensitive to the water content. Different binders can be added (Portland cement or lime) to improve the durability and the mechanical characteristics of earthen material, but the production of these binders has high embodied energy and results in an increase in world CO₂ emission. Geopolymers are binders which can be synthesized at low temperature in alkaline solutions from raw materials consisting of amorphous aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are an attractive substitution of Portland cement and can be used as an excellent stabilization for earthen material. In this study, earthen material stabilized with geopolymer binder for use in construction 3D printing was developed. Construction 3D printing offers freedom of design, waste minimisation, customisation, reduced labour, and automation. For successful 3D printing, the properties of used material are the most important aspects because they require adaptability for extrusion and controlled time of hardening for the binder.

Keywords: 3D printing, building construction, geopolymer, architecture

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4317 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

Abstract:

As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

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4316 Ketones Emission during Pad Printing Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Aksentijević M. Snežana, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna, Djogo Z. Maja

Abstract:

The paper investigates the effect of light intensity on the formation of two ketones, acetone and methyl ethyl ketone, in working premises of five pad printing departments in Novi Sad, Serbia. Multiple linear regression analysis examined the form of interdependency concentrations of methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and light intensity in five printing presses at seven sampling points, using Statistica software package version 10th. The results show an average stacking variation investigated variable and can be presented by the general regression model: y = b0 + b1xi1 + b2xi2.

Keywords: acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, multiple linear regression analysis, pad printing

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4315 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

Abstract:

Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

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4314 Industrial Revolution: Army Production

Authors: M. Şimşek

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, operational cost, operational readiness, supply chain, three dimensional printing

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4313 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild

Abstract:

Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

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4312 Quality Parameters of Offset Printing Wastewater

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Aksentijević M. Snežana

Abstract:

Samples of tap and wastewater were collected in three offset printing facilities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed within all collected samples: pH, conductivity, m - alkalinity, p - alkalinity, acidity, carbonate concentration, hydrogen carbonate concentration, active oxygen content, chloride concentration and total alkali content. All measurements were conducted using the standard analytical and instrumental methods. Comparing the obtained results for tap water and wastewater, a clear quality difference was noticeable, since all physicochemical parameters were significantly higher within wastewater samples. The study also involves the application of simple linear regression analysis on the obtained dataset. By using software package ORIGIN 5 the pH value was mutually correlated with other physicochemical parameters. Based on the obtained values of Pearson coefficient of determination a strong positive correlation between chloride concentration and pH (r = -0.943), as well as between acidity and pH (r = -0.855) was determined. In addition, statistically significant difference was obtained only between acidity and chloride concentration with pH values, since the values of parameter F (247.634 and 182.536) were higher than Fcritical (5.59). In this way, results of statistical analysis highlighted the most influential parameter of water contamination in offset printing, in the form of acidity and chloride concentration. The results showed that variable dependence could be represented by the general regression model: y = a0 + a1x+ k, which further resulted with matching graphic regressions.

Keywords: pollution, printing industry, simple linear regression analysis, wastewater

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4311 Future Applications of 4D Printing in Dentistry

Authors: Hosamuddin Hamza

Abstract:

The major concept of 4D printing is self-folding under thermal and humidity changes. This concept relies on understanding how the microstructures of 3D-printed models can undergo spontaneous shape transformation under thermal and moisture changes. The transformation mechanism could be achieved by mixing, in a controllable pattern, a number of materials within the printed model, each with known strain/shrinkage properties. 4D printing has a strong potential to be applied in dentistry as the technology could produce dynamic and adaptable materials to be used as functional objects in the oral environment under the continuously changing thermal and humidity conditions. The motion criteria could override the undesired dimensional changes, thermal instability, polymerization shrinkage and microleakage. 4D printing could produce restorative materials being self-adjusted spontaneously without further intervention from the dentist or patient; that is, the materials could be capable of fixing its failed portions, compensating for some lost tooth structure, while avoiding microleakage or overhangs at the margins. In prosthetic dentistry, 4D printing could provide an option to manage the influence of bone and soft tissue imbalance during mastication (and at rest) with high predictability of the type/direction of forces. It can also produce materials with better fitting and retention characteristics than conventional or 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that 4D-printed objects, having dynamic properties, could provide some cushion as they undergo self-folding compensating for any thermal changes or mechanical forces such as traumatic forces.

