Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 463

Search results for: coordination

463 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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462 Interoperable Design Coordination Method for Sharing Communication Information Using Building Information Model Collaboration Format

Authors: Jin Gang Lee, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park


The utilization of BIM and IFC allows project participants to collaborate across different areas by consistently sharing interoperable product information represented in a model. Comments or markups generated during the coordination process can be categorized as communication information, which can be shared in less standardized manner. It can be difficult to manage and reuse such information compared to the product information in a model. The present study proposes an interoperable coordination method using BCF (the BIM Collaboration Format) for managing and sharing the communication information during BIM based coordination process. A management function for coordination in the BIM collaboration system is developed to assess its ability to share the communication information in BIM collaboration projects. This approach systematically links communication information during the coordination process to the building model and serves as a type of storage system for retrieving knowledge created during BIM collaboration projects.

Keywords: design coordination, building information model, BIM collaboration format, industry foundation classes

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461 Optimal Power Exchange of Multi-Microgrids with Hierarchical Coordination

Authors: Beom-Ryeol Choi, Won-Poong Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Young-Hak Shin, Dong-Jun Won


A Microgrid (MG) has a major role in power system. There are numerous benefits, such as ability to reduce environmental impact and enhance the reliability of a power system. Hence, Multi-MG (MMG) consisted of multiple MGs is being studied intensively. This paper proposes the optimal power exchange of MMG with hierarchical coordination. The whole system architecture consists of two layers: 1) upper layer including MG of MG Center (MoMC) which is in charge of the overall management and coordination and 2) lower layer comprised of several Microgrid-Energy Management Systems (MG-EMSs) which make a decision for own schedule. In order to accomplish the optimal power exchange, the proposed coordination algorithm is applied to MMG system. The objective of this process is to achieve optimal operation for improving economics under the grid-connected operation. The simulation results show how the output of each MG can be changed through coordination algorithm.

Keywords: microgrids, multi-microgrids, power exchange, hierarchical coordination

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460 Coordination of Traffic Signals on Arterial Streets in Duhok City

Authors: Dilshad Ali Mohammed, Ziyad Nayef Shamsulddin Aldoski, Millet Salim Mohammed


The increase in levels of traffic congestion along urban signalized arterials needs efficient traffic management. The application of traffic signal coordination can improve the traffic operation and safety for a series of signalized intersection along the arterials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits achievable through actuated traffic signal coordination and make a comparison in control delay against the same signalized intersection in case of being isolated. To accomplish this purpose, a series of eight signalized intersections located on two major arterials in Duhok City was chosen for conducting the study. Traffic data (traffic volumes, link and approach speeds, and passenger car equivalent) were collected at peak hours. Various methods had been used for collecting data such as video recording technique, moving vehicle method and manual methods. Geometric and signalization data were also collected for the purpose of the study. The coupling index had been calculated to check the coordination attainability, and then time space diagrams were constructed representing one-way coordination for the intersections on Barzani and Zakho Streets, and others represented two-way coordination for the intersections on Zakho Street with accepted progression bandwidth efficiency. The results of this study show great progression bandwidth of 54 seconds for east direction coordination and 17 seconds for west direction coordination on Barzani Street under suggested controlled speed of 60 kph agreeable with the present data. For Zakho Street, the progression bandwidth is 19 seconds for east direction coordination and 18 seconds for west direction coordination under suggested controlled speed of 40 kph. The results show that traffic signal coordination had led to high reduction in intersection control delays on both arterials.

Keywords: bandwidth, congestion, coordination, traffic, signals, streets

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459 Management of Interdependence in Manufacturing Networks

Authors: Atour Taghipour


In the real world each manufacturing company is an independent business unit. These business units are linked to each other through upstream and downstream linkages. The management of these linkages is called coordination which, could be considered as a difficult engineering task. The degree of difficulty of coordination depends on the type and the nature of information exchanged between partners as well as the structure of relationship from mutual to the network structure. The literature of manufacturing systems comprises a wide range of varieties of methods and approaches of coordination. In fact, two main streams of research can be distinguished: central coordination versus decentralized coordination. In the centralized systems a high degree of information exchanges is required. The high degree of information exchanges sometimes leads to difficulties when independent members do not want to share information. In order to address these difficulties, decentralized approaches of coordination of operations planning decisions based on some minimal information sharing have been proposed in many academic disciplines. This paper first proposes a framework of analysis in order to analyze the proposed approaches in the literature, based on this framework which includes the similarities between approaches we categorize the existing approaches. This classification can be used as a research map for future researches. The result of our paper highlights several opportunities for future research. First, it is proposed to develop more dynamic and stochastic mechanisms of planning coordination of manufacturing units. Second, in order to exploit the complementarities of approaches proposed by diverse science discipline, we propose to integrate the techniques of coordination. Finally, based on our approach we proposed to develop coordination standards to guaranty both the complementarity of these approaches as well as the freedom of companies to adopt any planning tools.

