Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 108

Search results for: assimilation

108 Sequential Data Assimilation with High-Frequency (HF) Radar Surface Current

Authors: Lei Ren, Michael Hartnett, Stephen Nash

Abstract:

The abundant measured surface current from HF radar system in coastal area is assimilated into model to improve the modeling forecasting ability. A simple sequential data assimilation scheme, Direct Insertion (DI), is applied to update model forecast states. The influence of Direct Insertion data assimilation over time is analyzed at one reference point. Vector maps of surface current from models are compared with HF radar measurements. Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between modeling results and HF radar measurements is calculated during the last four days with no data assimilation.

Keywords: data assimilation, CODAR, HF radar, surface current, direct insertion

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107 Mathematical Modeling of Nonlinear Process of Assimilation

Authors: Temur Chilachava

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In work the new nonlinear mathematical model describing assimilation of the people (population) with some less widespread language by two states with two various widespread languages, taking into account demographic factor is offered. In model three subjects are considered: the population and government institutions with the widespread first language, influencing by means of state and administrative resources on the third population with some less widespread language for the purpose of their assimilation; the population and government institutions with the widespread second language, influencing by means of state and administrative resources on the third population with some less widespread language for the purpose of their assimilation; the third population (probably small state formation, an autonomy), exposed to bilateral assimilation from two rather powerful states. Earlier by us it was shown that in case of zero demographic factor of all three subjects, the population with less widespread language completely assimilates the states with two various widespread languages, and the result of assimilation (redistribution of the assimilated population) is connected with initial quantities, technological and economic capabilities of the assimilating states. In considered model taking into account demographic factor natural decrease in the population of the assimilating states and a natural increase of the population which has undergone bilateral assimilation is supposed. At some ratios between coefficients of natural change of the population of the assimilating states, and also assimilation coefficients, for nonlinear system of three differential equations are received the two first integral. Cases of two powerful states assimilating the population of small state formation (autonomy), with different number of the population, both with identical and with various economic and technological capabilities are considered. It is shown that in the first case the problem is actually reduced to nonlinear system of two differential equations describing the classical model "predator - the victim", thus, naturally a role of the victim plays the population which has undergone assimilation, and a predator role the population of one of the assimilating states. The population of the second assimilating state in the first case changes in proportion (the coefficient of proportionality is equal to the relation of the population of assimilators in an initial time point) to the population of the first assimilator. In the second case the problem is actually reduced to nonlinear system of two differential equations describing type model "a predator – the victim", with the closed integrated curves on the phase plane. In both cases there is no full assimilation of the population to less widespread language. Intervals of change of number of the population of all three objects of model are found. The considered mathematical models which in some approach can model real situations, with the real assimilating countries and the state formations (an autonomy or formation with the unrecognized status), undergone to bilateral assimilation, show that for them the only possibility to avoid from assimilation is the natural demographic increase in population and hope for natural decrease in the population of the assimilating states.

Keywords: nonlinear mathematical model, bilateral assimilation, demographic factor, first integrals, result of assimilation, intervals of change of number of the population

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106 Evaluation of Practicality of On-Demand Bus Using Actual Taxi-Use Data through Exhaustive Simulations

Authors: Jun-ichi Ochiai, Itsuki Noda, Ryo Kanamori, Keiji Hirata, Hitoshi Matsubara, Hideyuki Nakashima

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We conducted exhaustive simulations for data assimilation and evaluation of service quality for various setting in a new shared transportation system, called SAVS. Computational social simulation is a key technology to design recent social services like SAVS as new transportation service. One open issue in SAVS was to determine the service scale through the social simulation. Using our exhaustive simulation framework, OACIS, we did data-assimilation and evaluation of effects of SAVS based on actual tax-use data at Tajimi city, Japan. Finally, we get the conditions to realize the new service in a reasonable service quality.

Keywords: on-demand bus sytem, social simulation, data assimilation, exhaustive simulation

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105 The Effect That the Data Assimilation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Has on a Precipitation Forecast

Authors: Ruixia Liu

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Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has an important influence on the precipitation of its lower reaches. Data from remote sensing has itself advantage and numerical prediction model which assimilates RS data will be better than other. We got the assimilation data of MHS and terrestrial and sounding from GSI, and introduced the result into WRF, then got the result of RH and precipitation forecast. We found that assimilating MHS and terrestrial and sounding made the forecast on precipitation, area and the center of the precipitation more accurate by comparing the result of 1h,6h,12h, and 24h. Analyzing the difference of the initial field, we knew that the data assimilating about Qinghai-Tibet Plateau influence its lower reaches forecast by affecting on initial temperature and RH.

Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, precipitation, data assimilation, GSI

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104 Migration, Assimilation and Well-Being of Interstate Migrant Workers in Kerala: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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It may no longer be just anecdotal that every twelfth person in Kerala is a migrant worker from outside the state. For the past few years, the state has been witnessing large inflow of migrants from other states of India, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. Initially, the migrants were from the neighbouring states but, at a later period, the state started getting migrants from the distant parts of the country. Currently, migrants have turned to be a decisive force in the state and their increasing numbers have already started creating turbulences in the state. Over the past years, the increasing involvement of migrants in unlawful and criminal activities have generated apprehensions on their presence in the state. Moreover, at present, the Kerala society is not just hosting the first generation migrants, but there has been an increase in the second generation migrants making the situations more complex and diverse. In such a paradigm, the study ponders into the issues of migrants concerning their assimilation and well-being in the host society. Also, the study looks into the factors that impede the assimilation process, along with the perceptions of the migrants about the host society and the people. The study also tries to bring out the differences in the levels of assimilation among the migrants along the lines of religion, caste, state of origin, gender, stay duration and education. Methodology: The study is based on the empirical findings obtained out of the primary survey conducted on migrants employed in the Kanjikode industrial area of Kerala. The samples were selected through purposive sampling and the study employed techniques like observation, questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The findings are based on interviews conducted with 100 migrants. Findings and Conclusion: The study was an attempt of its kind in addressing the issues of assimilation and integration of interstate migrants working in the Kerala. As mentioned, the study could bring out differences in the levels of assimilation along the lines of different characteristics. The study could also locate the importance, and the role played by the peer groups and neighborhoods in accelerating the process of assimilation among the migrants. As an extension, the study also looked at the assimilation and educational issues of the migrant children living in Kerala, and it found that the place of birth, age at entry and the peer group plays a pivotal role in the assimilation process. The study through its findings recommends the need for incorporating the concept of inclusive education into the state educational system by giving due emphasis to the needs of the marginalized. The study points out that owing to the existing demographic conditions, the state will inevitably have to depend on migrant labor in future. Moreover, in such a paradigm, the host community and the government should strive to create a conducive environment for the proper assimilation of the migrants and which in turn can be an impetus for the fulfilment of the needs of both the migrants and the state.