Keywords: functional material, self-folding material, 3D printing, 4D printing

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4310 Fabric Printing Design: An Inspiration from Thai Kites

Authors: Suwit Sadsunk

Abstract:

This research paper was aimed to study different motifs found on Thai kites in order to be create new fabric printing designs. The objectives of the study were (1) to examine different motifs of Thai kites; and (2) to create appropriate printing designs for fabric based on an examination of motifs of Thai kites from primary and secondary sources. The study found that designs, motifs and colors found on Thai kites were various based on individual artisans’ imagination in each period. From the historical review, there have been 4 kinds of Thai kites namely I-Loom Kite, Pak Pao Kite, Chula Kite and Dui Dui Kite. Nowadays, the kite designs have been developed to be more various by shape and color such as snake- shaped kite, owl-shaped kite and peacock-shaped kite.

Keywords: Thai kites, fabric printing design

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4309 Design of Quality Assessment System for On-Orbit 3D Printing Based on 3D Construction Technology

Authors: Jianning Tang, Trevor Hocksun Kwan, Xiaofeng Wu

Abstract:

With the increasing demand for space use in multiple sectors (navigation, telecommunication, imagery, etc.), the deployment and maintenance demand of satellites is growing. Considering the high launching cost and the restrictions on the weight and size of the payload when using a launch vehicles, the technique of on-orbit manufacturing has obtained more attention as its significant potential to support future space missions. 3D printing is the most promising manufacturing technology that could be applied in space. However, due to the lack of autonomous quality assessment, the operation of conventional 3D printers still relies on human presence to guide the printing process. This paper is proposed to develop an automatic 3D reconstruction system used to detect multiple failures on the 3D printed objects by using machine learning and active detection technology. Based on the data obtained from the 3D reconstruction, the 3D printer could locate the failure and has the potential to repair the failure. The system will make the printer more autonomous and provide 3D printing with more feasibilities for space use without human interference.

Keywords: 3D printing, quality assessment, 3D reconstruction, on-orbit manufacture

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4308 Porcelain Paste Processing by Robocasting 3D: Parameters Tuning

Authors: A. S. V. Carvalho, J. Luis, L. S. O. Pires, J. M. Oliveira

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing technologies (AM) experienced a remarkable growth in the latest years due to the development and diffusion of a wide range of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques. Nowadays we can find techniques available for non-industrial users, like fused filament fabrication, but techniques like 3D printing, polyjet, selective laser sintering and stereolithography are mainly spread in the industry. Robocasting (R3D) shows a great potential due to its ability to shape materials with a wide range of viscosity. Industrial porcelain compositions showing different rheological behaviour can be prepared and used as candidate materials to be processed by R3D. The use of this AM technique in industry is very residual. In this work, a specific porcelain composition with suitable rheological properties will be processed by R3D, and a systematic study of the printing parameters tuning will be shown. The porcelain composition was formulated based on an industrial spray dried porcelain powder. The powder particle size and morphology was analysed. The powders were mixed with water and an organic binder on a ball mill at 200 rpm/min for 24 hours. The batch viscosity was adjusted by the addition of an acid solution and mixed again. The paste density, viscosity, zeta potential, particle size distribution and pH were determined. In a R3D system, different speed and pressure settings were studied to access their impact on the fabrication of porcelain models. These models were dried at 80 °C, during 24 hours and sintered in air at 1350 °C for 2 hours. The stability of the models, its walls and surface quality were studied and their physical properties were accessed. The microstructure and layer adhesion were observed by SEM. The studied processing parameters have a high impact on the models quality. Moreover, they have a high impact on the stacking of the filaments. The adequate tuning of the parameters has a huge influence on the final properties of the porcelain models. This work contributes to a better assimilation of AM technologies in ceramic industry. Acknowledgments: The RoboCer3D project – project of additive rapid manufacturing through 3D printing ceramic material (POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003350) financed by Compete 2020, PT 2020, European Regional Development Fund – FEDER through the International and Competitive Operational Program (POCI) under the PT2020 partnership agreement.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, porcelain, robocasting, R3D

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4307 A Furniture Industry Concept for a Sustainable Generative Design Platform Employing Robot Based Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang, Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang

Abstract:

