Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Search results for: Stefan Luding

96 A Numerical Solution Based on Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem

Authors: Rajeev, N. K. Raigar

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In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.

Keywords: operational matrix of differentiation, similarity transformation, shifted second kind chebyshev wavelets, stefan problem

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95 Effect of Capillary Forces on Wet Granular Avalanches

Authors: Ahmed Jarray, Vanessa Magnanimo, Stefan Luding

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Granular avalanches are ubiquitous in nature and occur in numerous industrial processes associated with particulate systems. When a small amount of liquid is added to a pile of particles, pendular bridges form and the particles are attracted by capillary forces, creating complex structure and flow behavior. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to investigate the effect of capillary force and particle size on wet granular avalanches, and we established a methodology that ensures the control of the granular flow in a rotating drum. The velocity of the free surface and the angle of repose of the particles in the rotating drum are determined using particle tracking method. The capillary force between the particles is significantly reduced by making the glass beads hydrophobic via chemical silanization. We show that the strength of the capillary forces between two adjacent particles can be deliberately manipulated through surface modification of the glass beads, thus, under the right conditions; we demonstrate that the avalanche dynamics can be controlled. The results show that the avalanche amplitude decreases when increasing the capillary force. We also find that liquid-induced cohesion increases the width of the gliding layer and the dynamic angle of repose, however, it decreases the velocity of the free surface.

Keywords: avalanche dynamics, capillary force, granular material, granular flow

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94 Long Wavelength Coherent Pulse of Sound Propagating in Granular Media

Authors: Rohit Kumar Shrivastava, Amalia Thomas, Nathalie Vriend, Stefan Luding

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A mechanical wave or vibration propagating through granular media exhibits a specific signature in time. A coherent pulse or wavefront arrives first with multiply scattered waves (coda) arriving later. The coherent pulse is micro-structure independent i.e. it depends only on the bulk properties of the disordered granular sample, the sound wave velocity of the granular sample and hence bulk and shear moduli. The coherent wavefront attenuates (decreases in amplitude) and broadens with distance from its source. The pulse attenuation and broadening effects are affected by disorder (polydispersity; contrast in size of the granules) and have often been attributed to dispersion and scattering. To study the effect of disorder and initial amplitude (non-linearity) of the pulse imparted to the system on the coherent wavefront, numerical simulations have been carried out on one-dimensional sets of particles (granular chains). The interaction force between the particles is given by a Hertzian contact model. The sizes of particles have been selected randomly from a Gaussian distribution, where the standard deviation of this distribution is the relevant parameter that quantifies the effect of disorder on the coherent wavefront. Since, the coherent wavefront is system configuration independent, ensemble averaging has been used for improving the signal quality of the coherent pulse and removing the multiply scattered waves. The results concerning the width of the coherent wavefront have been formulated in terms of scaling laws. An experimental set-up of photoelastic particles constituting a granular chain is proposed to validate the numerical results.

Keywords: discrete elements, Hertzian contact, polydispersity, weakly nonlinear, wave propagation

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93 Energy Content and Spectral Energy Representation of Wave Propagation in a Granular Chain

Authors: Rohit Shrivastava, Stefan Luding

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A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Studying the energy as well as spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting) or non-destructive testing for the study of internal structure of solids. The study of Energy content (Kinetic, Potential and Total Energy) of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain can assist in understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder as a function of propagation distance. The spectral analysis of the energy signal can assist in understanding dispersion as well as attenuation due to scattering in different frequencies (scattering attenuation). The selection of one-dimensional granular chain also helps in studying only the P-wave attributes of the wave and removing the influence of shear or rotational waves. Granular chains with different mass distributions have been studied, by randomly selecting masses from normal, binary and uniform distributions and the standard deviation of the distribution is considered as the disorder parameter, higher standard deviation means higher disorder and lower standard deviation means lower disorder. For obtaining macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used. Interpreting information from a Total Energy signal turned out to be much easier in comparison to displacement, velocity or acceleration signals of the wave, hence, indicating a better analysis method for wave propagation through granular materials. Increasing disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal and decreases the Energy of higher frequency signals transmitted, but at the same time the energy of spatially localized high frequencies also increases. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long periods of time.