Keywords: assimilation, integration, Kerala, migrant workers, well-being

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103 Application Use of Slaughterhouse Waste to Improve Nutrient Level in Apium glaviolens

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

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Using the slaughterhouse waste combined to suitable dose of nitrogen fertilizer to Apium glaviolen gives the significant effect to mean relative growth rate. The same pattern also showed significantly in net assimilation rate. The net assimilation rate increased significantly during 42 days old plants. Combination of treatment of 100 ml/l animal slaughterhouse waste and 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer/kg soil increased the vegetative growth of Apium glaviolens. The biomass of plant and mean relative growth rate of Apium glaviolens were rapidly increased in 4 weeks after planting and gradually decreased after 35 days at the harvest time. Combination of 100 ml/l slaughterhouse waste and applied 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer has increased all parameters. The highest vegetative growth, biomass, mean relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were received from 0.56 mg-l.m-2.days-1.

Keywords: Apium glaviolent, nitrogen, pollutant, slaughterhouse, waste

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102 Improvement of Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Gem-Hydro Streamflow Forecasting System

Authors: Etienne Gaborit, Dorothy Durnford, Daniel Deacu, Marco Carrera, Nathalie Gauthier, Camille Garnaud, Vincent Fortin

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A new experimental streamflow forecasting system was recently implemented at the Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC) Canadian Centre for Meteorological and Environmental Prediction (CCMEP). It relies on CaLDAS (Canadian Land Data Assimilation System) for the assimilation of surface variables, and on a surface prediction system that feeds a routing component. The surface energy and water budgets are simulated with the SVS (Soil, Vegetation, and Snow) Land-Surface Scheme (LSS) at 2.5-km grid spacing over Canada. The routing component is based on the Watroute routing scheme at 1-km grid spacing for the Great Lakes and Nelson River watersheds. The system is run in two distinct phases: an analysis part and a forecast part. During the analysis part, CaLDAS outputs are used to force the routing system, which performs streamflow assimilation. In forecast mode, the surface component is forced with the Canadian GEM atmospheric forecasts and is initialized with a CaLDAS analysis. Streamflow performances of this new system are presented over 2019. Performances are compared to the current ECCC’s operational streamflow forecasting system, which is different from the new experimental system in many aspects. These new streamflow forecasts are also compared to persistence. Overall, the new streamflow forecasting system presents promising results, highlighting the need for an elaborated assimilation phase before performing the forecasts. However, the system is still experimental and is continuously being improved. Some major recent improvements are presented here and include, for example, the assimilation of snow cover data from remote sensing, a backward propagation of assimilated flow observations, a new numerical scheme for the routing component, and a new reservoir model.

Keywords: assimilation system, distributed physical model, offline hydro-meteorological chain, short-term streamflow forecasts

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101 A Parallel Approach for 3D-Variational Data Assimilation on GPUs in Ocean Circulation Models

Authors: Rossella Arcucci, Luisa D'Amore, Simone Celestino, Giuseppe Scotti, Giuliano Laccetti

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This work is the first dowel in a rather wide research activity in collaboration with Euro Mediterranean Center for Climate Changes, aimed at introducing scalable approaches in Ocean Circulation Models. We discuss designing and implementation of a parallel algorithm for solving the Variational Data Assimilation (DA) problem on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The algorithm is based on the fully scalable 3DVar DA model, previously proposed by the authors, which uses a Domain Decomposition approach (we refer to this model as the DD-DA model). We proceed with an incremental porting process consisting of 3 distinct stages: requirements and source code analysis, incremental development of CUDA kernels, testing and optimization. Experiments confirm the theoretic performance analysis based on the so-called scale up factor demonstrating that the DD-DA model can be suitably mapped on GPU architectures.

Keywords: data assimilation, GPU architectures, ocean models, parallel algorithm

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100 An Assessment into the Drift in Direction of International Migration of Labor: Changing Aspirations for Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Rabia Zulfiqar

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This paper attempts to trace the determining factor- as far as individual preferences and expectations are concerned- of what causes the direction of international migration to drift in certain ways owing to factors such as Religiosity and Cultural Assimilation. The narrative on migration has graduated from the age long ‘push/pull’ debate to that of complex factors that may vary across each individual. We explore the longstanding factor of religiosity widely acknowledged in mentioned literature as a key variable in the assessment of migration, wherein the impact of religiosity in the form of a drift into the intent of migration has been analyzed. A more conventional factor cultural assimilation is used in a contemporary way to estimate how it plays a role in affecting the drift in direction. In particular what our research aims at achieving is to isolate the effect our key variables: Cultural Assimilation and Religiosity have on direction of migration, and to explore how they interplay as a composite unit- and how we may be able to justify the change in behavior displayed by these key variables. In order to establish a true sense of what drives individual choices we employ the method of survey research and use a questionnaire to conduct primary research. The questionnaire was divided into six sections covering subjects including household characteristics, perceptions and inclinations of the respondents relevant to our study. Religiosity was quantified using a proxy of Migration Network that utilized secondary data to estimate religious hubs in recipient countries. To estimate the relationship between Intent of Migration and its variants three competing econometric models namely: the Ordered Probit Model, the Ordered Logit Model and the Tobit Model were employed. For every model that included our key variables, a highly significant relationship with the intent of migration was estimated.