Keywords: network coordination, manufacturing, operations planning, supply chain

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458 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek


Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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457 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi


The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

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456 An Electromyographic Study of Muscle Coordination during Dynamic Glenohumeral Joint Elevation

Authors: Omid Khaiyat, David Hawkes


Introduction: There remains a lack of information on sophisticated coordination patterns across shoulder girdle muscles. Considering the stability of the shoulder being heavily dependent on coordinated muscle activity during its wide-ranging movements, it is important that key intermuscular relationships are well-defined for a better understanding of underlying pathology. This study investigated shoulder intermuscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Materials and Methods: EMG was recorded from 14 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants during shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction, and extension. Cross-correlation by means of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) was used to examine the coordination between different muscles and muscle groups. Results: Coordination between rotator cuff and deltoid muscle groups was significantly higher (p =0.020-0.035) during the initial (PCC) = 0.79) and final (PCC = 0.74) phases of elevation compared to the mid-range (PCC = 0.34). Furthermore, a high level of coordination (PCC = 0.89) was noted between the deltoid group and the adductor group (latissimus dorsi and teres major) during the initial stage of shoulder elevation. Conclusion: The destabilising force of the deltoid during the initial stage of shoulder elevation is balanced by coordinated activity of rotator cuff, latissimus dorsi, and teres major. This is also the case for the end-range of movement, where increased demand for stability again leads to higher coordination between the deltoid and rotator cuff muscle groups. Appreciation of the sophistication of normal shoulder function evidence-based rehabilitation strategies for conditions such as subacromial impingement syndrome or shoulder instability can be developed.

Keywords: shoulder, coordination, EMG, muscle activity, upper limb

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455 Changes in Postural Stability after Coordination Exercise

Authors: Ivan Struhár, Martin Sebera, Lenka Dovrtělová


The aim of this study was to find out if the special type of exercise with elastic cord can improve the level of postural stability. The exercise programme was conducted twice a week for 3 months. The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The electronic balance board was used for testing of postural stability. All participants trained for 18 hours at the time of experiment without any special form of coordination programme. The experimental group performed 90 minutes plus of coordination exercise. The result showed that differences between pre-test and post-test occurred in the experimental group. It was used the nonparametric Wilcoxon t-test for paired samples (p=0.012; the significance level 95%). We calculated effect size by Cohen´s d. In the experimental group d is 1.96 which indicates a large effect. In the control group d is 0.04 which confirms no significant improvement.

Keywords: balance board, balance training, coordination, stability

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454 Systematic Study of Mutually Inclusive Influence of Temperature and Substitution on the Coordination Geometry of Co(II) in a Series of Coordination Polymer and Their Properties

Authors: Manasi Roy, Raju Mondal


During last two decades the synthesis and design of MOFs or novel coordination polymers (CPs) has flourished as an emerging area of research due to their role as functional materials. Accordingly, ten new cobalt-based MOFs have been synthesized using a simple bispyrazole ligand, 4,4′-methylene-bispyrazole (H2MBP), and isophthalic acid (H2IPA) and its four 5-substituted derivatives R-H2IPA (R = COOH, OH, tBu, NH2). The major aim of this study was to validate the mutual influence of temperature and substitutions on the final structural self-assembly. Five different isophthalic acid derivatives were used to study the influence of substituents while each reaction was carried out at two different temperatures to assess the temperature effect. A clear correlation was observed between the reaction temperature and the coordination number of the cobalt atoms which consequently changes the self assembly pattern. Another fact that the periodical change in coordination number did bring about some systematic changes in the structural network via secondary building unit selectivity. With the presence of a tunable cavity inside the network, and unsaturated metal centers, MOFs show highly encouraging photocatalytic degradation of toxic dye with a potential application in waste water purification. Another fascinating aspect of this work is the construction of magnetic coordination polymers with the occurrence of a not-so-common MCE behavior of cobalt-based MOF.

