Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4549

Search results for: language variety

4549 Transportation Language Register as One of Language Community

Authors: Diyah Atiek Mustikawati

Abstract:

Language register refers to a variety of a language used for particular purpose or in a particular social setting. Language register also means as a concept of adapting one’s use of language to conform to standards or tradition in a given professional or social situation. This descriptive study tends to discuss about the form of language register in transportation aspect, factors, also the function of use it. Mostly, language register in transportation aspect uses short sentences in form of informal register. The factor caused language register used are speaker, word choice, background of language. The functions of language register in transportations aspect are to make communication between crew easily, also to keep safety when they were in bad condition. Transportation language register developed naturally as one of variety of language used.

Keywords: language register, language variety, communication, transportation

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4548 Aspects of Diglossia in Arabic Language Learning

Authors: Adil Ishag

Abstract:

Diglossia emerges in a situation where two distinctive varieties of a language are used alongside within a certain community. In this case, one is considered as a high or standard variety and the second one as a low or colloquial variety. Arabic is an extreme example of a highly diglossic language. This diglossity is due to the fact that Arabic is one of the most spoken languages and spread over 22 Countries in two continents as a mother tongue, and it is also widely spoken in many other Islamic countries as a second language or simply the language of Quran. The geographical variation between the countries where the language is spoken and the duality of the classical Arabic and daily spoken dialects in the Arab world on the other hand; makes the Arabic language one of the most diglossic languages. This paper tries to investigate this phenomena and its relation to learning Arabic as a first and second language.

Keywords: Arabic language, diglossia, first and second language, language learning

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4547 Dialect as a Means of Identification among Hausa Speakers

Authors: Hassan Sabo

Abstract:

Language is a system of conventionally spoken, manual and written symbols by human beings that members of a certain social group and participants in its culture express themselves. Communication, expression of identity and imaginative expression are among the functions of language. Dialect is a form of language, or a regional variety of language that is spoken in a particular geographical setting by a particular group of people. Hausa is one of the major languages in Africa, in terms of large number of people for whom it is the first language. Hausa is one of the western Chadic groups of languages. It constitutes one of the five or six branches of Afro-Asiatic family. The predominant Hausa speakers are in Nigeria and they live in different geographical locations which resulted to variety of dialects within the Hausa language apart of the standard Hausa language, the Hausa language has a variety of dialect that distinguish from one another by such features as phonology, grammar and vocabulary. This study intends to examine such features that serve as means of identification among Hausa speakers who are set off from others, geographically or socially.

Keywords: dialect, features, geographical location, Hausa language

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4546 English is Not Going to the Dog (E): Rising Fame of Doge Speak

Authors: Beata, Bury

Abstract:

Doge speak is an Internet variety with its own linguistic patterns and regularities. Doge meme contains some unconventional grammar rules which make it recognizable. With the use of doge corpus, certain characteristics of doge speak as well as reasons for its popularity are analyzed. The study concludes that doge memes can be applied to a variety of situations, for instance advertising or fashion industry. Doge users play with language and create surprising linguistic combinations. To sum up, doge meme making is a multiperson task. Doge users predict and comment on the world with the use of doge memes.

Keywords: dogespeak, internet language, language play, meme

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4545 British English vs. American English: A Comparative Study

Authors: Halima Benazzouz

Abstract:

It is often believed that British English and American English are the foremost varieties of the English Language serving as reference norms for other varieties;that is the reason why they have obviously been compared and contrasted.Meanwhile,the terms “British English” and “American English” are used differently by different people to refer to: 1) Two national varieties each subsuming regional and other sub-varieties standard and non-standard. 2) Two national standard varieties in which each one is only part of the range of English within its own state, but the most prestigious part. 3) Two international varieties, that is each is more than a national variety of the English Language. 4) Two international standard varieties that may or may not each subsume other standard varieties.Furthermore,each variety serves as a reference norm for users of the language elsewhere. Moreover, without a clear identification, as primarily belonging to one variety or the other, British English(Br.Eng) and American English (Am.Eng) are understood as national or international varieties. British English and American English are both “variants” and “varieties” of the English Language, more similar than different.In brief, the following may justify general categories of difference between Standard American English (S.Am.E) and Standard British English (S.Br.e) each having their own sociolectic value: A difference in pronunciation exists between the two foremost varieties, although it is the same spelling, by contrast, a divergence in spelling may be recognized, eventhough the same pronunciation. In such case, the same term is different but there is a similarity in spelling and pronunciation. Otherwise, grammar, syntax, and punctuation are distinctively used to distinguish the two varieties of the English Language. Beyond these differences, spelling is noted as one of the chief sources of variation.