Keywords: international migration, drift in direction, cultural assimilation, religiosity, ordered probit model

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99 Trophic Variations in Uptake and Assimilation of Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc: An Estuarine Food-Chain Radiotracer Experiment

Authors: K. O’Mara, T. Cresswell

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Nearly half of the world’s population live near the coast, and as a result, estuaries and coastal bays in populated or industrialized areas often receive metal pollution. Heavy metals have a chemical affinity for sediment particles and can be stored in estuarine sediments and become biologically available under changing conditions. Organisms inhabiting estuaries can be exposed to metals from a variety of sources including metals dissolved in water, bound to sediment or within contaminated prey. Metal uptake and assimilation responses can vary even between species that are biologically similar, making pollution effects difficult to predict. A multi-trophic level experiment representing a common Eastern Australian estuarine food chain was used to study the sources for Cd, Mn and Zn uptake and assimilation in organisms occupying several trophic levels. Sand cockles (Katelysia scalarina), school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) and sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) were exposed to radiolabelled seawater, suspended sediment and food. Three pulse-chase trials on filter-feeding sand cockles were performed using radiolabelled phytoplankton (Tetraselmis sp.), benthic microalgae (Entomoneis sp.) and suspended sediment. Benthic microalgae had lower metal uptake than phytoplankton during labelling but higher cockle assimilation efficiencies (Cd = 51%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 63 %) than both phytoplankton (Cd = 21%, Mn = 32%, Zn = 33%) and suspended sediment (except Mn; (Cd = 38%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 53%)). Sand cockles were also sensitive to uptake of Cd, Mn and Zn dissolved in seawater. Uptake of these metals from the dissolved phase was negligible in prawns and fish, with prawns only accumulating metals during moulting, which were then lost with subsequent moulting in the depuration phase. Diet appears to be the main source of metal assimilation in school prawns, with 65%, 54% and 58% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. Whiting fed contaminated prawns were able to exclude the majority of the metal activity through egestion, with only 10%, 23% and 11% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. The findings of this study support previous studies that find diet to be the dominant accumulation source for higher level trophic organisms. These results show that assimilation efficiencies can vary depending on the source of exposure; sand cockles assimilated more Cd, Mn, and Zn from the benthic diatom than phytoplankton and assimilation was higher in sand whiting fed prawns compared to artificial pellets. The sensitivity of sand cockles to metal uptake and assimilation from a variety of sources poses concerns for metal availability to predators ingesting the clam tissue, including humans. The high tolerance of sand whiting to these metals is reflected in their widespread presence in Eastern Australian estuaries, including contaminated estuaries such as Botany Bay and Port Jackson.

Keywords: cadmium, food chain, metal, manganese, trophic, zinc

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98 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

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The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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97 Perception of Greek Vowels by Arabic-Greek Bilinguals: An Experimental Study

Authors: Georgios P. Georgiou

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Infants are able to discriminate a number of sound contrasts in most languages. However, this ability is not available in adults who might face difficulties in discriminating accurately second language sound contrasts as they filter second language speech through the phonological categories of their native language. For example, Spanish speakers often struggle to perceive the difference between the English /ε/ and /æ/ because both vowels do not exist in their native language; so they assimilate these vowels to the closest phonological category of their first language. The present study aims to uncover the perceptual patterns of Arabic adult speakers in regard to the vowels of their second language (Greek). Still, there is not any study that investigates the perception of Greek vowels by Arabic speakers and, thus, the present study would contribute to the enrichment of the literature with cross-linguistic research in new languages. To the purpose of the present study, 15 native speakers of Egyptian Arabic who permanently live in Cyprus and have adequate knowledge of Greek as a second language passed through vowel assimilation and vowel contrast discrimination tests (AXB) in their second language. The perceptual stimuli included non-sense words that contained vowels in both stressed and unstressed positions. The second language listeners’ patterns were analyzed through the Perceptual Assimilation Model which makes testable hypotheses about the assimilation of second language sounds to the speakers’ native phonological categories and the discrimination accuracy over second language sound contrasts. The results indicated that second language listeners assimilated pairs of Greek vowels in a single phonological category of their native language resulting in a Category Goodness difference assimilation type for the Greek stressed /i/-/e/ and the Greek stressed-unstressed /o/-/u/ vowel contrasts. On the contrary, the members of the Greek unstressed /i/-/e/ vowel contrast were assimilated to two different categories resulting in a Two Category assimilation type. Furthermore, they could discriminate the Greek stressed /i/-/e/ and the Greek stressed-unstressed /o/-/u/ contrasts only in a moderate degree while the Greek unstressed /i/-/e/ contrast could be discriminated in an excellent degree. Two main implications emerge from the results. First, there is a strong influence of the listeners’ native language on the perception of the second language vowels. In Egyptian Arabic, contiguous vowel categories such as [i]-[e] and [u]-[o] do not have phonemic difference but they are subject to allophonic variation; by contrast, the vowel contrasts /i/-/e/ and /o/-/u/ are phonemic in Greek. Second, the role of stress is significant for second language perception since stressed vs. unstressed vowel contrasts were perceived in a different manner by the Greek listeners.