Keywords: MOFs, temperature effect, MCE, dye degradation

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453 Interpersonal Body-Synchronization in Young Children When Watching Video Together

Authors: Saeko Takahashi, Kazuo Hiraki


Is it more fun to watch videos together than watching alone? Previous studies showed that synchronizing with others enhances subsequent prosocial behavior and affiliation, and conversely, prosocial individuals tend to coordinate with a partner to a greater extent. However, compared to adults, less is known about interpersonal coordination of young children in real-life situations because most studies have focused on children’s particular movement using specific tools or tasks in a laboratory setting. It has also been unclear if prosociality of young children affect the extent of interpersonal coordination within dyads. The present study examined data from motion capture of five body parts of 4-year-old dyads watching the same stimuli together or alone. A questionnaire survey including participants’ prosocial trait was also conducted. The wavelet coherence of each body parts within dyads was calculated as a measure of the extent of interpersonal coordination. Results showed that the dyads became significantly more coordinated in a social situation compared to a non-social situation. Moreover, dyads with averagely higher prosociality were more coordinated. These results shed some light on the development of interpersonal coordination in terms of social ability in young children. This study also offers a useful method for a study of spontaneous coordination in young children and infants without instructions or verbal responses.

Keywords: child development, interpersonal coordination, prosociality, synchrony, wavelet transform

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452 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim


This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting

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451 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan, Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: balance, coordination, intellectual disability, motor skills, sport

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450 The Effect of Market Orientation on Business Performance of Auto Parts Industry

Authors: Vithaya Intraphimol


The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between market orientation and business performance through innovations that include product innovation and process innovation. Auto parts and accessories companies in Thailand were used as sample for this investigation. Survey research with structured questionnaire was used as the key instrument in collecting the data. The structural equation modeling (SEM) was assigned test the hypotheses. The sample size in this study requires the minimum sample size of 200. The result found that competitor orientation, and interfunctional coordination has an effect on product innovation. Moreover, interfunctional coordination has an effect on process innovation, and return on asset. This indicates that within- firm coordination has crucial to firms’ performances. The implication for practice, firms should support interfunctional coordination that members of different functional areas of an organization communicate and work together for the creation of value to target buyers they may have better profitability.

Keywords: auto parts industry, business performance, innovations, market orientation

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449 Temperamental Determinants of Eye-Hand Coordination Formation in the Special Aerial Gymnastics Instruments (SAGI)

Authors: Zdzisław Kobos, Robert Jędrys, Zbigniew Wochyński


Motor activity and good health are sine qua non determinants of a proper practice of the profession, especially aviation. Therefore, candidates to the aviation are selected according their psychomotor ability by both specialist medical commissions. Moreover, they must past an examination of the physical fitness. During the studies in the air force academy, eye-hand coordination is formed in two stages. The future aircraft pilots besides all-purpose physical education must practice specialist training on SAGI. Training includes: looping, aerowheel, and gyroscope. Aim of the training on the above listed apparatuses is to form eye-hand coordination during the tasks in the air. Such coordination is necessary to perform various figures in the real flight. Therefore, during the education of the future pilots, determinants of the effective ways of this important parameter of the human body functioning are sought for. Several studies of the sport psychology indicate an important role of the temperament as a factor determining human behavior during the task performance and acquiring operating skills> Polish psychologist Jan Strelau refers to the basic, relatively constant personality features which manifest themselves in the formal characteristics of the human behavior. Temperament, being initially determined by the inborn physiological mechanisms, changes in the course of maturation and some environmental factors and concentrates on the energetic level and reaction characteristics in time. Objectives. This study aimed at seeking a relationship between temperamental features and eye-hand coordination formation during training on SAGI. Material and Methods: Group of 30 students of pilotage was examined in two situations. The first assessment of the eye-hand coordination level was carried out before the beginning of a 30-hour training on SAGI. The second assessment was carried out after training completion. Training lasted for 2 hours once a week. Temperament was evaluated with The Formal Characteristics of Behavior − Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) developed by Bogdan Zawadzki and Jan Strelau. Eye-hand coordination was assessed with a computer version of the Warsaw System of Psychological Tests. Results: It was found that the training on SAGI increased the level of eye-hand coordination in the examined students. Conclusions: Higher level of the eye-hand coordination was obtained after completion of the training. Moreover, a relationship between eye-hand coordination level and selected temperamental features was statistically significant.