Keywords: Greek, Latin, French pronunciation expert, varieties of English language

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4544 Maintaining Minority Languages; Evidence from Italy

Authors: Carmela Perta

Abstract:

Following the example of both International and European legislation, on 15 December 1999 the national law 482/99 Regulations regarding the protection of historic language minorities was approved, providing a national framework for the preservation and renaissance of minority languages «The Italian Republic sustains the language and culture of people speaking Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Francoprovençal, Friulan, Ladin, Occitan and Sard». The legislation made it possible to use these languages in education, in public offices, in local government, in the judicial system, in mass media, and allowed for the reinstatement of place and personal names. However, several practical problems have emerged, particularly those concerning the variety that should be used in education, in official documents and in other formal domains, i.e. the local variety, the standard of reference (if there is any), or an over regional koinè. In minority settings, it might seem eminently sensible to use the ready made standard of reference, accepting the Ausbausprache, rather than the language as practice, that is the local variety. However, this process seems to be pointless, as is demonstrated by the results of a fieldwork that was carried out in a small town in the South of Italy where members speak Faetar, the local variety of Francoprovençal. Here the language is largely used by the community members in all domains, moreover a deep sense of loyalty towards the variety they use and a manifested minority identity can be observed analysing the speakers’ attitudes. However, these positive attitudes are towards the vehicle for their distinctive history and culture, and not for an “external” standard, a system which local authorities and planners are trying to introduce in the community. In other words, according to the speakers' reactions, there is little point in struggling to maintain a language, if what is conserved is not the group’s language but another.

Keywords: maintenance, minority languages, endangered languages, francoprovençal

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4543 Translation and Sociolinguistics of Classical Books

Authors: Laura de Almeida

Abstract:

This paper aims to present research involving the translation of classical books originally in English and translated into the Portuguese language. The objective is to analyze the linguistic varieties evident and how they appear in the other language the work was translated into. We based our study on the sociolinguistics theory, more specifically, the study of the Black English Vernacular. Our methodology is built on collecting data from the speech characters of the Black English Vernacular from some books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain. On doing so, we compare the two versions of a book and how they reflected the linguistic variety. Our purpose is to show that some translators do not worry when dealing with linguistic variety. In other words, they just translate the story without taking into account some important linguistic aspects which need attention, such as language variation.

Keywords: classical books, linguistic variation, sociolinguistics, translation

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4542 The Pen Is Mightier than the Sword: Kurdish Language Policy in Turkey

Authors: Irene Yi

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the development of Kurdish language endangerment in Turkey and Kurdish language education over time. It examines the historical context of the Turkish state, as well as reasons for the Turkish language hegemony. From a linguistic standpoint, the Kurdish language is in danger of extinction despite a large number of speakers, lest Kurdish language education is more widely promoted. The paper argues that Kurdish is no longer in a stable diglossic state; if the current trends continue, the language will lose its vitality. This paper recognizes the importance of education in preserving the language while discussing the changing political and institutional regard for Kurdish education. Lastly, the paper outlines solutions to the issue by looking at a variety of proposals, from creating a Kurdistan to merely changing the linguistic landscape in Turkey. After analysis of possible solutions in terms of realistic ability and effectiveness, the paper concludes that changing linguistic landscape and increasing Kurdish language education are the most ideal first steps in a long fight for Kurdish linguistic equality.

Keywords: endangered, Kurdish, oppression, policy

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4541 Implementation of Computer-Based Technologies into Foreign Language Teaching Process

Authors: Golovchun Aleftina, Dabyltayeva Raikhan

Abstract:

Nowadays, in the world of widely developing cross-cultural interactions and rapidly changing demands of the global labor market, foreign language teaching and learning has taken a special role not only in school education but also in everyday life. Cognitive Lingua-Cultural Methodology of Foreign Language Teaching originated in Kazakhstan brings a communicative approach to the forefront in foreign language teaching that gives raise a variety of techniques to make the language learning a real communication. One of these techniques is Computer Assisted Language Learning. In our article, we aim to: demonstrate what learning benefits students are likely to get by teachers having implemented computer-based technologies into foreign language teaching process; prove that technology-based classroom serves as the best tool for interactive and efficient language learning; give examples of classroom sufficient organization with computer-based activities.