Keywords: discrete elements, energy attenuation, mass disorder, granular chain, spectral energy, wave propagation

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92 CO2 Adsorption on the Activated Klaten-Indonesian Natural Zeolite in a Packed Bed Adsorber

Authors: Sang Kompiang Wirawan, Chandra Purnomo

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Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on the activated Klaten-Indonesian natural zeolite (AKINZ) in a packed bed adsorber has been studied. Experiment works consisted of acid activation and adsorption experiments. The natural zeolite sample was activated using 0.3 M HCl at the temperature of 353 K. In the adsorption experiments the feed gas concentrations were 40 and 80 % CO2 in helium within various temperatures of 303; 323 and 373 K. The experiments were conducted by using transient step change adsorption and 20 % Ar/He tracer experiment was conducted to measure dispersion and time lag effect of the packed bed system. A mathematical model of CO2 adsorption had been set up by assuming plug flow;isothermal;isobaric and no gas film mass transport resistance. Single site Langmuir physisorption and Maxwell Stefan mass transport in micropore were applied. All the data were then optimized to get the best value of modified fitted parameter. The model was in a good agreement with the experiment data. Diffusivity tended to increase by increasing temperatures.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Maxwell-Stefan, natural zeolite, surface diffusion

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91 Wildlife Habitat Corridor Mapping in Urban Environments – a GIS-based Approach using Preliminary Category Weightings

Authors: Stefan Peters, Phillip Roetman

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In this research project, we conceptualize and develop a framework for wildlife habitat corridor modelling in an urban context using geographic data, GIS analysis and preliminary category weightings to inform strategic decision-making. Our habitat corridor modelling approach aims to determine and map existing and simulate potential wildlife habitat corridors; and is implemented and applied to the study case of Burnside, a local council in Adelaide, Australia, which encompass an area of 30 km².

Keywords: biodiversity, GIS modeling, habitat hotspot, wildlife corridor

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90 Generative Syntaxes: Macro-Heterophony and the Form of ‘Synchrony’

Authors: Luminiţa Duţică, Gheorghe Duţică

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One of the most powerful language innovation in the twentieth century music was the heterophony–hypostasis of the vertical syntax entered into the sphere of interest of many composers, such as George Enescu, Pierre Boulez, Mauricio Kagel, György Ligeti and others. The heterophonic syntax has a history of its growth, which means a succession of different concepts and writing techniques. The trajectory of settling this phenomenon does not necessarily take into account the chronology: there are highly complex primary stages and advanced stages of returning to the simple forms of writing. In folklore, the plurimelodic simultaneities are free or random and originate from the (unintentional) differences/‘deviations’ from the state of unison, through a variety of ornaments, melismas, imitations, elongations and abbreviations, all in a flexible rhythmic and non-periodic/immeasurable framework, proper to the parlando-rubato rhythmics. Within the general framework of the multivocal organization, the heterophonic syntax in elaborate (academic) version has imposed itself relatively late compared with polyphony and homophony. Of course, the explanation is simple, if we consider the causal relationship between the sound vocabulary elements – in this case, the modalism – and the typologies of vertical organization appropriate for it. Therefore, adding up the ‘classic’ pathway of the writing typologies (monody – polyphony – homophony), heterophony - applied equally to the structures of modal, serial or synthesis vocabulary – reclaims necessarily an own macrotemporal form, in the sense of the analogies enshrined by the evolution of the musical styles and languages: polyphony→fugue, homophony→sonata. Concerned about the prospect of edifying a new musical ontology, the composer Ştefan Niculescu experienced – along with the mathematical organization of heterophony according to his own original methods – the possibility of extrapolation of this phenomenon in macrostructural plan, reaching this way to the unique form of ‘synchrony’. Founded on coincidentia oppositorum principle (involving the ‘one-multiple’ binom), the sound architecture imagined by Ştefan Niculescu consists in one (temporal) model / algorithm of articulation of two sound states: 1. monovocality state (principle of identity) and 2. multivocality state (principle of difference). In this context, the heterophony becomes an (auto)generative mechanism, with macrotemporal amplitude, strategy that will be grown by the composer, practically throughout his creation (see the works: Ison I, Ison II, Unisonos I, Unisonos II, Duplum, Triplum, Psalmus, Héterophonies pour Montreux (Homages to Enescu and Bartók etc.). For the present demonstration, we selected one of the most edifying works of Ştefan Niculescu – Simphony II, Opus dacicum – where the form of (heterophony-)synchrony acquires monumental-symphonic features, representing an emblematic case for the complexity level achieved by this type of vertical syntax in the twentieth century music.