Keywords: Arabic, bilingual, Greek, vowel perception

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96 The Potential Use of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Vegetable Plants

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin

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Application of crude palm oil waste combined to suitable concentration of benzyl-adenine give the significant effect to mean relative growth rate of vegetable plants and the same pattern in net assimilation rate crude palm oil waste has also significantly increased during 28 days old plants. Combination of treatment of suitable concentration of crude palm oil and benzyl adenine increased the growth and production of vegetable plants. The relative growth rate of vegetable plants was rapid 3 weeks after planting and gradually decreased at the end of the harvest time period. Combination of 400 mg.l-1 CPO with 1.0 mgl-1 till 10mgl-1 BA increased the Mean Relative Growth Rate (MRGR), Net assimilation rate (NAR), Leaf area and dry weight of Brassica juncea, Brassica oleraceae and Lactuca sativa.

Keywords: benzyladenine, crude-palm-oil, nutrient, vegetable, waste

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95 Understanding Space, Citizenship and Assimilation in the Context of Migration in North-Eastern Region of India

Authors: Mukunda Upadhyay, Rakesh Mishra, Rajni Singh

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This paper is an attempt to understand the abstract concept of space, citizenship and migration in the north-eastern region. In the twentieth century, researchers and thinkers related citizenship and migration on national models. The national models of jus sulis and jus sangunis provide scope of space and rights to only those who are either born in the territory or either share the common descent. Space ensures rights and citizenship ensures space and for many migrants, citizenship is the ultimate goal in the host country. Migrants with the intention of settling down in the destination region, begin to adapt and assimilate in their new homes. In many cases, migrants may also retain the culture and values of the place of origin. In such cases the difference in the degree of retention and assimilation may determine the chances of conflict between the host society and migrants. Such conflicts are fueled by political aspirations of few individuals on both the sides. The North-Eastern part of India is a mixed community with many linguistic and religious groups sharing a common Geo-political space. Every community has its own unique history, culture and identity. Since the last half of the nineteenth century, this region has been experiencing both internal migration from other states and immigration from the neighboring countries which has resulted in the interactions of various cultures and ethnicities. With the span of time, migration has taken bitter form with problems concentrated around acquiring rights through space and citizenship. Political tensions resulted by host hostility and migrants resistance has ruined the social order in few areas. In order to resolve these issues in this area proper intervention has to be carried out by the involvement of the National and International community.

Keywords: space, citizenship, assimilation, migration, rights

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94 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar

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Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 g.day-1. Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 34.5 mg.m-2.day-1, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: crude-palm-oil, fertilizer, liquid-sludge, maize, pollutant, waste

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93 Identity of Indian Migrants and Muslim Refugee Women in Sydney, Australia

Authors: Sheikh, R. Author, Bhardwaj S. Author, Jr.

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The emphasis of this paper is to investigate the identity shifts experienced within the Indian community and among Muslim refugee women in Sydney. Using Goffman’s paradigm of everyday interactions, attention is paid to how migrants navigate and perform their multiple identities in their daily life. By focusing on narratives of the migrant- migration is understood as processual instead of a one time decision of re-location. The paper aims to highlight how individuals choose and re-adapt their cultural and social practices within the context of Australia. Migrant narratives are rooted in specific socio-cultural settings of one’s own community as well as the nature of migration to a specific country. Differences and similarities will be observed within the Indian community, and among Muslim refugee women in terms of how identity is negotiated, social networks are re-established in Australia. Some attention will also be paid to difficulties that are being faced by migrants-especially in terms of Muslim identity for Refugee women, particularly in terms of assimilation, building on Ghassan Hage’s use of appraisal theory and how a diversity of language and religion is accommodated within the Indian community. By using two diverse groups, it would be able to identify and contrast migrant experiences.

Keywords: identity, migrant, refugee, women, assimilation, narratives

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92 Towards a More Inclusive Society: A Study on the Assimilation and Integration of the Migrant Children in Kerala

Authors: Arun Perumbilavil Anand

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For the past few years, the state of Kerala has been witnessing a large inflow of migrant workers from other states of the country, which emerged as a result of demographic transition and Gulf emigration. The in-migration patterns in Kerala have changed over the time with the migrants having a higher residence history bringing their families to the state, thereby making the process more complicated and divergent in its approach. These developments have led to an increase in the young migrant population at least in some parts of the state, which has opened up doubts and questions related to their future in the host society. At this juncture, the study ponders into the factors that are associated with the assimilation and wellbeing of migrant children in the society of Kerala. As one of the objectives, the study also analyzed the influence and role played by the educational institutions (both public and private) in meeting the needs and aspirations of both the children and their parents. The study gains significance as it tries to identify various impediments that hinder the cognitive skill formation and behaviour patterns of the migrant children in the host society. Data and Methodology: The study is based on the primary data collected through a series of interviews and interactions held with parents, children, and teachers of different educational institutions, including both public and private. The primary survey also made use of research techniques like observation, in-depth interviews, and case study method. The study was conducted in schools in the Kanjikode area of the Palakkad district in Kerala. The findings of the study are on the basis of a survey conducted in four schools and 40 migrant children. Findings: The study found that majority of the children have wholly integrated and assimilated into the host society. The influence of the peer group was quite visible in giving stimulus to the assimilation process. Most of the children do not have any emotional or cultural sentiments attached to their state of origin, and they consider Kerala as their ‘home state’ and the local language (Malayalam) as their ‘mother tongue'. The study could also find that the existing education system in the host society fails to meet the needs and aspirations of migrants as well as that of their children. On a comparative scale, to some extent, private schools have succeeded in fulfiling the special requirements of the migrant children. An interesting point that the study could pinpoint at is that the children of the migrants show better health conditions and wellbeing than compared to the natives, which is usually addressed as an epidemiologic paradox. As a concluding remark, the study recommends the inclusion concept of inclusive education into the education system of the state with giving due emphasis on those who are at higher risk of being excluded or marginalized, along with fostering increased interaction between diverse groups.