Keywords: computer assisted language learning, learning benefits, foreign language teaching process, implementation, communicative approach

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4540 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa

Abstract:

One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: first language, second language, literacy, english language, linguistics

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4539 Critical Comparison of Two Teaching Methods: The Grammar Translation Method and the Communicative Teaching Method

Authors: Aicha Zohbie

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to critically compare two teaching methods: the communicative method and the grammar-translation method. The paper presents the importance of language awareness as an approach to teaching and learning language and some challenges that language teachers face. In addition, the paper strives to determine whether the adoption of communicative teaching methods or the grammar teaching method would be more effective to teach a language. A variety of features are considered for comparing the two methods: the purpose of each method, techniques used, teachers’ and students’ roles, the use of L1, the skills that are emphasized, the correction of students’ errors, and the students’ assessments. Finally, the paper includes suggestions and recommendations for implementing an approach that best meets the students’ needs in a classroom.

Keywords: language teaching methods, language awareness, communicative method grammar translation method, advantages and disadvantages

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4538 University Level Spanish Heritage Language Students' Use of Metaphor in Writing: Exploring Auto-Biographical Linguistic Narratives

Authors: Lorraine Ramos

Abstract:

The question of heritage language learners in foreign language classrooms has been widely debated in second language education, especially with Spanish in a U.S. Instructors of Spanish as a foreign language have brought pedagogical focus to Spanish heritage language students in order to retain, develop and maintain their first language. This paper proposes a thorough examination of the use of conceptual metaphors within autobiographical linguistic narratives as a key indicator of the writing development of advanced Spanish-language students. By pairing genre theory from Systemic Functional Linguistics with metaphor theory, this paper will examine the metaphors used by 3rd and 4th year university Spanish students within the narrative genre from a corpus of 16, 091 words. The investigation has found that heritage language students use a variety of bicultural metaphors, transferred from both languages to conceptualize their linguistic development, in addition to using metaphor in specific narrative stages as a literary strategy. Since it has been found that the metaphors used were transcultural, the use of conceptual metaphors in heritage language learners can be further examined to help these students achieve their linguistic and academic goals in the Spanish by transferring from their knowledge in English. In conclusion, by closely examining the function of student discourse through their multicultural metaphoric competence, this study provides important insights on how to enable instructors to best further their students’ writing development in the target language.

Keywords: academic writing development, heritage language learners, language attitudes and ideologies, metaphor

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4537 Impact of Natural Language Processing in Educational Setting: An Effective Approach towards Improved Learning

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an effective approach for bringing improvement in educational setting. This involves initiating the process of learning through the natural acquisition in the educational systems. It is based on following effective approaches for providing the solution for various problems and issues in education. Natural Language Processing provides solution in a variety of different fields associated with the social and cultural context of language learning. It is based on involving various tools and techniques such as grammar, syntax, and structure of text. It is effective approach for teachers, students, authors, and educators for providing assistance for writing, analysis, and assessment procedure. Natural Language Processing is widely integrated in the large number of educational contexts such as research, science, linguistics, e-learning, evaluations system, and various other educational settings such as schools, higher education system, and universities. Natural Language Processing is based on applying scientific approach in the educational settings. In the educational settings, NLP is an effective approach to ensure that students can learn easily in the same way as they acquired language in the natural settings.

Keywords: natural language processing, education, application, e-learning, scientific studies, educational system

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4536 Language Ideology and Classroom Discursive Practices in ESL Classrooms

Authors: Hema Vanita Kesevan

Abstract:

This study investigated the impact of teacher’s language ideology on their classroom discursive practice in ESL / EFL classrooms. It examines teachers’ perceptions of the use of local variety of Malaysian English in the classroom. The investigation shows that although teachers and students are against its use in the classroom, it is widely employed. The participants of this study consist of two Malaysian non-native English teachers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This study employs a comparative case study approach which focuses on the teachers and their classroom discourse practice. There are two modes of inquiry used in this study: classroom observation and semi-guided interviews. The findings are of interest to ESL / EFL teachers, policy makers and language researchers in the Malaysian and other similar ESL / EFL contexts.