Keywords: temperament, eye-hand coordination, pilot, SAGI

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448 Effect of Combining Return Policy and Early Order Commitment on Supply Chain Performance

Authors: Hamed Homaei, Seyed Reza Hejazi, Iraj Mahdavi


Return policy (RP) is a strategy for supply chain coordination, whereby the retailer returns the unsold products to the manufacturer or the manufacturer offers a credit on unsold products to the retailer at the end of selling season. Early order commitment (EOC) is another efficient mechanism for channel coordination wherein the retailer commits to purchasing from the manufacturer a fixed order quantity a few periods in advance of the regular delivery lead time. This paper studies the coordination issue of a two-level supply chain with one retailer and one manufacturer through combining two mentioned contracts. The main purpose of this paper is to present an analytical model to show that how the contract which is created by combining RP and EOC can improve supply chain performance. Numerical analyses show that the supply chain coordination through mentioned contract in compare with EOC mechanism, can improve supply chain performance under certain ranges of model parameters. Furthermore, some numerical analyses are done to determine the best buyback price in order to achieve maximum cost saving in the supply chain. Finally, a revenue sharing scheme is presented in order to achieve a win-win condition in the supply chain.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, early order commitment, return policy, revenue sharing

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447 Optimal Protection Coordination in Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations

Authors: Abdorreza Rabiee, Shahla Mohammad Hoseini Mirzaei


The advantages of distributed generations (DGs) based on renewable energy sources (RESs) leads to high penetration level of DGs in distribution network. With incorporation of DGs in distribution systems, the system reliability and security, as well as voltage profile, is improved. However, the protection of such systems is still challenging. In this paper, at first, the related papers are reviewed and then a practical scheme is proposed for coordination of OCRs in distribution system with DGs. The coordination problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization problem with the object function of minimizing total operating time of OCRs. The proposed method is studied based on a simple test system. The optimization problem is solved by General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) to calculate the optimal time dial setting (TDS) and also pickup current setting of OCRs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method and its applicability.

Keywords: distributed generation, DG, distribution network, over current relay, OCR, protection coordination, pickup current, time dial setting, TDS

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446 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari


In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: distribution system, relay coordination, optimization, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

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445 Static Balance in the Elderly: Comparison Between Elderly Performing Physical Activity and Fine Motor Coordination Activity

Authors: Andreia Guimaraes Farnese, Mateus Fernandes Reu Urban, Leandro Procopio, Renato Zangaro, Regiane Albertini


Senescence changes include postural balance, inferring the risk of falls, and can lead to fractures, bedridden, and the risk of death. Physical activity, e.g., cardiovascular exercises, is notable for improving balance due to brain cell stimulations, but fine coordination exercises also elevate cell brain metabolism. This study aimed to verify whether the elderly person who performs fine motor activity has a balance similar to that of those who practice physical activity. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the activity practice: control group (CG) with seven participants for the sedentary individuals, motor coordination group (MCG) with six participants, and activity practitioner group (PAG) with eight participants. Data comparisons were from the Berg balance scale, Time up and Go test, and stabilometric analysis. Descriptive statistical and ANOVA analyses were performed for data analysis. The results reveal that including fine motor activities can improve the balance of the elderly and indirectly decrease the risk of falls.

Keywords: balance, barapodometer, coordination, elderly

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444 Distributed Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Multiple Interconnected Intersections

Authors: Zhiyuan Du, Baisravan Hom Chaudhuri, Pierluigi Pisu


In connected vehicle systems where wireless communication is available among the involved vehicles and intersection controllers, it is possible to design an intersection coordination strategy that leads the connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) travel through the road intersections without the conventional traffic light control. In this paper, we present a distributed coordination strategy for the CAVs at multiple interconnected intersections that aims at improving system fuel efficiency and system mobility. We present a distributed control solution where in the higher level, the intersection controllers calculate the road desired average velocity and optimally assign reference velocities of each vehicle. In the lower level, every vehicle is considered to use model predictive control (MPC) to track their reference velocity obtained from the higher level controller. The proposed method has been implemented on a simulation-based case with two-interconnected intersection network. Additionally, the effects of mixed vehicle types on the coordination strategy has been explored. Simulation results indicate the improvement on vehicle fuel efficiency and traffic mobility of the proposed method.