Keywords: heterophony, modalism, serialism, synchrony, syntax

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89 Investigation of the GFR2400 Reactivity Control System

Authors: Ján Haščík, Štefan Čerba, Jakub Lüley, Branislav Vrban

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The presented paper is related to the design methods and neutronic characterization of the reactivity control system in the large power unit of Generation IV Gas cooled Fast Reactor – GFR2400. The reactor core is based on carbide pin fuel type with the application of refractory metallic liners used to enhance the fission product retention of the SiC cladding. The heterogeneous design optimization of control rod is presented and the results of rods worth and their interferences in a core are evaluated. In addition, the idea of reflector removal as an additive reactivity management option is investigated and briefly described.

Keywords: control rods design, GFR2400, hot spot, movable reflector, reactivity

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88 Low-Emission Commuting with Micro Public Transport: Investigation of Travel Times and CO₂ Emissions

Authors: Marcel Ciesla, Victoria Oberascher, Sven Eder, Stefan Kirchweger, Wolfgang E. Baaske, Gerald Ostermayer

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The omnipresent trend towards sustainable mobility is a major challenge, especially for commuters in rural areas. The use of micro public transport systems is expected to significantly reduce pollutant emissions, as several commuters travel the first mile together with a single pick-up bus instead of their own car. In this paper, different aspects of such a micro public transport system are analyzed. The main findings of the investigations should be how the travel times of commuters change and how many CO₂ emissions can be saved if some of the commuters use public transport instead of their own vehicle.

Keywords: micro public transport, green transportation, sustainable mobility, low-emission commuting

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87 An Approach of High Scalable Production Capacity by Adaption of the Concept 'Everything as a Service'

Authors: Johannes Atug, Stefan Braunreuther, Gunther Reinhart

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Volatile markets, as well as increasing global competition in manufacturing, lead to a high demand of flexible and agile production systems. These advanced production systems in turn conduct to high capital expenditure along with high investment risks. Developments in production regarding digitalization and cyber-physical systems result to a merger of informational- and operational technology. The approach of this paper is to benefit from this merger and present a framework of a production network with scalable production capacity and low capital expenditure by adaptation of the IT concept 'everything as a service' into the production environment.

Keywords: digital manufacturing system, everything as a service, reconfigurable production, value network

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86 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

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Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchange

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85 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchange

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84 Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Evaluation of the Main Digestion Methods for Determination of Macroelements in Plant Tissue

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova, Stefan V. Krustev, Violina R. Angelova

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Three commonly used digestion methods (dry ashing, acid digestion, and microwave digestion) in different variants were compared for digestion of tobacco leaves. Three main macroelements (K, Ca and Mg) were analysed using AAS Spectrometer Spectra АА 220, Varian, Australia. The accuracy and precision of the measurements were evaluated by using Polish reference material CTR-VTL-2 (Virginia tobacco leaves). To elucidate the problems with elemental recovery X-Ray and SEM–EDS analysis of all residues after digestion were performed. The X-ray investigation showed a formation of KClO4 when HClO4 was used as a part of the acids mixture. The use of HF at Ca and Mg determination led to the formation of CaF2 and MgF2. The results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. SPSS program for Windows was used for statistical data processing.

Keywords: digestion methods, plant tissue, determination of macroelements, K, Ca, Mg

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83 Electrochemical Radiofrequency Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements for Fingerprinting Single Electron Transfer Processes

Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Mohamed Awadein, Georg Gramse, Luyang Song, He Sun, Wolfgang Schofberger, Stefan Müllegger

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Electron transfer is a crucial part of chemical reactions which drive everyday processes. With the help of an electro-chemical radio frequency scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-RF-STM) setup, we are observing single electron mediated oxidation-reduction processes in molecules like ferrocene and transition metal corroles. Combining the techniques of scanning microwave microscopy and cyclic voltammetry allows us to monitor such processes with attoampere sensitivity. A systematic study of such phenomena would be critical to understanding the nano-scale behavior of catalysts, molecular sensors, and batteries relevant to the development of novel material and energy applications.