Keywords: assimilation, Kerala, migrant children, well-being

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91 Four Decades of Greek Artistic Presence in Paris (1970-2010): Theory and Interpretation

Authors: Sapfo A. Mortaki

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This article examines the presence of Greek immigrant artists (painters and sculptors) in Paris during 1970-2010. The aim is to highlight their presence in the French capital through archival research in the daily and periodical press as well as present the impact of their artistic activity on the French intellectual life and society. At the same time, their contribution to the development of cultural life in Greece becomes apparent. The integration of those migrant artists into an environment of cultural coexistence and the understanding of the social phenomenon of their migration, in the context of postmodernity, are being investigated. The cultural relations between the two countries are studied in the context of support mechanisms, such as the Greek community, cultural institutions, museums and galleries. The recognition of the Greek artists by the French society and the social dimension in the context of their activity in Paris, are discussed in terms of the assimilation theory. Since the 1970s, and especially since the fall of the dictatorship in Greece, in opposition to the prior situation, artists' contacts with their homeland have been significantly enhanced, with most of them now travelling to Paris, while others work in parallel in both countries. As a result, not only do the stages of the development of their work through their pursuits become visible, but, most importantly, the artistic world becomes informed about the multifaceted expression of art through the succession of various contemporary currents. Thus, the participation of Greek artists in the international cultural landscape is demonstrated.

Keywords: artistic migration, cultural impact, Greek artists, postmodernity, theory of assimilation

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90 Citizenship Redefined? The Wider Exclusionary Dynamics of Migration Policy in the UK

Authors: Clive Sealey

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This article will analyse the impact that the increasingly multicultural nature of the UK has had on the nature and direction of social policy. The increasingly multicultural nature of the UK is being driven by a variety of demographic changes, particularly increased net migration from EU10 and the EU 2 enlargement. This has become an increasingly political issue, as exemplified by the specific rise of the United Kingdom Independence Party as a political force with the primary intention of restricting such migration. Perhaps not surprisingly, this has also had a significant impact on the nature and direction of social policies, as evident in the prominence given to efforts to reducing immigration and to restrict welfare benefits paid to such migrants. These policies have largely reflected the retreat away from the emphasis in UK policy on multiculturalism towards assimilation for all migrants, both prior and newly domiciled. Linking these two main policy emphases of reducing immigration and limiting entitlement to benefits is the concept of citizenship. An important point that this article will highlight, is that this changed citizenship does not just relate to new migrants, but also to existing domiciled migrants, such as in relation to specifying the assimilation of ‘Britishness’ and ‘British values’ in their daily life. Additionally, the article also analyses how the changes in welfare entitlements for new migrants is also impacting in an exclusionary way on the living standards of the native population, and therefore also their social rights as citizens. The article discusses the implication that this change presents for social work practice, particularly in terms of both migrants and native population changed citizenship.

Keywords: migration, citizenship, exclusion, social policy, migrant welfare

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89 Peculiar Mineralogical and Chemical Evolution of Contaminated Igneous Rocks at a Gabbro-Carbonate Contact, Wadai Bayhan, Yemen

Authors: Murad Ali, Shoji Arai, Mohamed Khedr, Mukhtar Nasher, Shawki Nasr

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The Wadi Bayhan area of southeastern Yemen is about 60 km NW of Al-Bayda city in the Al-Bayda uplift terrane at the southeast margin of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Intrusion of alkali gabbro into carbonate rocks apparently produced an 8m to 10 m thick reaction zone at the contact. This had been identified as nepheline pyroxenite. We have observed this to be mineralogically zoned with calc-silicate assemblages (e.g. pyroxene, calcite, spinel, garnet and melilite). The presence of melilite implies a skarn. The sinuous embayed pyroxenite-skarn contact, the presence of skarn minerals in pyroxenite, and textural evidence for growth of calc-silicate skarn by replacement of both carbonate rocks and solid pyroxenite indicate that reaction involved assimilation of carbonate wall rock by magma and loss of Al and Si to the skarn. Textural relationships between minerals provide evidence for a metasomatic development of the skarn at the expense of the pyroxenite. This process, related to the circulation of fluids equilibrated with carbonates, is responsible for those pyroxenite-spinel (± calcite) skarns. The uneven modal distribution of euhedral pyroxenite and enveloping nepheline in pyroxenite, the restricted occurrence of alkali gabbro as dikes in pyroxenite and skarn and the leucocratic matrix of pyroxenite suggest that pyroxenite represents an accumulation of titanaugite cemented by an alkali-rich residual magma and that alkali gabbro represents a part of the residual contaminated magma that was squeezed out of the pyroxene crystal mush. Carbonate assimilation is modeled by reaction of calcite and magmatic plagioclase, which results in resorption of plagioclase, growth of pyroxene enriched in Ca, Fe, Ti, and Al, and solution of nepheline in residual contaminated magma. The composition of nepheline pyroxenite evolved by addition of Ca from dissolved carbonate rocks, loss of Al and Si to skarn, and local segregation of solid pyroxene and alkali gabbro magma. The predominance of pyroxenite among contaminated rocks and their restriction to a large zone along the intrusive contact provide little evidence for the genesis of a significant volume of alkaline magmatic surroundings by carbonate assimilation.