The furniture manufacturing industry has been slow in general to adopt the latest manufacturing technologies, historically relying heavily upon specialised conventional machinery. This approach not only requires high levels of specialist process knowledge, training, and capital investment but also suffers from significant subtractive manufacturing waste and high logistics costs due to the requirement for centralised manufacturing, with high levels of furniture product not re-cycled or re-used. This paper aims to address the problems by introducing suitable digital manufacturing technologies to create step changes in furniture manufacturing design, as the traditional design practices have been reported as building in 80% of environmental impact. In this paper, a 3D printing robot for furniture manufacturing is reported. The 3D printing robot mainly comprises a KUKA industrial robot, an Arduino microprocessor, and a self-assembled screw fed extruder. Compared to traditional 3D printer, the 3D printing robot has larger motion range and can be easily upgraded to enlarge the maximum size of the printed object. Generative design is also investigated in this paper, aiming to establish a combined design methodology that allows assessment of goals, constraints, materials, and manufacturing processes simultaneously. ‘Matrixing’ for part amalgamation and product performance optimisation is enabled. The generative design goals of integrated waste reduction increased manufacturing efficiency, optimised product performance, and reduced environmental impact institute a truly lean and innovative future design methodology. In addition, there is massive future potential to leverage Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) theory through generative design post-processing of geometry for robot manufacture, resulting in ‘mass customised’ furniture with virtually no setup requirements. These generatively designed products can be manufactured using the robot based additive manufacturing. Essentially, the 3D printing robot is already functional; some initial goals have been achieved and are also presented in this paper.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, generative design, robot, sustainability

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4306 Kirigami Designs for Enhancing the Electromechanical Performance of E-Textiles

Authors: Braden M. Li, Inhwan Kim, Jesse S. Jur

Abstract:

One of the fundamental challenges in the electronic textile (e-textile) industry is the mismatch in compliance between the rigid electronic components integrated onto soft textile platforms. To address these problems, various printing technologies using conductive inks have been explored in an effort to improve the electromechanical performance without sacrificing the innate properties of the printed textile. However, current printing methods deposit densely layered coatings onto textile surfaces with low through-plane wetting resulting in poor electromechanical properties. This work presents an inkjet printing technique in conjunction with unique Kirigami cut designs to address these issues for printed smart textiles. By utilizing particle free reactive silver inks, our inkjet process produces conformal and micron thick silver coatings that surround individual fibers of the printed smart textile. This results in a highly conductive (0.63 Ω sq-1) printed e-textile while also maintaining the innate properties of the textile material including stretchability, flexibility, breathability and fabric hand. Kirigami is the Japanese art of paper cutting. By utilizing periodic cut designs, Kirigami imparts enhanced flexibility and delocalization of stress concentrations. Kirigami cut design parameters (i.e., cut spacing and length) were correlated to both the mechanical and electromechanical properties of the printed textiles. We demonstrate that designs using a higher cut-out ratio exponentially softens the textile substrate. Thus, our designs achieve a 30x improvement in the overall stretchability, 1000x decrease in elastic modulus, and minimal resistance change over strain regimes of 100-200% when compared to uncut designs. We also show minimal resistance change of our Kirigami inspired printed devices after being stretched to 100% for 1000 cycles. Lastly, we demonstrate a Kirigami-inspired electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system that improves stretchability without sacrificing signal acquisition performance. Overall this study suggests fundamental parameters affecting the performance of e-textiles and their scalability in the wearable technology industry

Keywords: kirigami, inkjet printing, flexible electronics, reactive silver ink

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4305 Implementing 3D Printed Structures as the Newest Textile Form

Authors: Banu Hatice Gürcüm, Pınar Arslan, Mahmut Yalçın

Abstract:

From the oldest production methods with yarns used to weave, knit, braid and knot to the newest production methods with fibres used to stitch, bond or structures of innovative technologies, laminates, nanoparticles, composites or 3D printing systems, textile industry advanced through materials, processes and context mostly within the last five decades. The creative momentum of fabric like 3D printed structures have come to the point of transforming as for the newest form of textile applications. Moreover, pioneering studies on the applications of 3D Printing Technology and Additive Manufacturing have been focusing on fashion and apparel sector from the last two decades beginning with fashion designers. After the advent of chain-mail like structures and flexible micro or meso structures created by SLS rapid manufacturing a more textile-like behavior is achieved. Thus, the primary aim of this paper is to discuss the most important properties of traditional fabrics that are to be expected of future fabrics. For this reason, this study deals primarily with the physical properties like softness, hand, flexibility, drapability and wearability of 3D Printed structures necessary to identify the possible ways in which it can be used instead of contemporary textile structures, namely knitted and woven fabrics. The aim of this study is to compare the physical properties of 3D printed fabrics regarding different rapid manufacturing methods (FDM and SLS). The implemented method was Material Driven Design (MDD), which comprise the use of innovative materials according to the production techniques such as 3D printing system. As a result, advanced textile processes and materials enable to the creation of new types of fabric structures and rapid solutions in the field of textiles and 3D fabrics on the other hand, are to be used in this regard.

Keywords: 3D printing technology, FDM, SLS, textile structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 225