Keywords: language ideology, Malaysian English, native teachers, non-native teachers

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4535 Austrian Standard German Struggling between Language Change, Loyalty to Its Variants and Norms: A Study on Linguistic Identity of Austrian Teachers and Students

Authors: Jutta Ransmayr

Abstract:

The German language is known to be one of the most varied and diverse languages in Europe. This variance in the standard language can be conceptualized using the pluricentric concept, which has been useful for describing the German language for more than three decades. Up to now, there have hardly been any well-founded studies of how Austrian teachers and pupils conceptualize the German language and how they view the varieties of German and especially Austrian German. The language attitudes and norms of German teachers are of particular interest in the normative, educational language-oriented school context. The teachers’ attitudes are, in turn, formative for the attitudes of the students, especially since Austrian German is an important element in the construction of Austrian national identity. The project 'Austrian German as a Language of Instruction and Education' dealt, among other things, with the attitude of language laypeople (pupils, n = 1253) and language experts (teachers, n = 164) towards the Austrian standard variety. It also aimed to find out to what extent external factors such as regional origin, age, education, or media use to influence these attitudes. It was examined whether language change phenomena can be determined and to what extent language change is in conflict with loyalty to variants. The study also focused on what norms prevail among German teachers, how they deal with standard language variation from a normative point of view, and to what extent they correct exonorm-oriented, as claimed in the literature. Methodologically, both quantitative (questionnaire survey) and qualitative methods were used (interviews with 21 teachers, 2 group discussions, and participatory observation of lessons in 7 school classes). The data were evaluated in terms of inference statistics and discourse analysis. This paper reports on the results of this project.

Keywords: Austrian German, language attitudes and linguistic identity, linguistic loyalty, teachers and students

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4534 Task Validity in Neuroimaging Studies: Perspectives from Applied Linguistics

Authors: L. Freeborn

Abstract:

Recent years have seen an increasing number of neuroimaging studies related to language learning as imaging techniques such as fMRI and EEG have become more widely accessible to researchers. By using a variety of structural and functional neuroimaging techniques, these studies have already made considerable progress in terms of our understanding of neural networks and processing related to first and second language acquisition. However, the methodological designs employed in neuroimaging studies to test language learning have been questioned by applied linguists working within the field of second language acquisition (SLA). One of the major criticisms is that tasks designed to measure language learning gains rarely have a communicative function, and seldom assess learners’ ability to use the language in authentic situations. This brings the validity of many neuroimaging tasks into question. The fundamental reason why people learn a language is to communicate, and it is well-known that both first and second language proficiency are developed through meaningful social interaction. With this in mind, the SLA field is in agreement that second language acquisition and proficiency should be measured through learners’ ability to communicate in authentic real-life situations. Whilst authenticity is not always possible to achieve in a classroom environment, the importance of task authenticity should be reflected in the design of language assessments, teaching materials, and curricula. Tasks that bear little relation to how language is used in real-life situations can be considered to lack construct validity. This paper first describes the typical tasks used in neuroimaging studies to measure language gains and proficiency, then analyses to what extent these tasks can validly assess these constructs.

Keywords: neuroimaging studies, research design, second language acquisition, task validity

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4533 Women’s Language and Gender Positioning in the Discourse of Indonesian Instagram Videos

Authors: Haira Rizka, Imas Istiani

Abstract:

The way women and men use language is an interesting topic to discuss. Nowadays, Instagram shows many videos which illustrate the difference of women’s and men’s language. Furthermore, the videos show how different genders behave in daily communication. This research aims to (1) investigate conversational characteristics of women represented in Indonesian Instagram videos, and (2) investigate how different genders behave in daily communication. To analyze the two research problems, this research employs Tannen’s theory of language and gender (1996). This is a descriptive qualitative research which describes phenomena of language and gender shown in Indonesian Instagram videos. The data were collected through observation. The collected data were then analyzed by employing ethnography and textual analysis. The research results show that in Indonesian Instagram videos, women dominate the conversation than men. Women’s are portrayed as a figure who are talkative, never wrong, and sensitive. Women’s dominating men proves that women always want to be understood, produce more words than men, and are more creative in producing verbal communication. Meanwhile, men are portrayed as calm, gentle, and patient creature who listen to women’s talk. Furthermore, men are portrayed to prefer being silent for avoiding conflict.