Keywords: Yemen, Wadi Bayhan, skarn, pyroxenite, carbonatite, metasomatic

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88 The Role of Cognitive Control and Social Camouflage Associated with Social Anxiety Autism Spectrum Conditions

Authors: Siqing Guan, Fumiyo Oshima, Eiji Shimizu, Nozomi Tomita, Toru Takahashi, Hiroaki Kumano

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Risk factors for social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions involve executive attention, emotion regulation, and thought regulation as processes of cognitive dysregulation. Social camouflaging behaviors as strategies used to mask and/or compensate for autism characteristics during social interactions in autism spectrum conditions have also been emphasized. However, the role of cognitive dysregulation and social camouflaging related to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions has not been clarified. Whether these factors are specific to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions or common to social anxiety independent of autism spectrum conditions needs to be clarified. Here, we explored risk factors specific to social anxiety in autism spectrum conditions and general risk factors for social anxiety independent of autism spectrum conditions. From the Japanese participants in early adulthood (age=18~39) of the online survey in Japan, those who exceeded the Japanese version Autism-Spectrum Quotient cutoff (33 points or more )were divided into the autism spectrum conditions group (ASC; N=255, mean age=32.08, SD age=5.16)and those who did not exceed the cutoff were divided into the non-autism spectrum conditions group (Non-ASC; N=255, mean age=31.70, SD age=5.09). Using the Japanese versions of the Social Phobia Scale, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, and the Short Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, a composite score for social anxiety was calculated using a method of principal. We also measured emotional control difficulties using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, executive attention using the Effortful Control Scale for Adults, rumination using the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, and worry using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. This study was passed through the review of the Ethics Committee. No conflicts of interest. Multiple regression analysis with forced entry method was used to predict social anxiety in the ASC and non-ASC groups separately, based on executive attention, emotion dysregulation, worry, rumination, and social camouflage. In the ASC group, emotion dysregulation (β=.277, p<.001), worry (β=.162, p<.05), assimilation (β=.308, p<.001) and masking (β=.275, p<.001) were significant predictors of social anxiety (F (7,247) = 45.791, p <.001, R2=.565). In the non-ASC groups,emotion dysregulation (β=.171, p<.05), worry (β=.344,p <.001), assimilation (β=.366,p <.001) and executive attention (β=-.132,p <.05) were significant predictors of social anxiety (F (7,207) =47.333, p <.001, R2=.615).The findings suggest that masking was shown to be a risk factor for social anxiety specific to autism spectrum conditions, while emotion dysregulation, worry, and assimilation were shown to be common risk factors for social anxiety, regardless of autism spectrum conditions. In addition, executive attention is a risk factor for social anxiety without autism spectrum conditions.

Keywords: autism spectrum, cognitive control, social anxiety, social camouflaging

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87 Storms Dynamics in the Black Sea in the Context of the Climate Changes

Authors: Eugen Rusu

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The objective of the work proposed is to perform an analysis of the wave conditions in the Black Sea basin. This is especially focused on the spatial and temporal occurrences and on the dynamics of the most extreme storms in the context of the climate changes. A numerical modelling system, based on the spectral phase averaged wave model SWAN, has been implemented and validated against both in situ measurements and remotely sensed data, all along the sea. Moreover, a successive correction method for the assimilation of the satellite data has been associated with the wave modelling system. This is based on the optimal interpolation of the satellite data. Previous studies show that the process of data assimilation improves considerably the reliability of the results provided by the modelling system. This especially concerns the most sensitive cases from the point of view of the accuracy of the wave predictions, as the extreme storm situations are. Following this numerical approach, it has to be highlighted that the results provided by the wave modelling system above described are in general in line with those provided by some similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed sea basins. Simulations of this wave modelling system with data assimilation have been performed for the 30-year period 1987-2016. Considering this database, the next step was to analyze the intensity and the dynamics of the higher storms encountered in this period. According to the data resulted from the model simulations, the western side of the sea is considerably more energetic than the rest of the basin. In this western region, regular strong storms provide usually significant wave heights greater than 8m. This may lead to maximum wave heights even greater than 15m. Such regular strong storms may occur several times in one year, usually in the wintertime, or in late autumn, and it can be noticed that their frequency becomes higher in the last decade. As regards the case of the most extreme storms, significant wave heights greater than 10m and maximum wave heights close to 20m (and even greater) may occur. Such extreme storms, which in the past were noticed only once in four or five years, are more recent to be faced almost every year in the Black Sea, and this seems to be a consequence of the climate changes. The analysis performed included also the dynamics of the monthly and annual significant wave height maxima as well as the identification of the most probable spatial and temporal occurrences of the extreme storm events. Finally, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information related to the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. This environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and intense offshore and nearshore activities and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce accidents with very serious consequences.

Keywords: Black Sea, extreme storms, SWAN simulations, waves

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86 Misconception on Multilingualism in Glorious Quran

Authors: Muhammed Unais

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The holy Quran is a pure Arabic book completely ensured the absence of non Arabic term. If it was revealed in a multilingual way including various foreign languages besides the Arabic, it can be easily misunderstood that the Arabs became helpless to compile such a work positively responding to the challenge of Allah due to their lack of knowledge in other languages in which the Quran is compiled. As based on the presence of some non Arabic terms in Quran like Istabrq, Saradiq, Rabbaniyyoon, etc. some oriental scholars argued that the holy Quran is not a book revealed in Arabic. We can see some Muslim scholars who either support or deny the presence of foreign terms in Quran but all of them agree that the roots of these words suspected as non Arabic are from foreign languages and are assimilated to the Arabic and using as same in that foreign language. After this linguistic assimilation was occurred and the assimilated non Arabic words became familiar among the Arabs, the Quran revealed as using these words in such a way stating that all words it contains are Arabic either pure or assimilated. Hence the two of opinions around the authenticity and reliability of etymology of these words are right. Those who argue the presence of foreign words he is right by the way of the roots of that words are from foreign and those who argue its absence he is right for that are assimilated and changed as the pure Arabic. The possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book is logically negative but its significance is being changed according to time and place. The problem of multilingualism in Quran is the misconception raised by some oriental scholars that the Arabs became helpless to compile a book equal to Quran not because of their weakness in Arabic but because the Quran is revealed in languages they are ignorant on them. Really, the Quran was revealed in pure Arabic, the most literate language of the Arabs, and the whole words and its meaning were familiar among them. If one become positively aware of the linguistic and cultural assimilation ever found in whole civilizations and cultural sets he will have not any question in this respect. In this paper the researcher intends to shed light on the possibility of multilingualism in a monolingual book and debates among scholars in this issue, foreign terms in Quran and the logical justifications along with the exclusive features of Quran.