Keywords: connected vehicles, automated vehicles, intersection coordination systems, multiple interconnected intersections, model predictive control

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443 Synthesis of a Serie of Metallic Complexes Derived from bis(4-Amino-5-Mercapto-1,2,4-Triazol-3-yl)butane with First Raw Transition Metals

Authors: I. Belbachir, T. Benabdallah, N. Belhadj


The present research work describes the synthesis, through a multi-step strategy, as well as the structural characterization of a polydentate organic ligand, namely the bis(4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)butane (BAMT). The bis-triazolic ligand was characterized by different spectroscopic studies, in order to enlighten its coordination mode, in the neutral and deprotonated forms, towards cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) sulfates, in both solution and solid state. The stoichiometry of the complexes [neutral BAMT-metal] and [deprotonated BAMT-metal] was first established in a solution of DMF with each of the three metallic cations and their complexation constants calculated, allowing us to compare the stability of the various prepared complexes. The various complexes were finally isolated in the solid state and the coordination mode of neutral and deprotonated BAMT explored towards each of the three metallic sulfates. The establishment of some ligand field parameters (Dq, B, β…) by electronic spectroscopy finally allowed to compare the coordination modes of BAMT towards each of the three metals and to highlight the influence of the deprotonation on the complexing properties of the bis-triazolic ligand.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4-triazol, bis-1, 2, 4-triazol, metallic complexes, coordination in solution and solid state

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442 Contribution to Energy Management in Hybrid Energy Systems Based on Agents Coordination

Authors: Djamel Saba, Fatima Zohra Laallam, Brahim Berbaoui


This paper presents a contribution to the design of a multi-agent for the energy management system in a hybrid energy system (SEH). The multi-agent-based energy-coordination management system (MA-ECMS) is based mainly on coordination between agents. The agents share the tasks and exchange information through communications protocols to achieve the main goal. This intelligent system can fully manage the consumption and production or simply to make proposals for action he thinks is best. The initial step is to give a presentation for the system that we want to model in order to understand all the details as much as possible. In our case, it is to implement a system for simulating a process control of energy management.

Keywords: communications protocols, control process, energy management, hybrid energy system, modelization, multi-agents system, simulation

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441 Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Applications of Divalent Schiff Base Metal Complexes Derived from Amino Coumarins and Substituted Benzaldehydes and Acetophenones

Authors: Srinivas Nerella


A series of new heterodentate N, O-donor ligands derived from condensing 3-amino Coumarins with hydroxy benzaldehydes and acetophenones were used to afford new mononuclear Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) coordination compounds. All the complexes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass, ESR, Electronic spectra, Conductance, Magnetic and Thermal studies. The ligands show hexa coordination in Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Pd(II) complexes resulting octahedral geometries, while the ligands in Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes show tetra coordination resulting tetrahedral and square planar geometries respectively. These mononuclear complexes were investigated as catalysts in the hydrothiolation of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes with thiols. These metal complexes were acted as versatile catalysts and gave good yields.

Keywords: schiff bases, divalent metal complexes of schiff bases, Catalytic activity, hydrothiolation

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440 Multi-Agent Coverage Control with Bounded Gain Forgetting Composite Adaptive Controller

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas


In this paper, we present an adaptive controller for decentralized coordination problem of multiple non-holonomic agents. The performance of the presented Multi-Agent Bounded Gain Forgetting (BGF) Composite Adaptive controller is compared against the tracking error criterion with a Feedback Linearization controller. By using the method, the sensor nodes move and reconfigure themselves in a coordinated way in response to a sensed environment. The multi-agent coordination is achieved through Centroidal Voronoi Tessellations and Coverage Control. Also, a consensus protocol is used for synchronization of the parameter vectors. The two controllers are given with their Lyapunov stability analysis and their stability is verified with simulation results. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB and ROS environments. Better performance is obtained with BGF Adaptive Controller.

Keywords: adaptive control, centroidal voronoi tessellations, composite adaptation, coordination, multi robots

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439 Disruption Coordination of Supply Chain with Loss-Averse Retailer Under Buy-Back Contract

Authors: Yuan Tian, Benhe Gao


This paper aims to investigate a two stage supply chain of one leading supplier and one following retailer that experiences two factors perturbation out of supplier's production cost, retailer's marginal cost and retail price in stochastic demand environment. Granted that risk neutral condition has long been discussed, little attention has been given to disruptions under the premise of risk neutral supplier and risk aversion retailer. We establish the optimal order quantity and revealed the profit distribution coefficient in risk-neutral static model, make adjustment under disruption scenario, and then select utility function method for risk aversion model. Using buy-back contract policy, the improvement of parameters can achieve channel coordination where Pareto optimal is realized.