Keywords: gender, Instagram videos, language variety, women's language

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4532 Philippine English: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Inquiry on Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives' Variety

Authors: Lesley Karen Penera

Abstract:

Despite the countless that has been drawn to investigate Philippine English for a myriad of reasons, none was known to have ventured on a probe of its grammatical features as used in a technology-driven linguistic landscape by two generations in the digital age. Propelled by the assumption of an emerging Philippine English variety, this paper determined the grammatical features that characterize the digital native-immigrants’ Philippine English. It also ascertained whether mistake or deviation instigated the use of the features, and established this variety’s level of comprehensibility. This exploratory mixed-methods inquiry employed some qualitative and quantitative data drawn from a social networking site, the digital native-immigrant group, and the comprehensibility-raters who were selected through non-random purposive sampling. The study yields 8 grammatical features, mostly deemed results of deviation, yet the texts characterized by such features were mostly rated with excellent comprehensibility. This substantiates some of the grammatical features identified in earlier studies, provides evidentiary proof that the digital groups’ Philippine English is not bound by the standard of syntactic accuracy and corroborates the assertion on language’s manipulability as an instrument fashioned to satisfy the users’ need for successful communication in actual instances for use of English past the walls of any university where the variety is cultivated. The same could also be rationalized by some respondents’ position on grammar and accuracy to be less vital than one’s facility to communicate effectively.

Keywords: comprehensibility, deviation, digital immigrants, digital natives, mistake, Philippine English variety

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4531 The Construct of Personal Choice within Individual Language Shift: A Phenomenological Qualitative Study

Authors: Kira Gulko Morse

Abstract:

Choosing one’s primary language may not be as common as choosing an additional foreign language to study or use during travel. In some instances, however, it becomes a matter of internal personal struggle, as language is tied not only to specific circumstances but also to human background and identity. This phenomenological qualitative study focuses on the factors affecting the decision of a person to undergo a language shift. Specifically, it considers how these factors relate to identity negotiation and expression. The data for the study include the analysis of published autobiographical narratives and personal interviews conducted using the Responsive Interviewing model. While research participants come from a variety of geographical locations and have used different reasons for undergoing their individual language shift, the study identifies a number of common features shared by all the participants. Specifically, while all the participants have been able to maintain their first language to varying degrees of proficiency, they have all completed the shift to establish a primary language different from their first. Additionally, the process of self-identification is found to be directly connected to the phenomenon of language choice for each of the participants. The findings of the study further tie the phenomenon of individual language shift to a more comprehensive issue of individual life choices – ethnic revival, immigration, and inter-cultural marriage among others. The study discusses varying language roles and the data indicate that language shift may occur whether it is a symbolic driving force or a secondary means in fulfilling a set life goal. The concept of language addition is suggested as an alternative to the arbitrariness of language shift. Thus, instead of focusing on subtractive bilingualism or language loss, the emphasis becomes the integration of languages within the individual. The study emphasizes the importance of the construct of personal choice in its connection to individual language shift. It places the focus from society onto an individual and the ability of an individual to make decisions in matters of linguistic identification.

Keywords: choice theory, identity negotiation, language shift, psycholinguistics

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4530 Morphological Properties in Ndre Mjeda's Works

Authors: Shyhrete Morina

Abstract:

This paper deals with morphological features in Mjeda's works. To make such a distinction, these features will be compared to standard Albanian language, considering the linguistic structure in the morphological field, which represent an all-important segment of Albanian language. Therefore, the study will focus mainly on the description and construction of these paradigms, which will give a linguistic insight into the entire work of Mjeda as the author who wrote in the dialect of northwestern Geg. Therefore, we have tried to distinguish different parts of the author's language, as well as the distinctive features or even the similarities of these paradigms that arise in the literary work of Mjeda. By constructing the corpus of this phonetic and grammar segment from the whole of Mjeda's work, we have seen that in these fields has built a variety of grammar structures, which for the history of Albanian are of special importance, that in the full variant of the work, as far as we can investigate, we will point out in all the distinctive features. Therefore, our study aims to highlight the linguistic features, namely the author's deep knowledge toward the language, the authenticity of its use, and its mutual relationship with it.