Keywords: Quran, foreign Terms, multilingualism, language

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85 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

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Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: information transfer, forecasting, optimization, supply chain management

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84 Assimilating Multi-Mission Satellites Data into a Hydrological Model

Authors: Mehdi Khaki, Ehsan Forootan, Joseph Awange, Michael Kuhn

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Terrestrial water storage, as a source of freshwater, plays an important role in human lives. Hydrological models offer important tools for simulating and predicting water storages at global and regional scales. However, their comparisons with 'reality' are imperfect mainly due to a high level of uncertainty in input data and limitations in accounting for all complex water cycle processes, uncertainties of (unknown) empirical model parameters, as well as the absence of high resolution (both spatially and temporally) data. Data assimilation can mitigate this drawback by incorporating new sets of observations into models. In this effort, we use multi-mission satellite-derived remotely sensed observations to improve the performance of World-Wide Water Resources Assessment system (W3RA) hydrological model for estimating terrestrial water storages. For this purpose, we assimilate total water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) and surface soil moisture data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) into W3RA. This is done to (i) improve model estimations of water stored in ground and soil moisture, and (ii) assess the impacts of each satellite of data (from GRACE and AMSR-E) and their combination on the final terrestrial water storage estimations. These data are assimilated into W3RA using the Ensemble Square-Root Filter (EnSRF) filtering technique over Mississippi Basin (the United States) and Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) between 2002 and 2013. In order to evaluate the results, independent ground-based groundwater and soil moisture measurements within each basin are used.

Keywords: data assimilation, GRACE, AMSR-E, hydrological model, EnSRF

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83 Acculturation and Urban Related Identity of Turk and Kurd Internal Migrants

Authors: Melek Göregenli, Pelin Karakuş

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This present study explored the acculturation strategies and urban related identity of Turk and Kurd internal migrants from different regions of Turkey who resettled in three big cities in the west. Besides we aimed at a comparative analysis of acculturation strategies and urban-related identity of voluntary and internally displaced Kurd migrants. Particularly we explored the role of migration type, satisfaction with migration decision, urban-related identity and several socio demographic variables as predictors of Kurds’ integration strategy preference. The sample consisted of 412 adult participants from Izmir (64 females, 86 males); Ankara (76 females, 75 males); and Istanbul (43 females, 64 males and four unreported). In terms of acculturation strategies, assimilation was found to be the most preferred acculturation attitude among Turks whereas separation was found to be most endorsed acculturation attitude among Kurds. The migrants in Izmir were found to prefer assimilation whereas the migrants in Ankara prefer separation. Concerning urban-related identity mean scores, Turks reported higher urban-related identity scores than Kurds. Furthermore the internal migrants in Izmir were found to score higher in urban-related identity than the migrants living in Istanbul and Ankara. The results of the regression analysis revealed that gender, length of residence and migration type were the significant predictors of integration preference of Kurds. Thus, whereas gender and migration type had significant negative associations; length of residence had positive significant associations with Kurds integration preference. Compared to female Kurds, male Kurds were found to be more integrated. Furthermore, voluntary Kurd migrants were more favour of integration than internally displaced Kurds. The findings supported the significant associations between acculturation strategies and urban-related identity with either group.

Keywords: acculturation, forced migration, internal displacement, internal migration, Turkey, urban-related identity

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82 China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Changing Mechanism in Pakistan

Authors: Komal Niazi, He Guoqiang

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This paper is focused on ‘CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor) a changing mechanism in Pakistan’. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) activity under OBOR (One Belt One Road (OBOR) CPEC is a piece of the bigger umbrella and goes for giving another hallway of exchange for China and Pakistan and is relied upon to profit the entire of South Asian area. But this study reveals that significance of acculturation can never be overemphasized in the investigation of diverse impacts and the routes people groups of various ethnic personalities figure out how to adjust and acknowledge the social attributes of a larger part group in a multiethnic culture. This study also deals with the effects of acculturation which can be seen at multiple levels through CPEC for both Pakistani and Chinese people, who were working on this project. China and Pakistan exchanged the cultural and social patterns with each other. Probably the most perceptible gathering level impacts of cultural assimilation regularly incorporate changes in sustenance (food), clothing, and language. At the individual level, the procedure of cultural assimilation alludes to the socialization procedure by which the Pakistani local people and Chinese who were working in Pakistan adopted values, traditions, attitudes, states of mind, and practices. But China has imposed discourse through economic power and language. CPEC dominates Pakistan’s poor area’s and changes their living, social and cultural values. People also claimed this acculturation was a great threat to their cultural values and religious beliefs. Main findings of the study clearly ascertained that research was to find out the conceptual understanding of people about the acculturation process through CPEC. At the cultural level, aggregate activities and social organizations end up plainly adjusted, and at the behavioral level, there are changes in a person's day by day behavioral collection and some of the time in experienced anxiety. Anthropological data methods were used to collect data, like snowball and judgmental sampling, case studied methods.