Keywords: radiofrequency, STM, cyclic voltammetry, ferrocene

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82 Numerical Investigation of Thermal Energy Storage System with Phase Change Materials

Authors: Mrityunjay Kumar Sinha, Mayank Srivastava

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The position of interface and temperature variation of phase change thermal energy storage system under constant heat injection and radiative heat injection is analysed during charging/discharging process by Heat balance integral method. The charging/discharging process is solely governed by conduction. Phase change material is kept inside a rectangular cavity. Time-dependent fixed temperature and radiative boundary condition applied on one wall, all other walls are thermally insulated. Interface location and temperature variation are analysed by using MATLAB.

Keywords: conduction, melting/solidification, phase change materials, Stefan’s number

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81 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka

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Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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80 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg

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Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

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79 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev, Krasimir I. Ivanov

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A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, safflower

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78 Architectural and Structural Analysis of Selected Tall Buildings in Warsaw, Poland

Authors: J. Szolomicki, H. Golasz-Szolomicka

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This paper presents elements of architectural and structural analysis of selected high-rise buildings in the Polish capital city of Warsaw. When analyzing the architecture of Warsaw, it can be concluded that it is currently a rapidly growing city with technologically advanced skyscrapers that belong to the category of intelligent buildings. The constructional boom over the last dozen years has seen the erection of postmodern skyscrapers for office and residential use. This article focuses on how Warsaw has recently joined the most architecturally interesting cities in Europe. Warsaw is currently in fifth place in Europe in terms of the number of skyscrapers and is considered the second most preferred city in Europe (after London) for investment related to them. However, the architectural development of the city could not take place without the participation of eminent Polish and foreign architects such as Stefan Kuryłowicz, Lary Oltmans, Helmut Jahn or Daniel Libeskind.

Keywords: core structure, curtain facade, raft foundation, tall buildings

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77 Drug Residues Disposal from Wastewater Using Carbon Nanomaterials

Authors: Stefan Nicolae, Cristina Cirtoaje, Emil Petrescu, Florin-Razvan Duca

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In the context of the accelerated expansion of urban agglomerations and the exponential development of industry, a huge amount of water is used, and a crisis of drinking water may occur any time. Classic wastewater treatment removes most pollutants but, for some chemical residues, special methods are needed. Carbon nanotubes and other carbon materials might be used in many cases [1-2], especially for heavy metals removal but also on pharmaceutical products such as paracetamol [3]. Our research has confirmed the better efficiency of nanotubes compared to graphene on paracetamol removal from water, but even better results were obtained on single-walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets. This can be due to their better dispersion in water which leads to an increased contact surface, so we propose a filtration system of membranes and carbon materials that can be used for paracetamol removal from wastewater but also for other drugs that affect the aquatic life as well as terrestrial animals and people who use this contaminated water.

Keywords: applied physics, wastewater, nanomaterials, enviromental science

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76 Developing a Viral Artifact to Improve Employees’ Security Behavior

Authors: Stefan Bauer, Josef Frysak

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According to the scientific information management literature, the improper use of information technology (e.g. personal computers) by employees are one main cause for operational and information security loss events. Therefore, organizations implement information security awareness programs to increase employees’ awareness to further prevention of loss events. However, in many cases these information security awareness programs consist of conventional delivery methods like posters, leaflets, or internal messages to make employees aware of information security policies. We assume that a viral information security awareness video might be more effective medium than conventional methods commonly used by organizations. The purpose of this research is to develop a viral video artifact to improve employee security behavior concerning information technology.

Keywords: information security awareness, delivery methods, viral videos, employee security behavior

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75 Metastatic Polypoid Nodular Melanoma Management During The COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Stefan Bradu, Daniel Siegel, Jameson Loyal, Andrea Leaf, Alana Kurtti, Usha Alapati, Jared Jagdeo

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Compared with all other variants of nodular melanoma, patients with polypoid nodular melanoma have the lowest 5-year survival rate. The pathophysiology and management of polypoid melanoma are scarcely reported in the literature. Although surgical excision is the cornerstone of melanoma management, treatment of polypoid melanoma is complicated by several negative prognostic factors, including early metastasis. This report demonstrates the successful treatment of a rapidly developing red nodular polypoid melanoma with metastasis using surgery and adjuvant nivolumab in a SARS-CoV-2-positive patient who delayed seeking care due to the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to detailing the successful treatment approach, the immunosuppressive effects of SARS-2-CoV and its possible contribution to the rapid progression of polypoid melanoma are discussed. This case highlights the complex challenges of melanoma diagnosis and management during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: covid-19, dermatology, immunotherapy, melanoma, nivolumab