Keywords: supply chain coordination, disruption management, buy-back contract, lose aversion

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438 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner


One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: supramolecular chemistry, Cd coordination polymer, crystal structure, 3-nithrophethalic acid

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437 Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

Authors: Ingrid Ruzbarska, Martin Zvonar, Piotr Oleśniewicz, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Daniel Puciato


Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepubertal children and to determine the effect of excess body weight on motor coordination by comparing the motor ability levels of children with different body mass index (BMI) values. The data were collected from 436 children aged 7–10 years, without health limitations, fully participating in school physical education classes. Body height was measured with portable stadiometers (Harpenden, Holtain Ltd.), and body mass—with a digital scale (HN-286, Omron). Motor coordination was evaluated with the Kiphard-Schilling body coordination test, Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The normality test by Shapiro-Wilk was used to verify the data distribution. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant negative association between the dynamic balance and BMI, as well as between the motor quotient and BMI (p<0.01) for both boys and girls. The results showed no effect of gender on the difference in the observed trends. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between normal weight children and their overweight or obese counterparts. Coordination abilities probably play an important role in preventing or moderating the negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight and obesity. At this age, the development of coordination abilities should become a key strategy, targeted at long-term prevention of obesity and the promotion of an active lifestyle in adulthood. Motor performance is essential for implementing a healthy lifestyle in childhood already. Physical inactivity apparently results in motor deficits and a sedentary lifestyle in children, which may be accompanied by excess energy intake and overweight.

Keywords: childhood, KTK test, physical education, psychomotor competence

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436 On Virtual Coordination Protocol towards 5G Interference Mitigation: Modelling and Performance Analysis

Authors: Bohli Afef


The fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems is featured by extreme densities of cell stations to overcome the higher future demand. Hence, interference management is a crucial challenge in 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. In contrast to the classical inter-cell interference coordination approach, which is no longer fit for the high density of cell-tiers, this paper proposes a novel virtual coordination based on the dynamic common cognitive monitor channel protocol to deal with the inter-cell interference issue. A tractable and flexible model for the coverage probability of a typical user is developed through the use of the stochastic geometry model. The analyses of the performance of the suggested protocol are illustrated both analytically and numerically in terms of coverage probability.

Keywords: ultra dense heterogeneous networks, dynamic common channel protocol, cognitive radio, stochastic geometry, coverage probability

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435 Zinc (II) Complexes of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Coordination Modes: Synthesis, Spectral Studies and Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Ayodele Odularu, Peter Ajibade, Albert Bolhuis


This study aimed at assessing the antibacterial activities of four zinc (II) complexes. Zinc (II) complexes of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur coordination modes were synthesized using direct substitution reaction. The characterization techniques involved physicochemical properties (molar conductivity) and spectroscopic techniques. The molar conductivity gave the non-electrolytic nature of zinc (II) complexes. The spectral studies of zinc (II) complexes were done using electronic spectra (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Spectral data from the spectroscopic studies confirmed the coordination of the mixed ligands with zinc (II) ion. The antibacterial activities of zinc(II) complexes of were all in supportive of Overtone’s concept and Tweedy’s theory of chelation for bacterial strains of S. aureus MRSA252 and E coli MC4100 because the zones of inhibition were greater than the corresponding ligands. In summary, all zinc (II) complexes of ZEPY, ZE1PH, ZE1PY and ZE135PY all have potentials for antibacterial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, spectral studies, syntheses, zinc(II) complexes

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434 Myoelectric Analysis for the Assessment of Muscle Functions and Fatigue Monitoring of Upper Extremity for Stroke Patients Performing Robot-Assisted Bilateral Training

Authors: Hsiao-Lung Chan, Ching-Yi Wu, Yan-Zou Lin, Yo Chiao, Ya-Ju Chang


Robot-assisted bilateral arm training has demonstrated useful to improve motor control in stroke patients and save human resources. In clinics, the efficiency of this treatment is mostly performed by comparing functional scales before and after rehabilitation. However, most of these assessments are based on behavior evaluation. The underlying improvement of muscle activation and coordination is unknown. Moreover, stroke patients are easier to have muscle fatigue under robot-assisted rehabilitation due to the weakness of muscles. This safety issue is still less studied. In this study, EMG analysis was applied during training. Our preliminary results showed the co-contraction index and co-contraction area index can delineate the improved muscle coordination of biceps brachii vs. flexor carpiradialis. Moreover, the smoothed, normalized cycle-by-cycle median frequency of left and right extensor carpiradialis decreased as the training progress, implying the occurrence of muscle fatigue.

Keywords: robot-assisted rehabilitation, strokes, muscle coordination, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 358