Keywords: CPEC, acculturation process, language discourse, social norms, cultural values, religious beliefs

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81 Preservation of Near-Extinct African Culture: The Case of Yoruba Proverbs

Authors: Makinde David Olajide

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Proverb is an important aspect of most indigenous culture in Africa including that of the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria. As revealed by recent studies, Yoruba proverbs as an important cultural heritage are threatened and near extinct. This fear of proverb extinct in Yoruba cultural growth has been observed and expressed at different fora by many researchers and professionals including Art historians, culture patrons, social critics’ and teachers among others. Investigation revealed that the intangible nature of proverb is largely responsible for its continuous disappearance in the language structure and creative speeches which give the unique identity to the Yoruba people. Some of the factors that are responsible for culture extinct include: absence of moonlight stories by the elderly, the nuclear family system, and total assimilation of western culture, the concept of modernity and urban nature of Yoruba towns among others. Therefore, to preserve this creative heritage (proverb), there is need for a conscious shift of the traditional role of proverbs in speech development to its use as tool for artistic creations and expressions in visual form. The study was carried out between June, 2013 and February, 2015 in three Yoruba towns; Ilorin, Ede and Ogbomoso selected from Kwara, Osun and Oyo states respectively. The data used in this study were collected through oral and structured interviews. Fifteen interviewers were purposively selected in each of the study areas. It also employs the use of electronic and printed media to generate relevant literature on the subject matter. The study revealed that many Yoruba proverbs are preserved or hidden in text books, monograph, home videos, films and pastoral messages. However, this has not stopped the problem of lack of understanding of its usage, meaning and reasons for its extinction that may hinder its preservation for the incoming generations. This study concludes that indigenous culture can be revived and preserved for future generations when there is a conscious attempt to integrate or convert their traditional roles for present day realities and relevance in our social and educational needs.

Keywords: culture, assimilation, extinct, heritage, preservation

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80 National Culture, Personal Values, and Supervisors’ Ethical Behavior: Examining a Partial Mediation Model of Merton’s Anomie Theory

Authors: Kristine Tuliao

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Although it is of primary concern to ensure that supervisors behave appropriately, research shows that unethical behaviors are prevalent and may cost organizations’ economic and reputational damages. Nevertheless, few studies have considered the roles of the different levels of values in shaping one’s ethicality, and the examination of the possible mediation in the process of their influence has been rarely done. To address this gap, this research employs Merton’s anomie theory in designing a mediation analysis to test the direct impacts of national cultural values on supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors as well as their indirect impacts through personal values. According to Merton’s writings, individual behaviors are affected by the society’s culture given its role in defining the members’ goals as well as the acceptable methods of attaining those goals. Also, Merton’s framework suggests that individuals develop their personal values depending on the assimilation of their society’s culture. Using data of 9,813 supervisors across 30 countries, results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) indicated that national cultural values, specifically assertiveness, performance orientation, in-group collectivism, and humane orientation, positively affect supervisors’ unethical inclination. Some cultural values may encourage unethical tendencies, especially if they urge and pressure individuals to attain purely monetary success. In addition, some of the influence of national cultural values went through personal monetary and non-monetary success values, indicating partial mediation. These findings substantiated the assertions of Merton’s anomie theory that national cultural values influence supervisors’ ethics through their integration with personal values. Given that some of the results contradict Merton’s anomie theory propositions, complementary arguments, such as incomplete assimilation of culture, and the probable impact of job position in perceptions, values, and behaviors, could be the plausible rationale for these outcomes. Consequently, this paper advances the understanding of differences in national and personal values and how these factors impact supervisors’ justification of unethical behaviors. Alongside these contributions, suggestions are presented for the public and organizations to craft policies and procedures that will minimize the tendency of supervisors to commit unethical acts.

Keywords: mediation model, national culture, personal values, supervisors' ethics

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79 Importance of an E-Learning Program in Stress Field for Postgraduate Courses of Doctors

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau

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Background: Preparing in the stress field (SF) is, increasingly, a concern for doctors of different specialties. Aims: The aim was to evaluate the importance of an e-learning program for doctors postgraduate courses, in SF. Methods: Doctors (n= 40 male, 40 female) of different specialties and ages (31-71 years), who attended postgraduate courses in SF, voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that included the following themes: Importance of SF courses for specialty practiced by each respondent doctor (using visual analogue scale, VAS); What SF themes would be indicated as e-learning (EL); Preferred form of SF information assimilation: Classical lectures (CL), EL or a combination of these methods (CL+EL); Which information on the SF course are facilitated by EL model versus CL; In their view which are the first four advantages and the first four disadvantages of EL compared to CL, for SF. Results: To most respondents, the SF courses are important for the specialty they practiced (VAS by an average of 4). The SF themes suggested to be done as EL were: Stress mechanisms; stress factor models for different medical specialties; stress assessment methods; primary stress management methods for different specialties. Preferred form of information assimilation was CL+EL. Aspects of the course facilitated by EL versus CL model: Active reading of theoretical information, with fast access to keywords details; watching documentaries in everyone's favorite order; practice through tests and the rapid control of results. The first four EL advantages, mentioned for SF were: Autonomy in managing the time allocated to the study; saving time for traveling to the venue; the ability to read information in various contexts of time and space; communication with colleagues, in good times for everyone. The first three EL disadvantages, mentioned for SF were: It decreases capabilities for group discussion and mobilization for active participation; EL information accession may depend on electrical source or/and Internet; learning slowdown can appear, by temptation of postponing the implementation. Answering questions was partially influenced by the respondent's age and genre. Conclusions: 1) Post-graduate courses in SF are of interest to doctors of different specialties. 2) The majority of participating doctors preferred EL, but combined with CL (CL+EL). 3) Preference for EL was manifested mainly by young or middle age men doctors. 4) It is important to balance the proper formula for chosen EL, to be the most efficient, interesting, useful and agreeable.

Keywords: stress field, doctors’ postgraduate courses, classical lectures, e-learning lecture

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