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74 On Flow Consolidation Modelling in Urban Congested Areas

Authors: Serban Stere, Stefan Burciu

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The challenging and continuously growing competition in the urban freight transport market emphasizes the need for optimal planning of transportation processes in terms of identifying the solution of consolidating traffic flows in congested urban areas. The aim of the present paper is to present the mathematical framework and propose a methodology of combining urban traffic flows between the distribution centers located at the boundary of a congested urban area. The three scenarios regarding traffic flow between consolidation centers that are taken into consideration in the paper are based on the same characteristics of traffic flows. The scenarios differ in terms of the accessibility of the four consolidation centers given by the infrastructure, the connections between them, and the possibility of consolidating traffic flows for one or multiple destinations. Also, synthetical indicators will allow us to compare the scenarios considered and chose the indicated for our distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, single and multiple destinations, urban consolidation centers, traffic flow consolidation schemes

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73 Product Modularity, Collaboration and the Impact on Innovation Performance in Intra-Organizational R&D Networks

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Tim de Leeuw, Stefan Haefliger

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The challenges of managing a large and geographically dispersed R&D organization have been further increasing during the past years, concentrating on the leverage of a geo-graphically dispersed body of knowledge in an efficient and effective manner. In order to reduce complexity and improve performance, firms introduce product modularity as one key element for global R&D network teams to develop their products and projects in collaboration. However, empirical studies on the effects of product modularity on innovation performance are really scant. Furthermore, some researchers have suggested that product modularity promotes innovation performance, while others argue that it inhibits innovation performance. This research fills this gap by investigating the impact of product modularity on various dimensions of innovation performance, i.e. effectiveness and efficiency. By constructing the theoretical framework, this study suggests that that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between product modularity and innovation performance. Moreover, this research work suggests that the optimum of innovation performance efficiency will be at a higher level than innovation performance effectiveness at a given product modularity level.

Keywords: modularity, innovation performance, networks, R&D, collaboration

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72 Evaluation of Particle Settling in Flow Chamber

Authors: Abdulrahman Alenezi, B. Stefan

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Abstract— The investigation of fluids containing particles or filaments includes a category of complex fluids and is vital in both theory and application. The forecast of particle behaviors plays a significant role in the existing technology as well as future technology. This paper focuses on the prediction of the particle behavior through the investigation of the particle disentrainment from a pipe on a horizontal air stream. This allows for examining the influence of the particle physical properties on its behavior when falling on horizontal air stream. This investigation was conducted on a device located at the University of Greenwich's Medway Campus. Two materials were selected to carry out this study: Salt and Glass Beads particles. The shape of the Slat particles is cubic where the shape of the Glass Beads is almost spherical. The outcome from the experimental work were presented in terms of distance travelled by the particles according to their diameters as After that, the particles sizes were measured using Laser Diffraction device and used to determine the drag coefficient and the settling velocity.

Keywords: flow experiment, drag coefficient, Particle Settling, Flow Chamber

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71 Students’ Perceptions Regarding Homosexuality at Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Authors: Deborah O. Okusanya, Chris Vanrooyen, Stefan de Jager

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Introduction: Homosexuality has been and continues to be a controversial subject across many disciplines; it has generated many debates around religious, academic institutions, political, socio-cultural as well as medical domains. The current study investigated students from a previously disadvantaged African university’s perception regarding homosexuality. Method: This qualitative study utilized two focus groups to collect data, which then was analyzed using thematic content analysis. Result: The study revealed that students’ level of awareness with regard to homosexuality is very high and their perceptions largely negative. Students predominantly found the practice unethical, and un-African. Discussion: Students tend to show a lot of stereotypical prejudicial responses and there seems to be a general lack of willingness to discuss this in a public discourse. In conclusion, there seems to be a tension between cultural values and the open environment such as academic institutions. Students’ perceptions go a long way in shaping public discourse and the larger population’s general attitude toward homosexuality.