Keywords: distinctive morpholgy, nouns, adjetives, pronouns, Albanian standard language

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4529 Examining the Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in L2 Learners' Writing after L2 Instruction

Authors: Khaled Barkaoui

Abstract:

Research on second-language (L2) learning tends to focus on comparing students with different levels of proficiency at one point in time. However, to understand L2 development, we need more longitudinal research. In this study, we adopt a longitudinal approach to examine changes in three indicators of L2 ability, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF), as reflected in the writing of L2 learners when writing on different tasks before and after a period L2 instruction. Each of 85 Chinese learners of English at three levels of English language proficiency responded to two writing tasks (independent and integrated) before and after nine months of English-language study in China. Each essay (N= 276) was analyzed in terms of numerous CAF indices using both computer coding and human rating: number of words written, number of errors per 100 words, ratings of error severity, global syntactic complexity (MLS), complexity by coordination (T/S), complexity by subordination (C/T), clausal complexity (MLC), phrasal complexity (NP density), syntactic variety, lexical density, lexical variation, lexical sophistication, and lexical bundles. Results were then compared statistically across tasks, L2 proficiency levels, and time. Overall, task type had significant effects on fluency and some syntactic complexity indices (complexity by coordination, structural variety, clausal complexity, phrase complexity) and lexical density, sophistication, and bundles, but not accuracy. L2 proficiency had significant effects on fluency, accuracy, and lexical variation, but not syntactic complexity. Finally, fluency, frequency of errors, but not accuracy ratings, syntactic complexity indices (clausal complexity, global complexity, complexity by subordination, phrase complexity, structural variety) and lexical complexity (lexical density, variation, and sophistication) exhibited significant changes after instruction, particularly for the independent task. We discuss the findings and their implications for assessment, instruction, and research on CAF in the context of L2 writing.

Keywords: second language writing, Fluency, accuracy, complexity, longitudinal

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4528 Distinguishing Borrowings from Code Mixes: An Analysis of English Lexical Items Used in the Print Media in Sri Lanka

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

Abstract:

Borrowing is the morphological, syntactic and (usually) phonological integration of lexical items from one language into the structure of another language. Borrowings show complete linguistic integration and due to the frequency of use become fossilized in the recipient language differentiating them from switches and mixes. Code mixes are different to borrowings. Code mixing takes place when speakers use lexical items in casual conversation to serve a variety of functions. This study presents an analysis of lexical items used in English newspapers in Sri Lanka in 2017 which reveal characteristics of borrowing or code mixes. Both phenomena arise due to language contact. The study will also use data from social media websites that comment on newspaper articles available on the web. The study reiterates that borrowings are distinguishable from code mixes and that they are two different phenomena that occur in language contact situations. The study also shows how existing morphological processes are used to create new vocabulary in language use. The study sheds light into how existing morphological processes are used by the bilingual to be creative, innovative and convey a bilingual identity.

Keywords: borrowing, code mixing, morphological processes

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4527 Enhancing English Language Learning through Learners Cultural Background

Authors: A. Attahiru, Rabi Abdullahi Danjuma, Fatima Bint

Abstract:

Language and culture are two concepts which are closely related that one affects the other. This paper attempts to examine the definition of language and culture by discussing the relationship between them. The paper further presents some instructional strategies for the teaching of language and culture as well as the influence of culture on language. It also looks at its implication to language education and finally some recommendation and conclusion were drawn.

Keywords: culture, language, relationship, strategies, teaching

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4526 Models and Metamodels for Computer-Assisted Natural Language Grammar Learning

Authors: Evgeny Pyshkin, Maxim Mozgovoy, Vladislav Volkov

Abstract:

The paper follows a discourse on computer-assisted language learning. We examine problems of foreign language teaching and learning and introduce a metamodel that can be used to define learning models of language grammar structures in order to support teacher/student interaction. Special attention is paid to the concept of a virtual language lab. Our approach to language education assumes to encourage learners to experiment with a language and to learn by discovering patterns of grammatically correct structures created and managed by a language expert.