Keywords: discourse, homosexuality, stereotypical, un-African

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70 Use of Opti-Jet Cs Md1mr Device for Biocide Aerosolisation in 3t Magnetic Resonance

Authors: Robert Pintaric, Joze Matela, Stefan Pintaric, Stanka Vadnjal

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Introduction: This work is aimed to represent the use of the OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR prototype for application of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW) in magnetic resonance rooms. Material and Methods: We produced and used OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR aerosolisator whereby was performed aerosolization. The presence of microorganisms before and after the aerosolisation was recorded with the help of cyclone air sampling. Colony formed units (CFU) was counted. Results: The number of microorganisms in magnetic resonance 3T room was low as expected. Nevertheless, a possible CFU reduction of 87% was recorded. Conclusions: The research has shown that the use of EOW for the air and hard surface disinfection can considerably reduce the presence of microorganisms and consequently the possibility of hospital infections. It has also demonstrated that the use of OPTI-JET CS MD1 MR is very good. With this research, we started new guidelines for aerosolization in magnetic resonance rooms. Future work: We predict that presented technique works very good but we must focus also on time capacity sensors, and new appropriate toxicological studies.

Keywords: biocide, electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW), disinfection, microorganisms, OPTI-JET CS MD1MR

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69 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Temperature Distribution on Power Transformer Windings Using Open Foam

Authors: Saeed Khandan Siar, Stefan Tenbohlen, Christian Breuer, Raphael Lebreton

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The goal of this article is to investigate the detailed temperature distribution and the fluid flow of an oil cooled winding of a power transformer by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The experimental setup consists of three passes of a zig-zag cooled disc type winding, in which losses are modeled by heating cartridges in each winding segment. A precise temperature sensor measures the temperature of each turn. The laboratory setup allows the exact control of the boundary conditions, e.g. the oil flow rate and the inlet temperature. Furthermore, a simulation model is solved using the open source computational fluid dynamics solver OpenFOAM and validated with the experimental results. The model utilizes the laminar and turbulent flow for the different mass flow rate of the oil. The good agreement of the simulation results with experimental measurements validates the model.

Keywords: CFD, conjugated heat transfer, power transformers, temperature distribution

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68 Assembly Training: An Augmented Reality Approach Using Design Science Research

Authors: Stefan Werrlich, Phuc-Anh Nguyen, Kai Nitsche, Gunther Notni

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Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic. This innovative technology is interesting for several training domains like education, medicine, military, sports and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR can help to improve the efficiency, quality and transfer of training tasks. Due to these reasons, AR becomes more interesting for big companies and researchers because the industrial domain is still an unexplored field. This paper presents the research proposal of a PhD thesis which is done in cooperation with the BMW Group, aiming to explore head-mounted display (HMD) based training in industrial environments. We give a short introduction, describing the motivation, the underlying problems as well as the five formulated research questions we want to clarify along this thesis. We give a brief overview of the current assembly training in industrial environments and present some AR-based training approaches, including their research deficits. We use the Design Science Research (DSR) framework for this thesis and describe how we want to realize the seven guidelines, mandatory from the DSR. Furthermore, we describe each methodology which we use within that framework and present our approach in a comprehensive figure, representing the entire thesis.

Keywords: assembly, augmented reality, research proposal, training

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67 The Child Attachment Interview: A Psychometric Longitudinal Validation Study in a German Sample

Authors: Jorn Meyer, Stefan Sturmer

Abstract:

The assessment of attachment patterns in toddlers and adults has been well researched, and valid diagnostic methods (e.g., Strange Situation Test, Adult Attachment Interview) are applicable. For middle and late childhood, on the other hand, there are only few validated methods available so far. For the Child Attachment Interview (CAI) promising validation studies from English-speaking countries are available, but so far a comprehensive study on the validity of a German sample is lacking. Within the scope of a longitudinal project, the results of the first point of measurement are reported in this study. A German-language version of the CAI was carried out with 111 primary school children (56% female; age: M = 8.34, SD = 0.49). In relation to psychometric quality criteria, parameters on interrater reliability, construct validity and discriminant, and convergent validity are reported. Analyses of the correlations between attachment patterns and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from parent and teacher reports are presented. The implications for the German-language assessment of attachment in middle and late childhood in research and individual case diagnostics, e.g., in the context of conducting expert evaluation reports for family courts, are discussed.

Keywords: attachment, attachment assessment, developmental psychology, longitudinal study

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