Keywords: computer-assisted instruction, language learning, natural language grammar models, HCI

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4525 The Queer Language: A Case Study of the Hyderabadi Queers

Authors: Sreerakuvandana Vandana

Abstract:

Although the term third gender is relatively new, the language that is in use has already made its way to the concept of identity. With the vast recognition and the transparency in expressing their identity without a tint of embarrassment, it is highly essential to take into account the idea of “identity” and “language”. The community however picks up language as a tool to assert their presence in the “mainstream”, albeit contradictory practices. The paper is an attempt to see how Koti claims and tries to be a language just like any other language. With that, it also identifies how the community wants to be identified as a unique group, but yet want to remain grounded to the ‘mainstream’. The work is an attempt to bring out the secret language of the LGBT community and understand their desire to be recognized as "main stream." The paper is also an attempt to bring into light this language and see if it qualifies to be a language at all.

Keywords: identity, language, queer, transgender

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4524 2L1, a Bridge between L1 and L2

Authors: Elena Ginghina

Abstract:

There are two major categories of language acquisition: first and second language acquisition, which distinguish themselves in their learning process and in their ultimate attainment. However, in the case of a bilingual child, one of the languages he grows up with receives gradually the features of a second language. This phenomenon characterizes the successive first language acquisition, when the initial state of the child is already marked by another language. Nevertheless, the dominance of the languages can change throughout the life, if the exposure to language and the quality of the input are better in 2L1. Related to the exposure to language and the quality of the input, there are cases even at the simultaneous bilingualism, where the two languages although learned from birth one, differ from one another at some point. This paper aims to see, what makes a 2L1 to become a second language and under what circumstances can a L2 learner reach a native or a near native speaker level.

Keywords: bilingualism, first language acquisition, native speakers of German, second language acquisition

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4523 Screening of Different Exotic Varieties of Potato through Adaptability Trial for Local Cultivation

Authors: Arslan Shehroz, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Amjad Abbas, Imran Ramzan, Muhammad Zunair Latif

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the 4th most important food crop of the world after wheat, rice and maize. It is the staple food in many European countries. Being rich in starch (one of the main three food ingredients) and having the highest productivity per unit area, has great potential to address the challenge of the food security. Processed potato is also used as chips and crisps etc as ‘fast food’. There are many biotic and abiotic factors which check the production of potato and become hurdle in achievement production potential of potato. 20 new varieties along with two checks were evaluated. Plant to plant and row to row distances were maintained as 20 cm and 75 cm, respectively. The trial was conducted according to the randomized complete block design with three replications. Normal agronomic and plant protection measures were carried out in the crop. It is revealed from the experiment that exotic variety 171 gave the highest yield of 35.5 t/ha followed by Masai with 31.0 t/ha tuber yield. The check variety Simply Red 24.2 t/ha yield, while the lowest tuber yield (1.5 t/ha) was produced by the exotic variety KWS-06-125. The maximum emergence was shown by the Variety Red Sun (89.7 %). The lowest emergence was shown by the variety Camel (71.7%). Regarding tuber grades, it was noted that the maximum Ration size tubers were produced by the exotic variety Compass (3.7%), whereas 11 varieties did not produce ration size tubers at all. The variety Red Sun produced lowest percentage of small size tubers (12.7%) whereas maximum small size tubers (93.0%) were produced by the variety Jitka. Regarding disease infestation, it was noted that the maximum scab incidence (4.0%) was recorded on the variety Masai, maximum rhizoctonia attack (60.0%) was recorded on the variety Camel and maximum tuber cracking (0.7%) was noted on the variety Vendulla.

Keywords: check variety, potato, potential and yield, trial

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4522 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

Abstract:

Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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4521 Links and Blocks: the Role of Language in Samuel Beckett’s Selected Plays

Authors: Su-Lien Liao

Abstract:

This article explores the language in the four plays of Samuel Beckett–Waiting for Godot, Endgame, Krapp’s Last Tape, and Footfalls. It considers the way in which Beckett uses language, especially through fragmentation utterances, repetitions, monologues, contradictions, and silence. It discusses the function of language in modern society, in the theater of the absurd, and in the plays. Paradoxically enough, his plays attempts to communicate the incommunicability of language.

Keywords: language, Samuel Beckett, theater of the absurd, foreign language teaching

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4520 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

Abstract:

The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: wheat, growth, water stress, variety, Sudan savannah

Procedia PDF Downloads 248